path: root/arch/um/sys-x86_64
diff options
authorJeff Dike <>2005-07-07 17:56:49 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <>2005-07-07 18:23:44 -0700
commitd67b569f5f620c0fb95d5212642746b7ba9d29e4 (patch)
treec7ef10c906dd83911e10988c6cea6d7d5644e072 /arch/um/sys-x86_64
parent1322ad41513f8f9196801f53cc0851df056f3478 (diff)
[PATCH] uml: skas0 - separate kernel address space on stock hosts
UML has had two modes of operation - an insecure, slow mode (tt mode) in which the kernel is mapped into every process address space which requires no host kernel modifications, and a secure, faster mode (skas mode) in which the UML kernel is in a separate host address space, which requires a patch to the host kernel. This patch implements something very close to skas mode for hosts which don't support skas - I'm calling this skas0. It provides the security of the skas host patch, and some of the performance gains. The two main things that are provided by the skas patch, /proc/mm and PTRACE_FAULTINFO, are implemented in a way that require no host patch. For the remote address space changing stuff (mmap, munmap, and mprotect), we set aside two pages in the process above its stack, one of which contains a little bit of code which can call mmap et al. To update the address space, the system call information (system call number and arguments) are written to the stub page above the code. The %esp is set to the beginning of the data, the %eip is set the the start of the stub, and it repeatedly pops the information into its registers and makes the system call until it sees a system call number of zero. This is to amortize the cost of the context switch across multiple address space updates. When the updates are done, it SIGSTOPs itself, and the kernel process continues what it was doing. For a PTRACE_FAULTINFO replacement, we set up a SIGSEGV handler in the child, and let it handle segfaults rather than nullifying them. The handler is in the same page as the mmap stub. The second page is used as the stack. The handler reads cr2 and err from the sigcontext, sticks them at the base of the stack in a faultinfo struct, and SIGSTOPs itself. The kernel then reads the faultinfo and handles the fault. A complication on x86_64 is that this involves resetting the registers to the segfault values when the process is inside the kill system call. This breaks on x86_64 because %rcx will contain %rip because you tell SYSRET where to return to by putting the value in %rcx. So, this corrupts $rcx on return from the segfault. To work around this, I added an arch_finish_segv, which on x86 does nothing, but which on x86_64 ptraces the child back through the sigreturn. This causes %rcx to be restored by sigreturn and avoids the corruption. Ultimately, I think I will replace this with the trick of having it send itself a blocked signal which will be unblocked by the sigreturn. This will allow it to be stopped just after the sigreturn, and PTRACE_SYSCALLed without all the back-and-forth of PTRACE_SYSCALLing it through sigreturn. This runs on a stock host, so theoretically (and hopefully), tt mode isn't needed any more. We need to make sure that this is better in every way than tt mode, though. I'm concerned about the speed of address space updates and page fault handling, since they involve extra round-trips to the child. We can amortize the round-trip cost for large address space updates by writing all of the operations to the data page and having the child execute them all at the same time. This will help fork and exec, but not page faults, since they involve only one page. I can't think of any way to help page faults, except to add something like PTRACE_FAULTINFO to the host. There is PTRACE_SIGINFO, but UML doesn't use siginfo for SIGSEGV (or anything else) because there isn't enough information in the siginfo struct to handle page faults (the faulting operation type is missing). Adding that would make PTRACE_SIGINFO a usable equivalent to PTRACE_FAULTINFO. As for the code itself: - The system call stub is in arch/um/kernel/sys-$(SUBARCH)/stub.S. It is put in its own section of the binary along with stub_segv_handler in arch/um/kernel/skas/process.c. This is manipulated with run_syscall_stub in arch/um/kernel/skas/mem_user.c. syscall_stub will execute any system call at all, but it's only used for mmap, munmap, and mprotect. - The x86_64 stub calls sigreturn by hand rather than allowing the normal sigreturn to happen, because the normal sigreturn is a SA_RESTORER in UML's address space provided by libc. Needless to say, this is not available in the child's address space. Also, it does a couple of odd pops before that which restore the stack to the state it was in at the time the signal handler was called. - There is a new field in the arch mmu_context, which is now a union. This is the pid to be manipulated rather than the /proc/mm file descriptor. Code which deals with this now checks proc_mm to see whether it should use the usual skas code or the new code. - userspace_tramp is now used to create a new host process for every UML process, rather than one per UML processor. It checks proc_mm and ptrace_faultinfo to decide whether to map in the pages above its stack. - start_userspace now makes