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-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/00-INDEX127
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/3c359.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/3c505.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/3c509.txt210
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/6pack.txt175
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/Configurable34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/DLINK.txt204
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/NAPI_HOWTO.txt766
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt215
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/README.sb1000207
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/TODO18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/alias.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/arcnet-hardware.txt3133
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/arcnet.txt555
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/atm.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ax25.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/baycom.txt158
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/bonding.txt1618
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/bridge.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/comx.txt248
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/cops.txt63
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/cs89x0.txt703
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/de4x5.txt178
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/decnet.txt234
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/depca.txt92
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/dgrs.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt281
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/dmfe.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/driver.txt94
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/e100.txt170
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/e1000.txt401
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/eql.txt528
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ewrk3.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/filter.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/fore200e.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/framerelay.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/gen_stats.txt117
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/generic-hdlc.txt131
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ifenslave.c1110
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt878
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ip_dynaddr.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ipddp.txt78
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/iphase.txt158
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/irda.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt212
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/lapb-module.txt263
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt131
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/multicast.txt64
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ncsa-telnet16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/net-modules.txt324
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt57
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt75
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/netif-msg.txt79
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/olympic.txt79
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt399
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/pktgen.txt214
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/policy-routing.txt150
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ppp_generic.txt432
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/proc_net_tcp.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/pt.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/ray_cs.txt151
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/routing.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/s2io.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/sctp.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/shaper.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/sis900.txt257
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/sk98lin.txt568
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/skfp.txt220
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/slicecom.hun371
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/slicecom.txt369
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/smc9.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/smctr.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/tcp.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/tlan.txt117
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/tms380tr.txt147
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/tuntap.txt147
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/vortex.txt450
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/wan-router.txt622
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/wanpipe.txt622
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/wavelan.txt73
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/x25-iface.txt123
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/x25.txt44
-rw-r--r--Documentation/networking/z8530drv.txt657
83 files changed, 21285 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX b/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..834993d26730
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+00-INDEX
+ - this file
+3c505.txt
+ - information on the 3Com EtherLink Plus (3c505) driver.
+6pack.txt
+ - info on the 6pack protocol, an alternative to KISS for AX.25
+Configurable
+ - info on some of the configurable network parameters
+DLINK.txt
+ - info on the D-Link DE-600/DE-620 parallel port pocket adapters
+PLIP.txt
+ - PLIP: The Parallel Line Internet Protocol device driver
+README.sb1000
+ - info on General Instrument/NextLevel SURFboard1000 cable modem.
+alias.txt
+ - info on using alias network devices
+arcnet-hardware.txt
+ - tons of info on ARCnet, hubs, jumper settings for ARCnet cards, etc.
+arcnet.txt
+ - info on the using the ARCnet driver itself.
+atm.txt
+ - info on where to get ATM programs and support for Linux.
+ax25.txt
+ - info on using AX.25 and NET/ROM code for Linux
+baycom.txt
+ - info on the driver for Baycom style amateur radio modems
+bridge.txt
+ - where to get user space programs for ethernet bridging with Linux.
+comx.txt
+ - info on drivers for COMX line of synchronous serial adapters.
+cops.txt
+ - info on the COPS LocalTalk Linux driver
+cs89x0.txt
+ - the Crystal LAN (CS8900/20-based) Ethernet ISA adapter driver
+de4x5.txt
+ - the Digital EtherWORKS DE4?? and DE5?? PCI Ethernet driver
+decnet.txt
+ - info on using the DECnet networking layer in Linux.
+depca.txt
+ - the Digital DEPCA/EtherWORKS DE1?? and DE2?? LANCE Ethernet driver
+dgrs.txt
+ - the Digi International RightSwitch SE-X Ethernet driver
+dmfe.txt
+ - info on the Davicom DM9102(A)/DM9132/DM9801 fast ethernet driver.
+e100.txt
+ - info on Intel's EtherExpress PRO/100 line of 10/100 boards
+e1000.txt
+ - info on Intel's E1000 line of gigabit ethernet boards
+eql.txt
+ - serial IP load balancing
+ethertap.txt
+ - the Ethertap user space packet reception and transmission driver
+ewrk3.txt
+ - the Digital EtherWORKS 3 DE203/4/5 Ethernet driver
+filter.txt
+ - Linux Socket Filtering
+fore200e.txt
+ - FORE Systems PCA-200E/SBA-200E ATM NIC driver info.
+framerelay.txt
+ - info on using Frame Relay/Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI).
+ip-sysctl.txt
+ - /proc/sys/net/ipv4/* variables
+ip_dynaddr.txt
+ - IP dynamic address hack e.g. for auto-dialup links
+ipddp.txt
+ - AppleTalk-IP Decapsulation and AppleTalk-IP Encapsulation
+iphase.txt
+ - Interphase PCI ATM (i)Chip IA Linux driver info.
+irda.txt
+ - where to get IrDA (infrared) utilities and info for Linux.
+lapb-module.txt
+ - programming information of the LAPB module.
+ltpc.txt
+ - the Apple or Farallon LocalTalk PC card driver
+multicast.txt
+ - Behaviour of cards under Multicast
+ncsa-telnet
+ - notes on how NCSA telnet (DOS) breaks with MTU discovery enabled.
+net-modules.txt
+ - info and "insmod" parameters for all network driver modules.
+netdevices.txt
+ - info on network device driver functions exported to the kernel.
+olympic.txt
+ - IBM PCI Pit/Pit-Phy/Olympic Token Ring driver info.
+policy-routing.txt
+ - IP policy-based routing
+pt.txt
+ - the Gracilis Packetwin AX.25 device driver
+ray_cs.txt
+ - Raylink Wireless LAN card driver info.
+routing.txt
+ - the new routing mechanism
+shaper.txt
+ - info on the module that can shape/limit transmitted traffic.
+sis900.txt
+ - SiS 900/7016 Fast Ethernet device driver info.
+sk98lin.txt
+ - Marvell Yukon Chipset / SysKonnect SK-98xx compliant Gigabit
+ Ethernet Adapter family driver info
+skfp.txt
+ - SysKonnect FDDI (SK-5xxx, Compaq Netelligent) driver info.
+smc9.txt
+ - the driver for SMC's 9000 series of Ethernet cards
+smctr.txt
+ - SMC TokenCard TokenRing Linux driver info.
+tcp.txt
+ - short blurb on how TCP output takes place.
+tlan.txt
+ - ThunderLAN (Compaq Netelligent 10/100, Olicom OC-2xxx) driver info.
+tms380tr.txt
+ - SysKonnect Token Ring ISA/PCI adapter driver info.
+tuntap.txt
+ - TUN/TAP device driver, allowing user space Rx/Tx of packets.
+vortex.txt
+ - info on using 3Com Vortex (3c590, 3c592, 3c595, 3c597) Ethernet cards.
+wan-router.txt
+ - Wan router documentation
+wanpipe.txt
+ - WANPIPE(tm) Multiprotocol WAN Driver for Linux WAN Router
+wavelan.txt
+ - AT&T GIS (nee NCR) WaveLAN card: An Ethernet-like radio transceiver
+x25.txt
+ - general info on X.25 development.
+x25-iface.txt
+ - description of the X.25 Packet Layer to LAPB device interface.
+z8530drv.txt
+ - info about Linux driver for Z8530 based HDLC cards for AX.25
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/3c359.txt b/Documentation/networking/3c359.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4af8071a6d18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/3c359.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+
+3COM PCI TOKEN LINK VELOCITY XL TOKEN RING CARDS README
+
+Release 0.9.0 - Release
+ Jul 17th 2000 Mike Phillips
+
+ 1.2.0 - Final
+ Feb 17th 2002 Mike Phillips
+ Updated for submission to the 2.4.x kernel.
+
+Thanks:
+ Terry Murphy from 3Com for tech docs and support,
+ Adam D. Ligas for testing the driver.
+
+Note:
+ This driver will NOT work with the 3C339 Token Ring cards, you need
+to use the tms380 driver instead.
+
+Options:
+
+The driver accepts three options: ringspeed, pkt_buf_sz and message_level.
+
+These options can be specified differently for each card found.
+
+ringspeed: Has one of three settings 0 (default), 4 or 16. 0 will
+make the card autosense the ringspeed and join at the appropriate speed,
+this will be the default option for most people. 4 or 16 allow you to
+explicitly force the card to operate at a certain speed. The card will fail
+if you try to insert it at the wrong speed. (Although some hubs will allow
+this so be *very* careful). The main purpose for explicitly setting the ring
+speed is for when the card is first on the ring. In autosense mode, if the card
+cannot detect any active monitors on the ring it will open at the same speed as
+its last opening. This can be hazardous if this speed does not match the speed
+you want the ring to operate at.
+
+pkt_buf_sz: This is this initial receive buffer allocation size. This will
+default to 4096 if no value is entered. You may increase performance of the
+driver by setting this to a value larger than the network packet size, although
+the driver now re-sizes buffers based on MTU settings as well.
+
+message_level: Controls level of messages created by the driver. Defaults to 0:
+which only displays start-up and critical messages. Presently any non-zero
+value will display all soft messages as well. NB This does not turn
+debugging messages on, that must be done by modified the source code.
+
+Variable MTU size:
+
+The driver can handle a MTU size upto either 4500 or 18000 depending upon
+ring speed. The driver also changes the size of the receive buffers as part
+of the mtu re-sizing, so if you set mtu = 18000, you will need to be able
+to allocate 16 * (sk_buff with 18000 buffer size) call it 18500 bytes per ring
+position = 296,000 bytes of memory space, plus of course anything
+necessary for the tx sk_buff's. Remember this is per card, so if you are
+building routers, gateway's etc, you could start to use a lot of memory
+real fast.
+
+2/17/02 Mike Phillips
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/3c505.txt b/Documentation/networking/3c505.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b9d5b7230118
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/3c505.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+The 3Com Etherlink Plus (3c505) driver.
+
+This driver now uses DMA. There is currently no support for PIO operation.
+The default DMA channel is 6; this is _not_ autoprobed, so you must
+make sure you configure it correctly. If loading the driver as a
+module, you can do this with "modprobe 3c505 dma=n". If the driver is
+linked statically into the kernel, you must either use an "ether="
+statement on the command line, or change the definition of ELP_DMA in 3c505.h.
+
+The driver will warn you if it has to fall back on the compiled in
+default DMA channel.
+
+If no base address is given at boot time, the driver will autoprobe
+ports 0x300, 0x280 and 0x310 (in that order). If no IRQ is given, the driver
+will try to probe for it.
+
+The driver can be used as a loadable module. See net-modules.txt for details
+of the parameters it can take.
+
+Theoretically, one instance of the driver can now run multiple cards,
+in the standard way (when loading a module, say "modprobe 3c505
+io=0x300,0x340 irq=10,11 dma=6,7" or whatever). I have not tested
+this, though.
+
+The driver may now support revision 2 hardware; the dependency on
+being able to read the host control register has been removed. This
+is also untested, since I don't have a suitable card.
+
+Known problems:
+ I still see "DMA upload timed out" messages from time to time. These
+seem to be fairly non-fatal though.
+ The card is old and slow.
+
+To do:
+ Improve probe/setup code
+ Test multicast and promiscuous operation
+
+Authors:
+ The driver is mainly written by Craig Southeren, email
+ <craigs@ineluki.apana.org.au>.
