|author||Sam Bishop <email@example.com>||2006-08-28 16:42:10 -0600|
|committer||Greg Kroah-Hartman <firstname.lastname@example.org>||2006-09-27 11:58:48 -0700|
USB: doc patch 1
Grammar, spelling, and stylistic edits. Signed-off-by: Sam Bishop <email@example.com> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/DocBook/usb.tmpl')
1 files changed, 44 insertions, 54 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/DocBook/usb.tmpl b/Documentation/DocBook/usb.tmpl
index 320af25de3a2..8a28f76b9359 100644
@@ -43,59 +43,52 @@
<para>A Universal Serial Bus (USB) is used to connect a host,
such as a PC or workstation, to a number of peripheral
- devices. USB uses a tree structure, with the host at the
+ devices. USB uses a tree structure, with the host as the
root (the system's master), hubs as interior nodes, and
- peripheral devices as leaves (and slaves).
+ peripherals as leaves (and slaves).
Modern PCs support several such trees of USB devices, usually
one USB 2.0 tree (480 Mbit/sec each) with
a few USB 1.1 trees (12 Mbit/sec each) that are used when you
connect a USB 1.1 device directly to the machine's "root hub".
- <para>That master/slave asymmetry was designed in part for
- ease of use. It is not physically possible to assemble
- (legal) USB cables incorrectly: all upstream "to-the-host"
- connectors are the rectangular type, matching the sockets on
- root hubs, and the downstream type are the squarish type
- (or they are built in to the peripheral).
- Software doesn't need to deal with distributed autoconfiguration
- since the pre-designated master node manages all that.
- At the electrical level, bus protocol overhead is reduced by
- eliminating arbitration and moving scheduling into host software.
+ <para>That master/slave asymmetry was designed-in for a number of
+ reasons, one being ease of use. It is not physically possible to
+ assemble (legal) USB cables incorrectly: all upstream "to the host"
+ connectors are the rectangular type (matching the sockets on
+ root hubs), and all downstream connectors are the squarish type
+ (or they are built into the peripheral).
+ Also, the host software doesn't need to deal with distributed
+ auto-configuration since the pre-designated master node manages all that.
+ And finally, at the electrical level, bus protocol overhead is reduced by
+ eliminating arbitration and moving scheduling into the host software.
- <para>USB 1.0 was announced in January 1996, and was revised
+ <para>USB 1.0 was announced in January 1996 and was revised
as USB 1.1 (with improvements in hub specification and
support for interrupt-out transfers) in September 1998.
- USB 2.0 was released in April 2000, including high speed
- transfers and transaction translating hubs (used for USB 1.1
+ USB 2.0 was released in April 2000, adding high-speed
+ transfers and transaction-translating hubs (used for USB 1.1
and 1.0 backward compatibility).
- <para>USB support was added to Linux early in the 2.2 kernel series
- shortly before the 2.3 development forked off. Updates
- from 2.3 were regularly folded back into 2.2 releases, bringing
- new features such as <filename>/sbin/hotplug</filename> support,
- more drivers, and more robustness.
- The 2.5 kernel series continued such improvements, and also
- worked on USB 2.0 support,
- higher performance,
- better consistency between host controller drivers,
- API simplification (to make bugs less likely),
- and providing internal "kerneldoc" documentation.
+ <para>Kernel developers added USB support to Linux early in the 2.2 kernel
+ series, shortly before 2.3 development forked. Updates from 2.3 were
+ regularly folded back into 2.2 releases, which improved reliability and
+ brought <filename>/sbin/hotplug</filename> support as well more drivers.
+ Such improvements were continued in the 2.5 kernel series, where they added
+ USB 2.0 support, improved performance, and made the host controller drivers
+ (HCDs) more consistent. They also simplified the API (to make bugs less
+ likely) and added internal "kerneldoc" documentation.
<para>Linux can run inside USB devices as well as on
the hosts that control the devices.
- Because the Linux 2.x USB support evolved to support mass market
- platforms such as Apple Macintosh or PC-compatible systems,
- it didn't address design concerns for those types of USB systems.
- So it can't be used inside mass-market PDAs, or other peripherals.
- USB device drivers running inside those Linux peripherals
+ But USB device drivers running inside those peripherals
don't do the same things as the ones running inside hosts,
- and so they've been given a different name:
- they're called <emphasis>gadget drivers</emphasis>.
- This document does not present gadget drivers.
+ so they've been given a different name:
+ <emphasis>gadget drivers</emphasis>.
+ This document does not cover gadget drivers.
@@ -103,17 +96,14 @@
<title>USB Host-Side API Model</title>
- <para>Within the kernel,
- host-side drivers for USB devices talk to the "usbcore" APIs.
- There are two types of public "usbcore" APIs, targetted at two different
- layers of USB driver. Those are
- <emphasis>general purpose</emphasis> drivers, exposed through
- driver frameworks such as block, character, or network devices;
- and drivers that are <emphasis>part of the core</emphasis>,
- which are involved in managing a USB bus.
- Such core drivers include the <emphasis>hub</emphasis> driver,
- which manages trees of USB devices, and several different kinds
- of <emphasis>host controller driver (HCD)</emphasis>,
+ <para>Host-side drivers for USB devices talk to the "usbcore" APIs.
+ There are two. One is intended for
+ <emphasis>general-purpose</emphasis> drivers (exposed through
+ driver frameworks), and the other is for drivers that are
+ <emphasis>part of the core</emphasis>.
+ Such core drivers include the <emphasis>hub</emphasis> driver
+ (which manages trees of USB devices) and several different kinds
+ of <emphasis>host controller drivers</emphasis>,
which control individual busses.
@@ -122,21 +112,21 @@
- <listitem><para>USB supports four kinds of data transfer
- (control, bulk, interrupt, and isochronous). Two transfer
- types use bandwidth as it's available (control and bulk),
- while the other two types of transfer (interrupt and isochronous)
+ <listitem><para>USB supports four kinds of data transfers
+ (control, bulk, interrupt, and isochronous). Two of them (control
+ and bulk) use bandwidth as it's available,
+ while the other two (interrupt and isochronous)
are scheduled to provide guaranteed bandwidth.
<listitem><para>The device description model includes one or more
"configurations" per device, only one of which is active at a time.
- Devices that are capable of high speed operation must also support
- full speed configurations, along with a way to ask about the
- "other speed" configurations that might be used.
+ Devices that are capable of high-speed operation must also support
+ full-speed configurations, along with a way to ask about the
+ "other speed" configurations which might be used.
- <listitem><para>Configurations have one or more "interface", each
+ <listitem><para>Configurations have one or more "interfaces", each
of which may have "alternate settings". Interfaces may be
standardized by USB "Class" specifications, or may be specific to
a vendor or device.</para>
@@ -162,7 +152,7 @@
<listitem><para>The Linux USB API supports synchronous calls for
- control and bulk messaging.
+ control and bulk messages.
It also supports asynchnous calls for all kinds of data transfer,
using request structures called "URBs" (USB Request Blocks).