CLONE_VM conditional on proc_mm since we need separate address spaces now. - switch_mm_skas now just sets userspace_pid[0] to the new pid rather than PTRACE_SWITCH_MM. There is an addition to userspace which updates its idea of the pid being manipulated each time around the loop. This is important on exec, when the pid will change underneath userspace(). - The stub page has a pte, but it can't be mapped in using tlb_flush because it is part of tlb_flush. This is why it's required for it to be mapped in by userspace_tramp. Other random things: - The stub section in is page aligned. This page is written out to the backing vm file in setup_physmem because it is mapped from there into user processes. - There's some confusion with TASK_SIZE now that there are a couple of extra pages that the process can't use. TASK_SIZE is considered by the elf code to be the usable process memory, which is reasonable, so it is decreased by two pages. This confuses the definition of USER_PGDS_IN_LAST_PML4, making it too small because of the rounding down of the uneven division. So we round it to the nearest PGDIR_SIZE rather than the lower one. - I added a missing PT_SYSCALL_ARG6_OFFSET macro. - um_mmu.h was made into a userspace-usable file. - proc_mm and ptrace_faultinfo are globals which say whether the host supports these features. - There is a bad interaction between the mm.nr_ptes check at the end of exit_mmap, stack randomization, and skas0. exit_mmap will stop freeing pages at the PGDIR_SIZE boundary after the last vma. If the stack isn't on the last page table page, the last pte page won't be freed, as it should be since the stub ptes are there, and exit_mmap will BUG because there is an unfreed page. To get around this, TASK_SIZE is set to the next lowest PGDIR_SIZE boundary and mm->nr_ptes is decremented after the calls to init_stub_pte. This ensures that we know the process stack (and all other process mappings) will be below the top page table page, and thus we know that mm->nr_ptes will be one too many, and can be decremented. Things that need fixing: - We may need better assurrences that the stub code is PIC. - The stub pte is set up in init_new_context_skas. - alloc_pgdir is probably the right place. Signed-off-by: Jeff Dike <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
Diffstat (limited to 'arch/um/sys-x86_64')
3 files changed, 56 insertions, 2 deletions
diff --git a/arch/um/sys-x86_64/Makefile b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/Makefile
index 2bc6f6849010..7488206ce6f4 100644
--- a/arch/um/sys-x86_64/Makefile
+++ b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/Makefile
@@ -6,8 +6,8 @@
#XXX: why into lib-y?
lib-y = bitops.o bugs.o csum-partial.o delay.o fault.o mem.o memcpy.o \
- ptrace.o ptrace_user.o semaphore.o sigcontext.o signal.o \
- syscalls.o sysrq.o thunk.o syscall_table.o
+ ptrace.o ptrace_user.o semaphore.o sigcontext.o signal.o stub.o \
+ stub_segv.o syscalls.o syscall_table.o sysrq.o thunk.o
obj-y := ksyms.o
obj-$(CONFIG_MODULES) += module.o um_module.o
@@ -28,6 +28,14 @@ semaphore.c-dir = kernel
thunk.S-dir = lib
module.c-dir = kernel
+STUB_CFLAGS = -Wp,-MD,$(depfile) $(call unprofile,$(USER_CFLAGS))
+# _cflags works with kernel files, not with userspace ones, but c_flags does,
+# why ask why?
+$(obj)/stub_segv.o : c_flags = $(STUB_CFLAGS)
+$(obj)/stub.o : a_flags = $(STUB_CFLAGS)
subdir- := util
include arch/um/scripts/Makefile.unmap
diff --git a/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub.S b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub.S
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..31c14925716b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub.S
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+#include "uml-config.h"
+ .globl syscall_stub
+.section .__syscall_stub, "x"
+ syscall
+ /* We don't have 64-bit constants, so this constructs the address
+ * we need.
+ */
+ movq $(UML_CONFIG_STUB_DATA >> 32), %rbx
+ salq $32, %rbx
+ movq $(UML_CONFIG_STUB_DATA & 0xffffffff), %rcx
+ or %rcx, %rbx
+ movq %rax, (%rbx)
+ int3
diff --git a/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub_segv.c b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub_segv.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..161d1fe9c034
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/um/sys-x86_64/stub_segv.c
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+ * Copyright (C) 2004 Jeff Dike (
+ * Licensed under the GPL
+ */
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <linux/compiler.h>
+#include <asm/unistd.h>
+#include "uml-config.h"
+#include "sysdep/sigcontext.h"
+#include "sysdep/faultinfo.h"
+void __attribute__ ((__section__ (".__syscall_stub")))
+stub_segv_handler(int sig)
+ struct ucontext *uc;
+ __asm__("movq %%rdx, %0" : "=g" (uc) :);
+ &uc->uc_mcontext);
+ __asm__("movq %0, %%rax ; syscall": : "g" (__NR_getpid));
+ __asm__("movq %%rax, %%rdi ; movq %0, %%rax ; movq %1, %%rsi ;"
+ "syscall": : "g" (__NR_kill), "g" (SIGUSR1));
+ /* Two popqs to restore the stack to the state just before entering
+ * the handler, one pops the return address, the other pops the frame
+ * pointer.
+ */
+ __asm__("popq %%rax ; popq %%rax ; movq %0, %%rax ; syscall" : : "g"
+ (__NR_rt_sigreturn));