+ Parts of the driver (adapting the driver to 1.1.4+ kernels,
+ IRQ/address detection, some changes) and this README by
+ Juha Laiho <jlaiho@ichaos.nullnet.fi>.
+ DMA mode, more fixes, etc, by Philip Blundell <pjb27@cam.ac.uk>
+ Multicard support, Software configurable DMA, etc., by
+ Christopher Collins <ccollins@pcug.org.au>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/3c509.txt b/Documentation/networking/3c509.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..867a99f88c68
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/3c509.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,210 @@
+Linux and the 3Com EtherLink III Series Ethercards (driver v1.18c and higher)
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This file contains the instructions and caveats for v1.18c and higher versions
+of the 3c509 driver. You should not use the driver without reading this file.
+
+release 1.0
+28 February 2002
+Current maintainer (corrections to):
+ David Ruggiero <jdr@farfalle.com>
+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+(0) Introduction
+
+The following are notes and information on using the 3Com EtherLink III series
+ethercards in Linux. These cards are commonly known by the most widely-used
+card's 3Com model number, 3c509. They are all 10mb/s ISA-bus cards and shouldn't
+be (but sometimes are) confused with the similarly-numbered PCI-bus "3c905"
+(aka "Vortex" or "Boomerang") series. Kernel support for the 3c509 family is
+provided by the module 3c509.c, which has code to support all of the following
+models:
+
+ 3c509 (original ISA card)
+ 3c509B (later revision of the ISA card; supports full-duplex)
+ 3c589 (PCMCIA)
+ 3c589B (later revision of the 3c589; supports full-duplex)
+ 3c529 (MCA)
+ 3c579 (EISA)
+
+Large portions of this documentation were heavily borrowed from the guide
+written the original author of the 3c509 driver, Donald Becker. The master
+copy of that document, which contains notes on older versions of the driver,
+currently resides on Scyld web server: http://www.scyld.com/network/3c509.html.
+
+
+(1) Special Driver Features
+
+Overriding card settings
+
+The driver allows boot- or load-time overriding of the card's detected IOADDR,
+IRQ, and transceiver settings, although this capability shouldn't generally be
+needed except to enable full-duplex mode (see below). An example of the syntax
+for LILO parameters for doing this:
+
+ ether=10,0x310,3,0x3c509,eth0
+
+This configures the first found 3c509 card for IRQ 10, base I/O 0x310, and
+transceiver type 3 (10base2). The flag "0x3c509" must be set to avoid conflicts
+with other card types when overriding the I/O address. When the driver is
+loaded as a module, only the IRQ and transceiver setting may be overridden.
+For example, setting two cards to 10base2/IRQ10 and AUI/IRQ11 is done by using
+the xcvr and irq module options:
+
+ options 3c509 xcvr=3,1 irq=10,11
+
+
+(2) Full-duplex mode
+
+The v1.18c driver added support for the 3c509B's full-duplex capabilities.
+In order to enable and successfully use full-duplex mode, three conditions
+must be met:
+
+(a) You must have a Etherlink III card model whose hardware supports full-
+duplex operations. Currently, the only members of the 3c509 family that are
+positively known to support full-duplex are the 3c509B (ISA bus) and 3c589B
+(PCMCIA) cards. Cards without the "B" model designation do *not* support
+full-duplex mode; these include the original 3c509 (no "B"), the original
+3c589, the 3c529 (MCA bus), and the 3c579 (EISA bus).
+
+(b) You must be using your card's 10baseT transceiver (i.e., the RJ-45
+connector), not its AUI (thick-net) or 10base2 (thin-net/coax) interfaces.
+AUI and 10base2 network cabling is physically incapable of full-duplex
+operation.
+
+(c) Most importantly, your 3c509B must be connected to a link partner that is
+itself full-duplex capable. This is almost certainly one of two things: a full-
+duplex-capable Ethernet switch (*not* a hub), or a full-duplex-capable NIC on
+another system that's connected directly to the 3c509B via a crossover cable.
+
+/////Extremely important caution concerning full-duplex mode/////
+Understand that the 3c509B's hardware's full-duplex support is much more
+limited than that provide by more modern network interface cards. Although
+at the physical layer of the network it fully supports full-duplex operation,
+the card was designed before the current Ethernet auto-negotiation (N-way)
+spec was written. This means that the 3c509B family ***cannot and will not
+auto-negotiate a full-duplex connection with its link partner under any
+circumstances, no matter how it is initialized***. If the full-duplex mode
+of the 3c509B is enabled, its link partner will very likely need to be
+independently _forced_ into full-duplex mode as well; otherwise various nasty
+failures will occur - at the very least, you'll see massive numbers of packet
+collisions. This is one of very rare circumstances where disabling auto-
+negotiation and forcing the duplex mode of a network interface card or switch
+would ever be necessary or desirable.
+
+
+(3) Available Transceiver Types
+
+For versions of the driver v1.18c and above, the available transceiver types are:
+
+0 transceiver type from EEPROM config (normally 10baseT); force half-duplex
+1 AUI (thick-net / DB15 connector)
+2 (undefined)
+3 10base2 (thin-net == coax / BNC connector)
+4 10baseT (RJ-45 connector); force half-duplex mode
+8 transceiver type and duplex mode taken from card's EEPROM config settings
+12 10baseT (RJ-45 connector); force full-duplex mode
+
+Prior to driver version 1.18c, only transceiver codes 0-4 were supported. Note
+that the new transceiver codes 8 and 12 are the *only* ones that will enable
+full-duplex mode, no matter what the card's detected EEPROM settings might be.
+This insured that merely upgrading the driver from an earlier version would
+never automatically enable full-duplex mode in an existing installation;
+it must always be explicitly enabled via one of these code in order to be
+activated.
+
+
+(4a) Interpretation of error messages and common problems
+
+Error Messages
+
+eth0: Infinite loop in interrupt, status 2011.
+These are "mostly harmless" message indicating that the driver had too much
+work during that interrupt cycle. With a status of 0x2011 you are receiving
+packets faster than they can be removed from the card. This should be rare
+or impossible in normal operation. Possible causes of this error report are:
+
+ - a "green" mode enabled that slows the processor down when there is no
+ keyboard activitiy.
+
+ - some other device or device driver hogging the bus or disabling interrupts.
+ Check /proc/interrupts for excessive interrupt counts. The timer tick
+ interrupt should always be incrementing faster than the others.
+
+No received packets
+If a 3c509, 3c562 or 3c589 can successfully transmit packets, but never
+receives packets (as reported by /proc/net/dev or 'ifconfig') you likely
+have an interrupt line problem. Check /proc/interrupts to verify that the
+card is actually generating interrupts. If the interrupt count is not
+increasing you likely have a physical conflict with two devices trying to
+use the same ISA IRQ line. The common conflict is with a sound card on IRQ10
+or IRQ5, and the easiest solution is to move the 3c509 to a different
+interrupt line. If the device is receiving packets but 'ping' doesn't work,
+you have a routing problem.
+
+Tx Carrier Errors Reported in /proc/net/dev
+If an EtherLink III appears to transmit packets, but the "Tx carrier errors"
+field in /proc/net/dev increments as quickly as the Tx packet count, you
+likely have an unterminated network or the incorrect media transceiver selected.
+
+3c509B card is not detected on machines with an ISA PnP BIOS.
+While the updated driver works with most PnP BIOS programs, it does not work
+with all. This can be fixed by disabling PnP support using the 3Com-supplied
+setup program.
+
+3c509 card is not detected on overclocked machines
+Increase the delay time in id_read_eeprom() from the current value, 500,
+to an absurdly high value, such as 5000.
+
+
+(4b) Decoding Status and Error Messages
+
+The bits in the main status register are:
+
+value description
+0x01 Interrupt latch
+0x02 Tx overrun, or Rx underrun
+0x04 Tx complete
+0x08 Tx FIFO room available
+0x10 A complete Rx packet has arrived
+0x20 A Rx packet has started to arrive
+0x40 The driver has requested an interrupt
+0x80 Statistics counter nearly full
+
+The bits in the transmit (Tx) status word are:
+
+value description
+0x02 Out-of-window collision.
+0x04 Status stack overflow (normally impossible).
+0x08 16 collisions.
+0x10 Tx underrun (not enough PCI bus bandwidth).
+0x20 Tx jabber.
+0x40 Tx interrupt requested.
+0x80 Status is valid (this should always be set).
+
+
+When a transmit error occurs the driver produces a status message such as
+
+ eth0: Transmit error, Tx status register 82
+
+The two values typically seen here are:
+
+0x82
+Out of window collision. This typically occurs when some other Ethernet
+host is incorrectly set to full duplex on a half duplex network.
+
+0x88
+16 collisions. This typically occurs when the network is exceptionally busy
+or when another host doesn't correctly back off after a collision. If this
+error is mixed with 0x82 errors it is the result of a host incorrectly set
+to full duplex (see above).
+
+Both of these errors are the result of network problems that should be
+corrected. They do not represent driver malfunction.
+
+
+(5) Revision history (this file)
+
+28Feb02 v1.0 DR New; major portions based on Becker original 3c509 docs
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/6pack.txt b/Documentation/networking/6pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..48ed2b711bd2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/6pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,175 @@
+This is the 6pack-mini-HOWTO, written by
+
+Andreas Könsgen DG3KQ
+Internet: ajk@iehk.rwth-aachen.de
+AMPR-net: dg3kq@db0pra.ampr.org
+AX.25: dg3kq@db0ach.#nrw.deu.eu
+
+Last update: April 7, 1998
+
+1. What is 6pack, and what are the advantages to KISS?
+
+6pack is a transmission protocol for data exchange between the PC and
+the TNC over a serial line. It can be used as an alternative to KISS.
+
+6pack has two major advantages:
+- The PC is given full control over the radio
+ channel. Special control data is exchanged between the PC and the TNC so
+ that the PC knows at any time if the TNC is receiving data, if a TNC
+ buffer underrun or overrun has occurred, if the PTT is
+ set and so on. This control data is processed at a higher priority than
+ normal data, so a data stream can be interrupted at any time to issue an
+ important event. This helps to improve the channel access and timing
+ algorithms as everything is computed in the PC. It would even be possible
+ to experiment with something completely different from the known CSMA and
+ DAMA channel access methods.
+ This kind of real-time control is especially important to supply several
+ TNCs that are connected between each other and the PC by a daisy chain
+ (however, this feature is not supported yet by the Linux 6pack driver).
+
+- Each packet transferred over the serial line is supplied with a checksum,
+ so it is easy to detect errors due to problems on the serial line.
+ Received packets that are corrupt are not passed on to the AX.25 layer.
+ Damaged packets that the TNC has received from the PC are not transmitted.
+
+More details about 6pack are described in the file 6pack.ps that is located
+in the doc directory of the AX.25 utilities package.
+
+2. Who has developed the 6pack protocol?
+
+The 6pack protocol has been developed by Ekki Plicht DF4OR, Henning Rech
+DF9IC and Gunter Jost DK7WJ. A driver for 6pack, written by Gunter Jost and
+Matthias Welwarsky DG2FEF, comes along with the PC version of FlexNet.
+They have also written a firmware for TNCs to perform the 6pack
+protocol (see section 4 below).
+
+3. Where can I get the latest version of 6pack for LinuX?
+
+At the moment, the 6pack stuff can obtained via anonymous ftp from
+db0bm.automation.fh-aachen.de. In the directory /incoming/dg3kq,
+there is a file named 6pack.tgz.
+
+4. Preparing the TNC for 6pack operation
+
+To be able to use 6pack, a special firmware for the TNC is needed. The EPROM
+of a newly bought TNC does not contain 6pack, so you will have to
+program an EPROM yourself. The image file for 6pack EPROMs should be
+available on any packet radio box where PC/FlexNet can be found. The name of
+the file is 6pack.bin. This file is copyrighted and maintained by the FlexNet
+team. It can be used under the terms of the license that comes along
+with PC/FlexNet. Please do not ask me about the internals of this file as I
+don't know anything about it. I used a textual description of the 6pack
+protocol to program the Linux driver.
+
+TNCs contain a 64kByte EPROM, the lower half of which is used for
+the firmware/KISS. The upper half is either empty or is sometimes
+programmed with software called TAPR. In the latter case, the TNC
+is supplied with a DIP switch so you can easily change between the
+two systems. When programming a new EPROM, one of the systems is replaced
+by 6pack. It is useful to replace TAPR, as this software is rarely used
+nowadays. If your TNC is not equipped with the switch mentioned above, you
+can build in one yourself that switches over the highest address pin
+of the EPROM between HIGH and LOW level. After having inserted the new EPROM
+and switched to 6pack, apply power to the TNC for a first test. The connect
+and the status LED are lit for about a second if the firmware initialises
+the TNC correctly.
+
+5. Building and installing the 6pack driver
+
+The driver has been tested with kernel version 2.1.90. Use with older
+kernels may lead to a compilation error because the interface to a kernel
+function has been changed in the 2.1.8x kernels.
+
+How to turn on 6pack support:
+
+- In the linux kernel configuration program, select the code maturity level
+ options menu and turn on the prompting for development drivers.
+
+- Select the amateur radio support menu and turn on the serial port 6pack
+ driver.
+
+- Compile and install the kernel and the modules.
+
+To use the driver, the kissattach program delivered with the AX.25 utilities
+has to be modified.
+
+- Do a cd to the directory that holds the kissattach sources. Edit the
+ kissattach.c file. At the top, insert the following lines:
+
+ #ifndef N_6PACK
+ #define N_6PACK (N_AX25+1)
+ #endif
+
+ Then find the line
+
+ int disc = N_AX25;
+
+ and replace N_AX25 by N_6PACK.
+
+- Recompile kissattach. Rename it to spattach to avoid confusions.
+
+Installing the driver:
+
+- Do an insmod 6pack. Look at your /var/log/messages file to check if the
+ module has printed its initialization message.
+
+- Do a spattach as you would launch kissattach when starting a KISS port.
+ Check if the kernel prints the message '6pack: TNC found'.
+
+- From here, everything should work as if you were setting up a KISS port.
+ The only difference is that the network device that represents
+ the 6pack port is called sp instead of sl or ax. So, sp0 would be the
+ first 6pack port.
+
+Although the driver has been tested on various platforms, I still declare it
+ALPHA. BE CAREFUL! Sync your disks before insmoding the 6pack module
+and spattaching. Watch out if your computer behaves strangely. Read section
+6 of this file about known problems.
+
+Note that the connect and status LEDs of the TNC are controlled in a
+different way than they are when the TNC is used with PC/FlexNet. When using
+FlexNet, the connect LED is on if there is a connection; the status LED is
+on if there is data in the buffer of the PC's AX.25 engine that has to be
+transmitted. Under Linux, the 6pack layer is beyond the AX.25 layer,
+so the 6pack driver doesn't know anything about connects or data that
+has not yet been transmitted. Therefore the LEDs are controlled
+as they are in KISS mode: The connect LED is turned on if data is transferred
+from the PC to the TNC over the serial line, the status LED if data is
+sent to the PC.
+
+6. Known problems
+
+When testing the driver with 2.0.3x kernels and
+operating with data rates on the radio channel of 9600 Baud or higher,
+the driver may, on certain systems, sometimes print the message '6pack:
+bad checksum', which is due to data loss if the other station sends two
+or more subsequent packets. I have been told that this is due to a problem
+with the serial driver of 2.0.3x kernels. I don't know yet if the problem
+still exists with 2.1.x kernels, as I have heard that the serial driver
+code has been changed with 2.1.x.
+
+When shutting down the sp interface with ifconfig, the kernel crashes if
+there is still an AX.25 connection left over which an IP connection was
+running, even if that IP connection is already closed. The problem does not
+occur when there is a bare AX.25 connection still running. I don't know if
+this is a problem of the 6pack driver or something else in the kernel.
+
+The driver has been tested as a module, not yet as a kernel-builtin driver.
+
+The 6pack protocol supports daisy-chaining of TNCs in a token ring, which is
+connected to one serial port of the PC. This feature is not implemented
+and at least at the moment I won't be able to do it because I do not have
+the opportunity to build a TNC daisy-chain and test it.
+
+Some of the comments in the source code are inaccurate. They are left from
+the SLIP/KISS driver, from which the 6pack driver has been derived.
+I haven't modified or removed them yet -- sorry! The code itself needs
+some cleaning and optimizing. This will be done in a later release.
+
+If you encounter a bug or if you have a question or suggestion concerning the
+driver, feel free to mail me, using the addresses given at the beginning of
+this file.
+
+Have fun!
+
+Andreas
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/Configurable b/Documentation/networking/Configurable
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..69c0dd466ead
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/Configurable
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+
+There are a few network parameters that can be tuned to better match
+the kernel to your system hardware and intended usage. The defaults
+are usually a good choice for 99% of the people 99% of the time, but
+you should be aware they do exist and can be changed.
+
+The current list of parameters can be found in the files:
+
+ linux/net/TUNABLE
+ Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
+
+Some of these are accessible via the sysctl interface, and many more are
+scheduled to be added in this way. For example, some parameters related
+to Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) are very easily viewed and altered.
+
+ # cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/arp_timeout
+ 6000
+ # echo 7000 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/arp_timeout
+ # cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/arp_timeout
+ 7000
+
+Others are already accessible via the related user space programs.
+For example, MAX_WINDOW has a default of 32 k which is a good choice for
+modern hardware, but if you have a slow (8 bit) Ethernet card and/or a slow
+machine, then this will be far too big for the card to keep up with fast
+machines transmitting on the same net, resulting in overruns and receive errors.
+A value of about 4 k would be more appropriate, which can be set via:
+
+ # route add -net 192.168.3.0 window 4096
+
+The remainder of these can only be presently changed by altering a #define
+in the related header file. This means an edit and recompile cycle.
+
+ Paul Gortmaker 06/96
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/DLINK.txt b/Documentation/networking/DLINK.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..083d24752b83
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/DLINK.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,204 @@
+Released 1994-06-13
+
+
+ CONTENTS:
+
+ 1. Introduction.
+ 2. License.
+ 3. Files in this release.
+ 4. Installation.
+ 5. Problems and tuning.
+ 6. Using the drivers with earlier releases.
+ 7. Acknowledgments.
+
+
+ 1. INTRODUCTION.
+
+ This is a set of Ethernet drivers for the D-Link DE-600/DE-620
+ pocket adapters, for the parallel port on a Linux based machine.
+ Some adapter "clones" will also work. Xircom is _not_ a clone...
+ These drivers _can_ be used as loadable modules,
+ and were developed for use on Linux 1.1.13 and above.
+ For use on Linux 1.0.X, or earlier releases, see below.
+
+ I have used these drivers for NFS, ftp, telnet and X-clients on
+ remote machines. Transmissions with ftp seems to work as
+ good as can be expected (i.e. > 80k bytes/sec) from a
+ parallel port...:-) Receive speeds will be about 60-80% of this.
+ Depending on your machine, somewhat higher speeds can be achieved.
+
+ All comments/fixes to Bjorn Ekwall (bj0rn@blox.se).
+
+
+ 2. LICENSE.
+
+ This program is free software; you can redistribute it
+ and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
+ License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+ version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
+ useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
+ warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
+ PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more
+ details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
+ License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
+ Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA
+ 02139, USA.
+
+
+ 3. FILES IN THIS RELEASE.
+
+ README.DLINK This file.
+ de600.c The Source (may it be with You :-) for the DE-600
+ de620.c ditto for the DE-620
+ de620.h Macros for de620.c
+
+ If you are upgrading from the d-link tar release, there will
+ also be a "dlink-patches" file that will patch Linux 1.1.18:
+ linux/drivers/net/Makefile
+ linux/drivers/net/CONFIG
+ linux/drivers/net/MODULES
+ linux/drivers/net/Space.c
+ linux/config.in
+ Apply the patch by:
+ "cd /usr/src; patch -p0 < linux/drivers/net/dlink-patches"
+ The old source, "linux/drivers/net/d_link.c", can be removed.
+
+
+ 4. INSTALLATION.
+
+ o Get the latest net binaries, according to current net.wisdom.
+
+ o Read the NET-2 and Ethernet HOWTOs and modify your setup.
+
+ o If your parallel port has a strange address or irq,
+ modify "linux/drivers/net/CONFIG" accordingly, or adjust
+ the parameters in the "tuning" section in the sources.
+
+ If you are going to use the drivers as loadable modules, do _not_
+ enable them while doing "make config", but instead make sure that
+ the drivers are included in "linux/drivers/net/MODULES".
+
+ If you are _not_ going to use the driver(s) as loadable modules,
+ but instead have them included in the kernel, remember to enable
+ the drivers while doing "make config".
+
+ o To include networking and DE600/DE620 support in your kernel:
+ # cd /linux
+ (as modules:)
+ # make config (answer yes on CONFIG_NET and CONFIG_INET)
+ (else included in the kernel:)
+ # make config (answer yes on CONFIG _NET, _INET and _DE600 or _DE620)
+ # make clean
+ # make zImage (or whatever magic you usually do)
+
+ o I use lilo to boot multiple kernels, so that I at least
+ can have one working kernel :-). If you do too, append
+ these lines to /etc/lilo/config:
+
+ image = /linux/zImage
+ label = newlinux
+ root = /dev/hda2 (or whatever YOU have...)
+
+ # /etc/lilo/install
+
+ o Do "sync" and reboot the new kernel with a D-Link
+ DE-600/DE-620 pocket adapter connected.
+
+ o The adapter can be configured with ifconfig eth?
+ where the actual number is decided by the kernel
+ when the drivers are initialized.
+
+
+ 5. "PROBLEMS" AND TUNING,
+
+ o If you see error messages from the driver, and if the traffic
+ stops on the adapter, try to do "ifconfig" and "route" once
+ more, just as in "rc.inet1". This should take care of most
+ problems, including effects from power loss, or adapters that
+ aren't connected to the printer port in some way or another.
+ You can somewhat change the behaviour by enabling/disabling
+ the macro SHUTDOWN_WHEN_LOST in the "tuning" section.
+ For the DE-600 there is another macro, CHECK_LOST_DE600,
+ that you might want to read about in the "tuning" section.
+
+ o Some machines have trouble handling the parallel port and
+ the adapter at high speed. If you experience problems:
+
+ DE-600:
+ - The adapter is not recognized at boot, i.e. an Ethernet
+ address of 00:80:c8:... is not shown, try to add another
+ "; SLOW_DOWN_IO"
+ at DE600_SLOW_DOWN in the "tuning" section. As a last resort,
+ uncomment: "#define REALLY_SLOW_IO" (see <asm/io.h> for hints).
+
+ - You experience "timeout" messages: first try to add another
+ "; SLOW_DOWN_IO"
+ at DE600_SLOW_DOWN in the "tuning" section, _then_ try to
+ increase the value (original value: 5) at
+ "if (tickssofar < 5)" near line 422.
+
+ DE-620:
+ - Your parallel port might be "sluggish". To cater for
+ this, there are the macros LOWSPEED and READ_DELAY/WRITE_DELAY
+ in the "tuning" section. Your first step should be to enable
+ LOWSPEED, and after that you can "tune" the XXX_DELAY values.
+
+ o If the adapter _is_ recognized at boot but you get messages
+ about "Network Unreachable", then the problem is probably
+ _not_ with the driver. Check your net configuration instead
+ (ifconfig and route) in "rc.inet1".
+
+ o There is some rudimentary support for debugging, look at
+ the source. Use "-DDE600_DEBUG=3" or "-DDE620_DEBUG=3"
+ when compiling, or include it in "linux/drivers/net/CONFIG".
+ IF YOU HAVE PROBLEMS YOU CAN'T SOLVE: PLEASE COMPILE THE DRIVER
+ WITH DEBUGGING ENABLED, AND SEND ME THE RESULTING OUTPUT!
+
+
+ 6. USING THE DRIVERS WITH EARLIER RELEASES.
+
+ The later 1.1.X releases of the Linux kernel include some
+ changes in the networking layer (a.k.a. NET3). This affects
+ these drivers in a few places. The hints that follow are
+ _not_ tested by me, since I don't have the disk space to keep
+ all releases on-line.
+ Known needed changes to date:
+ - release patchfile: some patches will fail, but they should
+ be easy to apply "by hand", since they are trivial.
+ (Space.c: d_link_init() is now called de600_probe())
+ - de600.c: change "mark_bh(NET_BH)" to "mark_bh(INET_BH)".
+ - de620.c: (maybe) change the code around "netif_rx(skb);" to be
+ similar to the code around "dev_rint(...)" in de600.c
+
+
+ 7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
+
+ These drivers wouldn't have been done without the base
+ (and support) from Ross Biro <bir7@leland.stanford.edu>,
+ and D-Link Systems Inc. The driver relies upon GPL-ed
+ source from D-Link Systems Inc. and from Russel Nelson at
+ Crynwr Software <nelson@crynwr.com>.
+
+ Additional input also from:
+ Donald Becker <becker@super.org>, Alan Cox <A.Cox@swansea.ac.uk>
+ and Fred N. van Kempen <waltje@uWalt.NL.Mugnet.ORG>
+
+ DE-600 alpha release primary victim^H^H^H^H^H^Htester:
+ - Erik Proper <erikp@cs.kun.nl>.
+ Good input also from several users, most notably
+ - Mark Burton <markb@ordern.demon.co.uk>.
+
+ DE-620 alpha release victims^H^H^H^H^H^H^Htesters:
+ - J. Joshua Kopper <kopper@rtsg.mot.com>
+ - Olav Kvittem <Olav.Kvittem@uninett.no>
+ - Germano Caronni <caronni@nessie.cs.id.ethz.ch>
+ - Jeremy Fitzhardinge <jeremy@suite.sw.oz.au>
+
+
+ Happy hacking!
+
+ Bjorn Ekwall == bj0rn@blox.se
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/NAPI_HOWTO.txt b/Documentation/networking/NAPI_HOWTO.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..54376e8249c1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/NAPI_HOWTO.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,766 @@
+HISTORY:
+February 16/2002 -- revision 0.2.1:
+COR typo corrected
+February 10/2002 -- revision 0.2:
+some spell checking ;->
+January 12/2002 -- revision 0.1
+This is still work in progress so may change.
+To keep up to date please watch this space.
+
+Introduction to NAPI
+====================
+
+NAPI is a proven (www.cyberus.ca/~hadi/usenix-paper.tgz) technique
+to improve network performance on Linux. For more details please
+read that paper.
+NAPI provides a "inherent mitigation" which is bound by system capacity
+as can be seen from the following data collected by Robert on Gigabit
+ethernet (e1000):
+
+ Psize Ipps Tput Rxint Txint Done Ndone
+ ---------------------------------------------------------------
+ 60 890000 409362 17 27622 7 6823
+ 128 758150 464364 21 9301 10 7738
+ 256 445632 774646 42 15507 21 12906
+ 512 232666 994445 241292 19147 241192 1062
+ 1024 119061 1000003 872519 19258 872511 0
+ 1440 85193 1000003 946576 19505 946569 0
+
+
+Legend:
+"Ipps" stands for input packets per second.
+"Tput" == packets out of total 1M that made it out.
+"txint" == transmit completion interrupts seen
+"Done" == The number of times that the poll() managed to pull all
+packets out of the rx ring. Note from this that the lower the
+load the more we could clean up the rxring
+"Ndone" == is the converse of "Done". Note again, that the higher
+the load the more times we couldnt clean up the rxring.
+
+Observe that:
+when the NIC receives 890Kpackets/sec only 17 rx interrupts are generated.
+The system cant handle the processing at 1 interrupt/packet at that load level.
+At lower rates on the other hand, rx interrupts go up and therefore the
+interrupt/packet ratio goes up (as observable from that table). So there is
+possibility that under low enough input, you get one poll call for each
+input packet caused by a single interrupt each time. And if the system
+cant handle interrupt per packet ratio of 1, then it will just have to
+chug along ....
+
+
+0) Prerequisites:
+==================
+A driver MAY continue using the old 2.4 technique for interfacing
+to the network stack and not benefit from the NAPI changes.
+NAPI additions to the kernel do not break backward compatibility.
+NAPI, however, requires the following features to be available:
+
+A) DMA ring or enough RAM to store packets in software devices.
+
+B) Ability to turn off interrupts or maybe events that send packets up
+the stack.
+
+NAPI processes packet events in what is known as dev->poll() method.
+Typically, only packet receive events are processed in dev->poll().
+The rest of the events MAY be processed by the regular interrupt handler
+to reduce processing latency (justified also because there are not that
+many of them).
+Note, however, NAPI does not enforce that dev->poll() only processes
+receive events.
+Tests with the tulip driver indicated slightly increased latency if
+all of the interrupt handler is moved to dev->poll(). Also MII handling
+gets a little trickier.
+The example used in this document is to move the receive processing only
+to dev->poll(); this is shown with the patch for the tulip driver.
+For an example of code that moves all the interrupt driver to
+dev->poll() look at the ported e1000 code.
+
+There are caveats that might force you to go with moving everything to
+dev->poll(). Different NICs work differently depending on their status/event
+acknowledgement setup.
+There are two types of event register ACK mechanisms.
+ I) what is known as Clear-on-read (COR).
+ when you read the status/event register, it clears everything!
+ The natsemi and sunbmac NICs are known to do this.
+ In this case your only choice is to move all to dev->poll()
+
+ II) Clear-on-write (COW)
+ i) you clear the status by writing a 1 in the bit-location you want.
+ These are the majority of the NICs and work the best with NAPI.
+ Put only receive events in dev->poll(); leave the rest in
+ the old interrupt handler.
+ ii) whatever you write in the status register clears every thing ;->
+ Cant seem to find any supported by Linux which do this. If
+ someone knows such a chip email us please.
+ Move all to dev->poll()
+
+C) Ability to detect new work correctly.
+NAPI works by shutting down event interrupts when theres work and
+turning them on when theres none.
+New packets might show up in the small window while interrupts were being
+re-enabled (refer to appendix 2). A packet might sneak in during the period
+we are enabling interrupts. We only get to know about such a packet when the
+next new packet arrives and generates an interrupt.
+Essentially, there is a small window of opportunity for a race condition
+which for clarity we'll refer to as the "rotting packet".
+
+This is a very important topic and appendix 2 is dedicated for more
+discussion.
+
+Locking rules and environmental guarantees
+==========================================
+
+-Guarantee: Only one CPU at any time can call dev->poll(); this is because
+only one CPU can pick the initial interrupt and hence the initial
+netif_rx_schedule(dev);
+- The core layer invokes devices to send packets in a round robin format.
+This implies receive is totaly lockless because of the guarantee only that
+one CPU is executing it.
+- contention can only be the result of some other CPU accessing the rx
+ring. This happens only in close() and suspend() (when these methods
+try to clean the rx ring);
+****guarantee: driver authors need not worry about this; synchronization
+is taken care for them by the top net layer.
+-local interrupts are enabled (if you dont move all to dev->poll()). For
+example link/MII and txcomplete continue functioning just same old way.
+This improves the latency of processing these events. It is also assumed that
+the receive interrupt is the largest cause of noise. Note this might not
+always be true.
+[according to Manfred Spraul, the winbond insists on sending one
+txmitcomplete interrupt for each packet (although this can be mitigated)].
+For these broken drivers, move all to dev->poll().
+
+For the rest of this text, we'll assume that dev->poll() only
+processes receive events.
+
+new methods introduce by NAPI
+=============================
+
+a) netif_rx_schedule(dev)
+Called by an IRQ handler to schedule a poll for device
+
+b) netif_rx_schedule_prep(dev)
+puts the device in a state which allows for it to be added to the
+CPU polling list if it is up and running. You can look at this as
+the first half of netif_rx_schedule(dev) above; the second half
+being c) below.
+
+c) __netif_rx_schedule(dev)
+Add device to the poll list for this CPU; assuming that _prep above
+has already been called and returned 1.
+
+d) netif_rx_reschedule(dev, undo)
+Called to reschedule polling for device specifically for some
+deficient hardware. Read Appendix 2 for more details.
+
+e) netif_rx_complete(dev)
+
+Remove interface from the CPU poll list: it must be in the poll list
+on current cpu. This primitive is called by dev->poll(), when
+it completes its work. The device cannot be out of poll list at this
+call, if it is then clearly it is a BUG(). You'll know ;->
+
+All these above nethods are used below. So keep reading for clarity.
+
+Device driver changes to be made when porting NAPI
+==================================================
+
+Below we describe what kind of changes are required for NAPI to work.
+
+1) introduction of dev->poll() method
+=====================================
+
+This is the method that is invoked by the network core when it requests
+for new packets from the driver. A driver is allowed to send upto
+dev->quota packets by the current CPU before yielding to the network
+subsystem (so other devices can also get opportunity to send to the stack).
+
+dev->poll() prototype looks as follows:
+int my_poll(struct net_device *dev, int *budget)
+
+budget is the remaining number of packets the network subsystem on the
+current CPU can send up the stack before yielding to other system tasks.
+*Each driver is responsible for decrementing budget by the total number of
+packets sent.
+ Total number of packets cannot exceed dev->quota.
+
+dev->poll() method is invoked by the top layer, the driver just sends if it
+can to the stack the packet quantity requested.
+
+more on dev->poll() below after the interrupt changes are explained.
+
+2) registering dev->poll() method
+===================================
+
+dev->poll should be set in the dev->probe() method.
+e.g:
+dev->open = my_open;
+.
+.
+/* two new additions */
+/* first register my poll method */
+dev->poll = my_poll;
+/* next register my weight/quanta; can be overridden in /proc */
+dev->weight = 16;
+.
+.
+dev->stop = my_close;
+
+
+
+3) scheduling dev->poll()
+=============================
+This involves modifying the interrupt handler and the code
+path which takes the packet off the NIC and sends them to the
+stack.
+
+it's important at this point to introduce the classical D Becker
+interrupt processor:
+
+------------------
+static irqreturn_t
+netdevice_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+
+ struct net_device *dev = (struct net_device *)dev_instance;
+ struct my_private *tp = (struct my_private *)dev->priv;
+
+ int work_count = my_work_count;
+ status = read_interrupt_status_reg();
+ if (status == 0)
+ return IRQ_NONE; /* Shared IRQ: not us */
+ if (status == 0xffff)
+ return IRQ_HANDLED; /* Hot unplug */
+ if (status & error)
+ do_some_error_handling()
+
+ do {
+ acknowledge_ints_ASAP();
+
+ if (status & link_interrupt) {
+ spin_lock(&tp->link_lock);
+ do_some_link_stat_stuff();
+ spin_lock(&tp->link_lock);
+ }
+
+ if (status & rx_interrupt) {
+ receive_packets(dev);
+ }
+
+ if (status & rx_nobufs) {
+ make_rx_buffs_avail();
+ }
+
+ if (status & tx_related) {
+ spin_lock(&tp->lock);
+ tx_ring_free(dev);
+ if (tx_died)
+ restart_tx();
+ spin_unlock(&tp->lock);
+ }
+
+ status = read_interrupt_status_reg();
+
+ } while (!(status & error) || more_work_to_be_done);
+ return IRQ_HANDLED;
+}
+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+We now change this to what is shown below to NAPI-enable it:
+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+static irqreturn_t
+netdevice_interrupt(int irq, void *dev_id, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ struct net_device *dev = (struct net_device *)dev_instance;
+ struct my_private *tp = (struct my_private *)dev->priv;
+
+ status = read_interrupt_status_reg();
+ if (status == 0)
+ return IRQ_NONE; /* Shared IRQ: not us */
+ if (status == 0xffff)
+ return IRQ_HANDLED; /* Hot unplug */
+ if (status & error)
+ do_some_error_handling();
+
+ do {
+/************************ start note *********************************/
+ acknowledge_ints_ASAP(); // dont ack rx and rxnobuff here
+/************************ end note *********************************/
+
+ if (status & link_interrupt) {
+ spin_lock(&tp->link_lock);
+ do_some_link_stat_stuff();
+ spin_unlock(&tp->link_lock);
+ }
+/************************ start note *********************************/
+ if (status & rx_interrupt || (status & rx_nobuffs)) {
+ if (netif_rx_schedule_prep(dev)) {
+
+ /* disable interrupts caused
+ * by arriving packets */
+ disable_rx_and_rxnobuff_ints();
+ /* tell system we have work to be done. */
+ __netif_rx_schedule(dev);
+ } else {
+ printk("driver bug! interrupt while in poll\n");
+ /* FIX by disabling interrupts */
+ disable_rx_and_rxnobuff_ints();
+ }
+ }
+/************************ end note note *********************************/
+
+ if (status & tx_related) {
+ spin_lock(&tp->lock);
+ tx_ring_free(dev);
+
+ if (tx_died)
+ restart_tx();
+ spin_unlock(&tp->lock);
+ }
+
+ status = read_interrupt_status_reg();
+
+/************************ start note *********************************/
+ } while (!(status & error) || more_work_to_be_done(status));
+/************************ end note note *********************************/
+ return IRQ_HANDLED;
+}
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+We note several things from above:
+
+I) Any interrupt source which is caused by arriving packets is now
+turned off when it occurs. Depending on the hardware, there could be
+several reasons that arriving packets would cause interrupts; these are the
+interrupt sources we wish to avoid. The two common ones are a) a packet
+arriving (rxint) b) a packet arriving and finding no DMA buffers available
+(rxnobuff) .
+This means also acknowledge_ints_ASAP() will not clear the status
+register for those two items above; clearing is done in the place where
+proper work is done within NAPI; at the poll() and refill_rx_ring()
+discussed further below.
+netif_rx_schedule_prep() returns 1 if device is in running state and
+gets successfully added to the core poll list. If we get a zero value
+we can _almost_ assume are already added to the list (instead of not running.
+Logic based on the fact that you shouldn't get interrupt if not running)
+We rectify this by disabling rx and rxnobuf interrupts.
+
+II) that receive_packets(dev) and make_rx_buffs_avail() may have disappeared.
+These functionalities are still around actually......
+
+infact, receive_packets(dev) is very close to my_poll() and
+make_rx_buffs_avail() is invoked from my_poll()
+
+4) converting receive_packets() to dev->poll()
+===============================================
+
+We need to convert the classical D Becker receive_packets(dev) to my_poll()
+
+First the typical receive_packets() below:
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+/* this is called by interrupt handler */
+static void receive_packets (struct net_device *dev)
+{
+
+ struct my_private *tp = (struct my_private *)dev->priv;
+ rx_ring = tp->rx_ring;
+ cur_rx = tp->cur_rx;
+ int entry = cur_rx % RX_RING_SIZE;
+ int received = 0;
+ int rx_work_limit = tp->dirty_rx + RX_RING_SIZE - tp->cur_rx;
+
+ while (rx_ring_not_empty) {
+ u32 rx_status;
+ unsigned int rx_size;
+ unsigned int pkt_size;
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ /* read size+status of next frame from DMA ring buffer */
+ /* the number 16 and 4 are just examples */
+ rx_status = le32_to_cpu (*(u32 *) (rx_ring + ring_offset));
+ rx_size = rx_status >> 16;
+ pkt_size = rx_size - 4;
+
+ /* process errors */
+ if ((rx_size > (MAX_ETH_FRAME_SIZE+4)) ||
+ (!(rx_status & RxStatusOK))) {
+ netdrv_rx_err (rx_status, dev, tp, ioaddr);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (--rx_work_limit < 0)
+ break;
+
+ /* grab a skb */
+ skb = dev_alloc_skb (pkt_size + 2);
+ if (skb) {
+ .
+ .
+ netif_rx (skb);
+ .
+ .
+ } else { /* OOM */
+ /*seems very driver specific ... some just pass
+ whatever is on the ring already. */
+ }
+
+ /* move to the next skb on the ring */
+ entry = (++tp->cur_rx) % RX_RING_SIZE;
+ received++ ;
+
+ }
+
+ /* store current ring pointer state */
+ tp->cur_rx = cur_rx;
+
+ /* Refill the Rx ring buffers if they are needed */
+ refill_rx_ring();
+ .
+ .
+
+}
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+We change it to a new one below; note the additional parameter in
+the call.
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+/* this is called by the network core */
+static int my_poll (struct net_device *dev, int *budget)
+{
+
+ struct my_private *tp = (struct my_private *)dev->priv;
+ rx_ring = tp->rx_ring;
+ cur_rx = tp->cur_rx;
+ int entry = cur_rx % RX_BUF_LEN;
+ /* maximum packets to send to the stack */
+/************************ note note *********************************/
+ int rx_work_limit = dev->quota;
+
+/************************ end note note *********************************/
+ do { // outer beginning loop starts here
+
+ clear_rx_status_register_bit();
+
+ while (rx_ring_not_empty) {
+ u32 rx_status;
+ unsigned int rx_size;
+ unsigned int pkt_size;
+ struct sk_buff *skb;
+ /* read size+status of next frame from DMA ring buffer */
+ /* the number 16 and 4 are just examples */
+ rx_status = le32_to_cpu (*(u32 *) (rx_ring + ring_offset));
+ rx_size = rx_status >> 16;
+ pkt_size = rx_size - 4;
+
+ /* process errors */
+ if ((rx_size > (MAX_ETH_FRAME_SIZE+4)) ||
+ (!(rx_status & RxStatusOK))) {
+ netdrv_rx_err (rx_status, dev, tp, ioaddr);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+/************************ note note *********************************/
+ if (--rx_work_limit < 0) { /* we got packets, but no quota */
+ /* store current ring pointer state */
+ tp->cur_rx = cur_rx;
+
+ /* Refill the Rx ring buffers if they are needed */
+ refill_rx_ring(dev);
+ goto not_done;
+ }
+/********************** end note **********************************/
+
+ /* grab a skb */
+ skb = dev_alloc_skb (pkt_size + 2);
+ if (skb) {
+ .
+ .
+/************************ note note *********************************/
+ netif_receive_skb (skb);
+/********************** end note **********************************/
+ .
+ .
+ } else { /* OOM */
+ /*seems very driver specific ... common is just pass
+ whatever is on the ring already. */
+ }
+
+ /* move to the next skb on the ring */
+ entry = (++tp->cur_rx) % RX_RING_SIZE;
+ received++ ;
+
+ }
+
+ /* store current ring pointer state */
+ tp->cur_rx = cur_rx;
+
+ /* Refill the Rx ring buffers if they are needed */
+ refill_rx_ring(dev);
+
+ /* no packets on ring; but new ones can arrive since we last
+ checked */
+ status = read_interrupt_status_reg();
+ if (rx status is not set) {
+ /* If something arrives in this narrow window,
+ an interrupt will be generated */
+ goto done;
+ }
+ /* done! at least thats what it looks like ;->
+ if new packets came in after our last check on status bits
+ they'll be caught by the while check and we go back and clear them
+ since we havent exceeded our quota */
+ } while (rx_status_is_set);
+
+done:
+
+/************************ note note *********************************/
+ dev->quota -= received;
+ *budget -= received;
+
+ /* If RX ring is not full we are out of memory. */
+ if (tp->rx_buffers[tp->dirty_rx % RX_RING_SIZE].skb == NULL)
+ goto oom;
+
+ /* we are happy/done, no more packets on ring; put us back
+ to where we can start processing interrupts again */
+ netif_rx_complete(dev);
+ enable_rx_and_rxnobuf_ints();
+
+ /* The last op happens after poll completion. Which means the following:
+ * 1. it can race with disabling irqs in irq handler (which are done to
+ * schedule polls)
+ * 2. it can race with dis/enabling irqs in other poll threads
+ * 3. if an irq raised after the begining of the outer beginning
+ * loop(marked in the code above), it will be immediately
+ * triggered here.
+ *
+ * Summarizing: the logic may results in some redundant irqs both
+ * due to races in masking and due to too late acking of already
+ * processed irqs. The good news: no events are ever lost.
+ */
+
+ return 0; /* done */
+
+not_done:
+ if (tp->cur_rx - tp->dirty_rx > RX_RING_SIZE/2 ||
+ tp->rx_buffers[tp->dirty_rx % RX_RING_SIZE].skb == NULL)
+ refill_rx_ring(dev);
+
+ if (!received) {
+ printk("received==0\n");
+ received = 1;
+ }
+ dev->quota -= received;
+ *budget -= received;
+ return 1; /* not_done */
+
+oom:
+ /* Start timer, stop polling, but do not enable rx interrupts. */
+ start_poll_timer(dev);
+ return 0; /* we'll take it from here so tell core "done"*/
+
+/************************ End note note *********************************/
+}
+-------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+From above we note that:
+0) rx_work_limit = dev->quota
+1) refill_rx_ring() is in charge of clearing the bit for rxnobuff when
+it does the work.
+2) We have a done and not_done state.
+3) instead of netif_rx() we call netif_receive_skb() to pass the skb.
+4) we have a new way of handling oom condition
+5) A new outer for (;;) loop has been added. This serves the purpose of
+ensuring that if a new packet has come in, after we are all set and done,
+and we have not exceeded our quota that we continue sending packets up.
+
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------
+Poll timer code will need to do the following:
+
+a)
+
+ if (tp->cur_rx - tp->dirty_rx > RX_RING_SIZE/2 ||
+ tp->rx_buffers[tp->dirty_rx % RX_RING_SIZE].skb == NULL)
+ refill_rx_ring(dev);
+
+ /* If RX ring is not full we are still out of memory.
+ Restart the timer again. Else we re-add ourselves
+ to the master poll list.
+ */
+
+ if (tp->rx_buffers[tp->dirty_rx % RX_RING_SIZE].skb == NULL)
+ restart_timer();
+
+ else netif_rx_schedule(dev); /* we are back on the poll list */
+
+5) dev->close() and dev->suspend() issues
+==========================================
+The driver writter neednt worry about this. The top net layer takes
+care of it.
+
+6) Adding new Stats to /proc
+=============================
+In order to debug some of the new features, we introduce new stats
+that need to be collected.
+TODO: Fill this later.
+
+APPENDIX 1: discussion on using ethernet HW FC
+==============================================
+Most chips with FC only send a pause packet when they run out of Rx buffers.
+Since packets are pulled off the DMA ring by a softirq in NAPI,
+if the system is slow in grabbing them and we have a high input
+rate (faster than the system's capacity to remove packets), then theoretically
+there will only be one rx interrupt for all packets during a given packetstorm.
+Under low load, we might have a single interrupt per packet.
+FC should be programmed to apply in the case when the system cant pull out
+packets fast enough i.e send a pause only when you run out of rx buffers.
+Note FC in itself is a good solution but we have found it to not be
+much of a commodity feature (both in NICs and switches) and hence falls
+under the same category as using NIC based mitigation. Also experiments
+indicate that its much harder to resolve the resource allocation
+issue (aka lazy receiving that NAPI offers) and hence quantify its usefullness
+proved harder. In any case, FC works even better with NAPI but is not
+necessary.
+
+
+APPENDIX 2: the "rotting packet" race-window avoidance scheme
+=============================================================
+
+There are two types of associations seen here
+
+1) status/int which honors level triggered IRQ
+
+If a status bit for receive or rxnobuff is set and the corresponding
+interrupt-enable bit is not on, then no interrupts will be generated. However,
+as soon as the "interrupt-enable" bit is unmasked, an immediate interrupt is
+generated. [assuming the status bit was not turned off].
+Generally the concept of level triggered IRQs in association with a status and
+interrupt-enable CSR register set is used to avoid the race.
+
+If we take the example of the tulip:
+"pending work" is indicated by the status bit(CSR5 in tulip).
+the corresponding interrupt bit (CSR7 in tulip) might be turned off (but
+the CSR5 will continue to be turned on with new packet arrivals even if
+we clear it the first time)
+Very important is the fact that if we turn on the interrupt bit on when
+status is set that an immediate irq is triggered.
+
+If we cleared the rx ring and proclaimed there was "no more work
+to be done" and then went on to do a few other things; then when we enable
+interrupts, there is a possibility that a new packet might sneak in during
+this phase. It helps to look at the pseudo code for the tulip poll
+routine:
+
+--------------------------
+ do {
+ ACK;
+ while (ring_is_not_empty()) {
+ work-work-work
+ if quota is exceeded: exit, no touching irq status/mask
+ }
+ /* No packets, but new can arrive while we are doing this*/
+ CSR5 := read
+ if (CSR5 is not set) {
+ /* If something arrives in this narrow window here,
+ * where the comments are ;-> irq will be generated */
+ unmask irqs;
+ exit poll;
+ }
+ } while (rx_status_is_set);
+------------------------
+
+CSR5 bit of interest is only the rx status.
+If you look at the last if statement:
+you just finished grabbing all the packets from the rx ring .. you check if
+status bit says theres more packets just in ... it says none; you then
+enable rx interrupts again; if a new packet just came in during this check,
+we are counting that CSR5 will be set in that small window of opportunity
+and that by re-enabling interrupts, we would actually triger an interrupt
+to register the new packet for processing.
+
+[The above description nay be very verbose, if you have better wording
+that will make this more understandable, please suggest it.]
+
+2) non-capable hardware
+
+These do not generally respect level triggered IRQs. Normally,
+irqs may be lost while being masked and the only way to leave poll is to do
+a double check for new input after netif_rx_complete() is invoked
+and re-enable polling (after seeing this new input).
+
+Sample code:
+
+---------
+ .
+ .
+restart_poll:
+ while (ring_is_not_empty()) {
+ work-work-work
+ if quota is exceeded: exit, not touching irq status/mask
+ }
+ .
+ .
+ .
+ enable_rx_interrupts()
+ netif_rx_complete(dev);
+ if (ring_has_new_packet() && netif_rx_reschedule(dev, received)) {
+ disable_rx_and_rxnobufs()
+ goto restart_poll
+ } while (rx_status_is_set);
+---------
+
+Basically netif_rx_complete() removes us from the poll list, but because a
+new packet which will never be caught due to the possibility of a race
+might come in, we attempt to re-add ourselves to the poll list.
+
+
+
+
+APPENDIX 3: Scheduling issues.
+==============================
+As seen NAPI moves processing to softirq level. Linux uses the ksoftirqd as the
+general solution to schedule softirq's to run before next interrupt and by putting
+them under scheduler control. Also this prevents consecutive softirq's from
+monopolize the CPU. This also have the effect that the priority of ksoftirq needs
+to be considered when running very CPU-intensive applications and networking to
+get the proper balance of softirq/user balance. Increasing ksoftirq priority to 0
+(eventually more) is reported cure problems with low network performance at high
+CPU load.
+
+Most used processes in a GIGE router:
+USER PID %CPU %MEM SIZE RSS TTY STAT START TIME COMMAND
+root 3 0.2 0.0 0 0 ? RWN Aug 15 602:00 (ksoftirqd_CPU0)
+root 232 0.0 7.9 41400 40884 ? S Aug 15 74:12 gated
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+relevant sites:
+==================
+ftp://robur.slu.se/pub/Linux/net-development/NAPI/
+
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------
+TODO: Write net-skeleton.c driver.
+-------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Authors:
+========
+Alexey Kuznetsov <kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru>
+Jamal Hadi Salim <hadi@cyberus.ca>
+Robert Olsson <Robert.Olsson@data.slu.se>
+
+Acknowledgements:
+================
+People who made this document better:
+
+Lennert Buytenhek <buytenh@gnu.org>
+Andrew Morton <akpm@zip.com.au>
+Manfred Spraul <manfred@colorfullife.com>
+Donald Becker <becker@scyld.com>
+Jeff Garzik <jgarzik@pobox.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt b/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ad7e3f7c3bbf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/PLIP.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,215 @@
+PLIP: The Parallel Line Internet Protocol Device
+
+Donald Becker (becker@super.org)
+I.D.A. Supercomputing Research Center, Bowie MD 20715
+
+At some point T. Thorn will probably contribute text,
+Tommy Thorn (tthorn@daimi.aau.dk)
+
+PLIP Introduction
+-----------------
+
+This document describes the parallel port packet pusher for Net/LGX.
+This device interface allows a point-to-point connection between two
+parallel ports to appear as a IP network interface.
+
+What is PLIP?
+=============
+
+PLIP is Parallel Line IP, that is, the transportation of IP packages
+over a parallel port. In the case of a PC, the obvious choice is the
+printer port. PLIP is a non-standard, but [can use] uses the standard
+LapLink null-printer cable [can also work in turbo mode, with a PLIP
+cable]. [The protocol used to pack IP packages, is a simple one
+initiated by Crynwr.]
+
+Advantages of PLIP
+==================
+
+It's cheap, it's available everywhere, and it's easy.
+
+The PLIP cable is all that's needed to connect two Linux boxes, and it
+can be built for very few bucks.
+
+Connecting two Linux boxes takes only a second's decision and a few
+minutes' work, no need to search for a [supported] netcard. This might
+even be especially important in the case of notebooks, where netcards
+are not easily available.
+
+Not requiring a netcard also means that apart from connecting the
+cables, everything else is software configuration [which in principle
+could be made very easy.]
+
+Disadvantages of PLIP
+=====================
+
+Doesn't work over a modem, like SLIP and PPP. Limited range, 15 m.
+Can only be used to connect three (?) Linux boxes. Doesn't connect to
+an existing Ethernet. Isn't standard (not even de facto standard, like
+SLIP).
+
+Performance
+===========
+
+PLIP easily outperforms Ethernet cards....(ups, I was dreaming, but
+it *is* getting late. EOB)
+
+PLIP driver details
+-------------------
+
+The Linux PLIP driver is an implementation of the original Crynwr protocol,
+that uses the parallel port subsystem of the kernel in order to properly
+share parallel ports between PLIP and other services.
+
+IRQs and trigger timeouts
+=========================
+
+When a parallel port used for a PLIP driver has an IRQ configured to it, the
+PLIP driver is signaled whenever data is sent to it via the cable, such that
+when no data is available, the driver isn't being used.
+
+However, on some machines it is hard, if not impossible, to configure an IRQ
+to a certain parallel port, mainly because it is used by some other device.
+On these machines, the PLIP driver can be used in IRQ-less mode, where
+the PLIP driver would constantly poll the parallel port for data waiting,
+and if such data is available, process it. This mode is less efficient than
+the IRQ mode, because the driver has to check the parallel port many times
+per second, even when no data at all is sent. Some rough measurements
+indicate that there isn't a noticeable performance drop when using IRQ-less
+mode as compared to IRQ mode as far as the data transfer speed is involved.
+There is a performance drop on the machine hosting the driver.
+
+When the PLIP driver is used in IRQ mode, the timeout used for triggering a
+data transfer (the maximal time the PLIP driver would allow the other side
+before announcing a timeout, when trying to handshake a transfer of some
+data) is, by default, 500usec. As IRQ delivery is more or less immediate,
+this timeout is quite sufficient.
+
+When in IRQ-less mode, the PLIP driver polls the parallel port HZ times
+per second (where HZ is typically 100 on most platforms, and 1024 on an
+Alpha, as of this writing). Between two such polls, there are 10^6/HZ usecs.
+On an i386, for example, 10^6/100 = 10000usec. It is easy to see that it is
+quite possible for the trigger timeout to expire between two such polls, as
+the timeout is only 500usec long. As a result, it is required to change the
+trigger timeout on the *other* side of a PLIP connection, to about
+10^6/HZ usecs. If both sides of a PLIP connection are used in IRQ-less mode,
+this timeout is required on both sides.
+
+It appears that in practice, the trigger timeout can be shorter than in the
+above calculation. It isn't an important issue, unless the wire is faulty,
+in which case a long timeout would stall the machine when, for whatever
+reason, bits are dropped.
+
+A utility that can perform this change in Linux is plipconfig, which is part
+of the net-tools package (its location can be found in the
+Documentation/Changes file). An example command would be
+'plipconfig plipX trigger 10000', where plipX is the appropriate
+PLIP device.
+
+PLIP hardware interconnection
+-----------------------------
+
+PLIP uses several different data transfer methods. The first (and the
+only one implemented in the early version of the code) uses a standard
+printer "null" cable to transfer data four bits at a time using
+data bit outputs connected to status bit inputs.
+
+The second data transfer method relies on both machines having
+bi-directional parallel ports, rather than output-only ``printer''
+ports. This allows byte-wide transfers and avoids reconstructing
+nibbles into bytes, leading to much faster transfers.
+
+Parallel Transfer Mode 0 Cable
+==============================
+
+The cable for the first transfer mode is a standard
+printer "null" cable which transfers data four bits at a time using
+data bit outputs of the first port (machine T) connected to the
+status bit inputs of the second port (machine R). There are five
+status inputs, and they are used as four data inputs and a clock (data
+strobe) input, arranged so that the data input bits appear as contiguous
+bits with standard status register implementation.
+
+A cable that implements this protocol is available commercially as a
+"Null Printer" or "Turbo Laplink" cable. It can be constructed with
+two DB-25 male connectors symmetrically connected as follows:
+
+ STROBE output 1*
+ D0->ERROR 2 - 15 15 - 2
+ D1->SLCT 3 - 13 13 - 3
+ D2->PAPOUT 4 - 12 12 - 4
+ D3->ACK 5 - 10 10 - 5
+ D4->BUSY 6 - 11 11 - 6
+ D5,D6,D7 are 7*, 8*, 9*
+ AUTOFD output 14*
+ INIT output 16*
+ SLCTIN 17 - 17
+ extra grounds are 18*,19*,20*,21*,22*,23*,24*
+ GROUND 25 - 25
+* Do not connect these pins on either end
+
+If the cable you are using has a metallic shield it should be
+connected to the metallic DB-25 shell at one end only.
+
+Parallel Transfer Mode 1
+========================
+
+The second data transfer method relies on both machines having
+bi-directional parallel ports, rather than output-only ``printer''
+ports. This allows byte-wide transfers, and avoids reconstructing
+nibbles into bytes. This cable should not be used on unidirectional
+``printer'' (as opposed to ``parallel'') ports or when the machine
+isn't configured for PLIP, as it will result in output driver
+conflicts and the (unlikely) possibility of damage.
+
+The cable for this transfer mode should be constructed as follows:
+
+ STROBE->BUSY 1 - 11
+ D0->D0 2 - 2
+ D1->D1 3 - 3
+ D2->D2 4 - 4
+ D3->D3 5 - 5
+ D4->D4 6 - 6
+ D5->D5 7 - 7
+ D6->D6 8 - 8
+ D7->D7 9 - 9
+ INIT -> ACK 16 - 10
+ AUTOFD->PAPOUT 14 - 12
+ SLCT->SLCTIN 13 - 17
+ GND->ERROR 18 - 15
+ extra grounds are 19*,20*,21*,22*,23*,24*
+ GROUND 25 - 25
+* Do not connect these pins on either end
+
+Once again, if the cable you are using has a metallic shield it should
+be connected to the metallic DB-25 shell at one end only.
+
+PLIP Mode 0 transfer protocol
+=============================
+
+The PLIP driver is compatible with the "Crynwr" parallel port transfer
+standard in Mode 0. That standard specifies the following protocol:
+
+ send header nibble '0x8'
+ count-low octet
+ count-high octet
+ ... data octets
+ checksum octet
+
+Each octet is sent as
+ <wait for rx. '0x1?'> <send 0x10+(octet&0x0F)>
+ <wait for rx. '0x0?'> <send 0x00+((octet>>4)&0x0F)>
+
+To start a transfer the transmitting machine outputs a nibble 0x08.
+That raises the ACK line, triggering an interrupt in the receiving
+machine. The receiving machine disables interrupts and raises its own ACK
+line.
+
+Restated:
+
+(OUT is bit 0-4, OUT.j is bit j from OUT. IN likewise)
+Send_Byte:
+ OUT := low nibble, OUT.4 := 1
+ WAIT FOR IN.4 = 1
+ OUT := high nibble, OUT.4 := 0
+ WAIT FOR IN.4 = 0
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/README.sb1000 b/Documentation/networking/README.sb1000
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f82d42584e98
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/README.sb1000
@@ -0,0 +1,207 @@
+sb1000 is a module network device driver for the General Instrument (also known
+as NextLevel) SURFboard1000 internal cable modem board. This is an ISA card
+which is used by a number of cable TV companies to provide cable modem access.
+It's a one-way downstream-only cable modem, meaning that your upstream net link
+is provided by your regular phone modem.
+
+This driver was written by Franco Venturi <fventuri@mediaone.net>. He deserves
+a great deal of thanks for this wonderful piece of code!
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Support for this device is now a part of the standard Linux kernel. The
+driver source code file is drivers/net/sb1000.c. In addition to this
+you will need:
+
+1.) The "cmconfig" program. This is a utility which supplements "ifconfig"
+to configure the cable modem and network interface (usually called "cm0");
+and
+
+2.) Several PPP scripts which live in /etc/ppp to make connecting via your
+cable modem easy.
+
+ These utilities can be obtained from:
+
+ http://www.jacksonville.net/~fventuri/
+
+ in Franco's original source code distribution .tar.gz file. Support for
+ the sb1000 driver can be found at:
+
+ http://home.adelphia.net/~siglercm/sb1000.html
+ http://linuxpower.cx/~cable/
+
+ along with these utilities.
+
+3.) The standard isapnp tools. These are necessary to configure your SB1000
+card at boot time (or afterwards by hand) since it's a PnP card.
+
+ If you don't have these installed as a standard part of your Linux
+ distribution, you can find them at:
+
+ http://www.roestock.demon.co.uk/isapnptools/
+
+ or check your Linux distribution binary CD or their web site. For help with
+ isapnp, pnpdump, or /etc/isapnp.conf, go to:
+
+ http://www.roestock.demon.co.uk/isapnptools/isapnpfaq.html
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+To make the SB1000 card work, follow these steps:
+
+1.) Run `make config', or `make menuconfig', or `make xconfig', whichever
+you prefer, in the top kernel tree directory to set up your kernel
+configuration. Make sure to say "Y" to "Prompt for development drivers"
+and to say "M" to the sb1000 driver. Also say "Y" or "M" to all the standard
+networking questions to get TCP/IP and PPP networking support.
+
+2.) *BEFORE* you build the kernel, edit drivers/net/sb1000.c. Make sure
+to redefine the value of READ_DATA_PORT to match the I/O address used
+by isapnp to access your PnP cards. This is the value of READPORT in
+/etc/isapnp.conf or given by the output of pnpdump.
+
+3.) Build and install the kernel and modules as usual.
+
+4.) Boot your new kernel following the usual procedures.
+
+5.) Set up to configure the new SB1000 PnP card by capturing the output
+of "pnpdump" to a file and editing this file to set the correct I/O ports,
+IRQ, and DMA settings for all your PnP cards. Make sure none of the settings
+conflict with one another. Then test this configuration by running the
+"isapnp" command with your new config file as the input. Check for
+errors and fix as necessary. (As an aside, I use I/O ports 0x110 and
+0x310 and IRQ 11 for my SB1000 card and these work well for me. YMMV.)
+Then save the finished config file as /etc/isapnp.conf for proper configuration
+on subsequent reboots.
+
+6.) Download the original file sb1000-1.1.2.tar.gz from Franco's site or one of
+the others referenced above. As root, unpack it into a temporary directory and
+do a `make cmconfig' and then `install -c cmconfig /usr/local/sbin'. Don't do
+`make install' because it expects to find all the utilities built and ready for
+installation, not just cmconfig.
+
+7.) As root, copy all the files under the ppp/ subdirectory in Franco's
+tar file into /etc/ppp, being careful not to overwrite any files that are
+already in there. Then modify ppp@gi-on to set the correct login name,
+phone number, and frequency for the cable modem. Also edit pap-secrets
+to specify your login name and password and any site-specific information
+you need.
+
+8.) Be sure to modify /etc/ppp/firewall to use ipchains instead of
+the older ipfwadm commands from the 2.0.x kernels. There's a neat utility to
+convert ipfwadm commands to ipchains commands:
+
+ http://users.dhp.com/~whisper/ipfwadm2ipchains/
+
+You may also wish to modify the firewall script to implement a different
+firewalling scheme.
+
+9.) Start the PPP connection via the script /etc/ppp/ppp@gi-on. You must be
+root to do this. It's better to use a utility like sudo to execute
+frequently used commands like this with root permissions if possible. If you
+connect successfully the cable modem interface will come up and you'll see a
+driver message like this at the console:
+
+ cm0: sb1000 at (0x110,0x310), csn 1, S/N 0x2a0d16d8, IRQ 11.
+ sb1000.c:v1.1.2 6/01/98 (fventuri@mediaone.net)
+
+The "ifconfig" command should show two new interfaces, ppp0 and cm0.
+The command "cmconfig cm0" will give you information about the cable modem
+interface.
+
+10.) Try pinging a site via `ping -c 5 www.yahoo.com', for example. You should
+see packets received.
+
+11.) If you can't get site names (like www.yahoo.com) to resolve into
+IP addresses (like 204.71.200.67), be sure your /etc/resolv.conf file
+has no syntax errors and has the right nameserver IP addresses in it.
+If this doesn't help, try something like `ping -c 5 204.71.200.67' to
+see if the networking is running but the DNS resolution is where the
+problem lies.
+
+12.) If you still have problems, go to the support web sites mentioned above
+and read the information and documentation there.
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Common problems:
+
+1.) Packets go out on the ppp0 interface but don't come back on the cm0
+interface. It looks like I'm connected but I can't even ping any
+numerical IP addresses. (This happens predominantly on Debian systems due
+to a default boot-time configuration script.)
+
+Solution -- As root `echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/cm0/rp_filter' so it
+can share the same IP address as the ppp0 interface. Note that this
+command should probably be added to the /etc/ppp/cablemodem script
+*right*between* the "/sbin/ifconfig" and "/sbin/cmconfig" commands.
+You may need to do this to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/ppp0/rp_filter as well.
+If you do this to /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/default/rp_filter on each reboot
+(in rc.local or some such) then any interfaces can share the same IP
+addresses.
+
+2.) I get "unresolved symbol" error messages on executing `insmod sb1000.o'.
+
+Solution -- You probably have a non-matching kernel source tree and
+/usr/include/linux and /usr/include/asm header files. Make sure you
+install the correct versions of the header files in these two directories.
+Then rebuild and reinstall the kernel.
+
+3.) When isapnp runs it reports an error, and my SB1000 card isn't working.
+
+Solution -- There's a problem with later versions of isapnp using the "(CHECK)"
+option in the lines that allocate the two I/O addresses for the SB1000 card.
+This first popped up on RH 6.0. Delete "(CHECK)" for the SB1000 I/O addresses.
+Make sure they don't conflict with any other pieces of hardware first! Then
+rerun isapnp and go from there.
+
+4.) I can't execute the /etc/ppp/ppp@gi-on file.
+
+Solution -- As root do `chmod ug+x /etc/ppp/ppp@gi-on'.
+
+5.) The firewall script isn't working (with 2.2.x and higher kernels).
+
+Solution -- Use the ipfwadm2ipchains script referenced above to convert the
+/etc/ppp/firewall script from the deprecated ipfwadm commands to ipchains.
+
+6.) I'm getting *tons* of firewall deny messages in the /var/kern.log,
+/var/messages, and/or /var/syslog files, and they're filling up my /var
+partition!!!
+
+Solution -- First, tell your ISP that you're receiving DoS (Denial of Service)
+and/or portscanning (UDP connection attempts) attacks! Look over the deny
+messages to figure out what the attack is and where it's coming from. Next,
+edit /etc/ppp/cablemodem and make sure the ",nobroadcast" option is turned on
+to the "cmconfig" command (uncomment that line). If you're not receiving these
+denied packets on your broadcast interface (IP address xxx.yyy.zzz.255
+typically), then someone is attacking your machine in particular. Be careful
+out there....
+
+7.) Everything seems to work fine but my computer locks up after a while
+(and typically during a lengthy download through the cable modem)!
+
+Solution -- You may need to add a short delay in the driver to 'slow down' the
+SURFboard because your PC might not be able to keep up with the transfer rate
+of the SB1000. To do this, it's probably best to download Franco's
+sb1000-1.1.2.tar.gz archive and build and install sb1000.o manually. You'll
+want to edit the 'Makefile' and look for the 'SB1000_DELAY'
+define. Uncomment those 'CFLAGS' lines (and comment out the default ones)
+and try setting the delay to something like 60 microseconds with:
+'-DSB1000_DELAY=60'. Then do `make' and as root `make install' and try
+it out. If it still doesn't work or you like playing with the driver, you may
+try other numbers. Remember though that the higher the delay, the slower the
+driver (which slows down the rest of the PC too when it is actively
+used). Thanks to Ed Daiga for this tip!
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Credits: This README came from Franco Venturi's original README file which is
+still supplied with his driver .tar.gz archive. I and all other sb1000 users
+owe Franco a tremendous "Thank you!" Additional thanks goes to Carl Patten
+and Ralph Bonnell who are now managing the Linux SB1000 web site, and to
+the SB1000 users who reported and helped debug the common problems listed
+above.
+
+
+ Clemmitt Sigler
+ csigler@vt.edu
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/TODO b/Documentation/networking/TODO
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..66d36ff14bae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/TODO
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+To-do items for network drivers
+-------------------------------
+
+* Move ethernet crc routine to generic code
+
+* (for 2.5) Integrate Jamal Hadi Salim's netdev Rx polling API change
+
+* Audit all net drivers to make sure magic packet / wake-on-lan /
+ similar features are disabled in the driver by default.
+
+* Audit all net drivers to make sure the module always prints out a
+ version string when loaded as a module, but only prints a version
+ string when built into the kernel if a device is detected.
+
+* Add ETHTOOL_GDRVINFO ioctl support to all ethernet drivers.
+
+* dmfe PCI DMA is totally wrong and only works on x86
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/alias.txt b/Documentation/networking/alias.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cd12c2ff518a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/alias.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+
+IP-Aliasing:
+============
+
+IP-aliases are additional IP-addresses/masks hooked up to a base
+interface by adding a colon and a string when running ifconfig.
+This string is usually numeric, but this is not a must.
+
+IP-Aliases are avail if CONFIG_INET (`standard' IPv4 networking)
+is configured in the kernel.
+
+
+o Alias creation.
+ Alias creation is done by 'magic' interface naming: eg. to create a
+ 200.1.1.1 alias for eth0 ...
+
+ # ifconfig eth0:0 200.1.1.1 etc,etc....
+ ~~ -> request alias #0 creation (if not yet exists) for eth0
+
+ The corresponding route is also set up by this command.
+ Please note: The route always points to the base interface.
+
+
+o Alias deletion.
+ The alias is removed by shutting the alias down:
+
+ # ifconfig eth0:0 down
+ ~~~~~~~~~~ -> will delete alias
+
+
+o Alias (re-)configuring
+
+ Aliases are not real devices, but programs should be able to configure and
+ refer to them as usual (ifconfig, route, etc).
+
+
+o Relationship with main device
+
+ If the base device is shut down the added aliases will be deleted
+ too.
+
+
+Contact
+-------
+Please finger or e-mail me:
+ Juan Jose Ciarlante <jjciarla@raiz.uncu.edu.ar>
+
+Updated by Erik Schoenfelder <schoenfr@gaertner.DE>
+
+; local variables:
+; mode: indented-text
+; mode: auto-fill
+; end:
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/arcnet-hardware.txt b/Documentation/networking/arcnet-hardware.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..30a5f01403d3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/arcnet-hardware.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,3133 @@
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+1) This file is a supplement to arcnet.txt. Please read that for general
+ driver configuration help.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+2) This file is no longer Linux-specific. It should probably be moved out of
+ the kernel sources. Ideas?
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Because so many people (myself included) seem to have obtained ARCnet cards
+without manuals, this file contains a quick introduction to ARCnet hardware,
+some cabling tips, and a listing of all jumper settings I can find. Please
+e-mail apenwarr@worldvisions.ca with any settings for your particular card,
+or any other information you have!
+
+
+INTRODUCTION TO ARCNET
+----------------------
+
+ARCnet is a network type which works in a way similar to popular Ethernet
+networks but which is also different in some very important ways.
+
+First of all, you can get ARCnet cards in at least two speeds: 2.5 Mbps
+(slower than Ethernet) and 100 Mbps (faster than normal Ethernet). In fact,
+there are others as well, but these are less common. The different hardware
+types, as far as I'm aware, are not compatible and so you cannot wire a
+100 Mbps card to a 2.5 Mbps card, and so on. From what I hear, my driver does
+work with 100 Mbps cards, but I haven't been able to verify this myself,
+since I only have the 2.5 Mbps variety. It is probably not going to saturate
+your 100 Mbps card. Stop complaining. :)
+
+You also cannot connect an ARCnet card to any kind of Ethernet card and
+expect it to work.
+
+There are two "types" of ARCnet - STAR topology and BUS topology. This
+refers to how the cards are meant to be wired together. According to most
+available documentation, you can only connect STAR cards to STAR cards and
+BUS cards to BUS cards. That makes sense, right? Well, it's not quite
+true; see below under "Cabling."
+
+Once you get past these little stumbling blocks, ARCnet is actually quite a
+well-designed standard. It uses something called "modified token passing"
+which makes it completely incompatible with so-called "Token Ring" cards,
+but which makes transfers much more reliable than Ethernet does. In fact,
+ARCnet will guarantee that a packet arrives safely at the destination, and
+even if it can't possibly be delivered properly (ie. because of a cable
+break, or because the destination computer does not exist) it will at least
+tell the sender about it.
+
+Because of the carefully defined action of the "token", it will always make
+a pass around the "ring" within a maximum length of time. This makes it
+useful for realtime networks.
+
+In addition, all known ARCnet cards have an (almost) identical programming
+interface. This means that with one ARCnet driver you can support any
+card, whereas with Ethernet each manufacturer uses what is sometimes a
+completely different programming interface, leading to a lot of different,
+sometimes very similar, Ethernet drivers. Of course, always using the same
+programming interface also means that when high-performance hardware
+facilities like PCI bus mastering DMA appear, it's hard to take advantage of
+them. Let's not go into that.
+
+One thing that makes ARCnet cards difficult to program for, however, is the
+limit on their packet sizes; standard ARCnet can only send packets that are
+up to 508 bytes in length. This is smaller than the Internet "bare minimum"
+of 576 bytes, let alone the Ethernet MTU of 1500. To compensate, an extra
+level of encapsulation is defined by RFC1201, which I call "packet
+splitting," that allows "virtual packets" to grow as large as 64K each,
+although they are generally kept down to the Ethernet-style 1500 bytes.
+
+For more information on the advantages and disadvantages (mostly the
+advantages) of ARCnet networks, you might try the "ARCnet Trade Association"
+WWW page:
+ http://www.arcnet.com
+
+
+CABLING ARCNET NETWORKS
+-----------------------
+
+This section was rewritten by
+ Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz>
+using information from several people, including:
+ Avery Pennraun <apenwarr@worldvisions.ca>
+ Stephen A. Wood <saw@hallc1.cebaf.gov>
+ John Paul Morrison <jmorriso@bogomips.ee.ubc.ca>
+ Joachim Koenig <jojo@repas.de>
+and Avery touched it up a bit, at Vojtech's request.
+
+ARCnet (the classic 2.5 Mbps version) can be connected by two different
+types of cabling: coax and twisted pair. The other ARCnet-type networks
+(100 Mbps TCNS and 320 kbps - 32 Mbps ARCnet Plus) use different types of
+cabling (Type1, Fiber, C1, C4, C5).
+
+For a coax network, you "should" use 93 Ohm RG-62 cable. But other cables
+also work fine, because ARCnet is a very stable network. I personally use 75
+Ohm TV antenna cable.
+
+Cards for coax cabling are shipped in two different variants: for BUS and
+STAR network topologies. They are mostly the same. The only difference
+lies in the hybrid chip installed. BUS cards use high impedance output,
+while STAR use low impedance. Low impedance card (STAR) is electrically
+equal to a high impedance one with a terminator installed.
+
+Usually, the ARCnet networks are built up from STAR cards and hubs. There
+are two types of hubs - active and passive. Passive hubs are small boxes
+with four BNC connectors containing four 47 Ohm resistors:
+
+ | | wires
+ R + junction
+-R-+-R- R 47 Ohm resistors
+ R
+ |
+
+The shielding is connected together. Active hubs are much more complicated;
+they are powered and contain electronics to amplify the signal and send it
+to other segments of the net. They usually have eight connectors. Active
+hubs come in two variants - dumb and smart. The dumb variant just
+amplifies, but the smart one decodes to digital and encodes back all packets
+coming through. This is much better if you have several hubs in the net,
+since many dumb active hubs may worsen the signal quality.
+
+And now to the cabling. What you can connect together:
+
+1. A card to a card. This is the simplest way of creating a 2-computer
+ network.
+
+2. A card to a passive hub. Remember that all unused connectors on the hub
+ must be properly terminated with 93 Ohm (or something else if you don't
+ have the right ones) terminators.
+ (Avery's note: oops, I didn't know that. Mine (TV cable) works
+ anyway, though.)
+
+3. A card to an active hub. Here is no need to terminate the unused
+ connectors except some kind of aesthetic feeling. But, there may not be
+ more than eleven active hubs between any two computers. That of course
+ doesn't limit the number of active hubs on the network.
+
+4. An active hub to another.
+
+5. An active hub to passive hub.
+
+Remember, that you can not connect two passive hubs together. The power loss
+implied by such a connection is too high for the net to operate reliably.
+
+An example of a typical ARCnet network:
+
+ R S - STAR type card
+ S------H--------A-------S R - Terminator
+ | | H - Hub
+ | | A - Active hub
+ | S----H----S
+ S |
+ |
+ S
+
+The BUS topology is very similar to the one used by Ethernet. The only
+difference is in cable and terminators: they should be 93 Ohm. Ethernet
+uses 50 Ohm impedance. You use T connectors to put the computers on a single
+line of cable, the bus. You have to put terminators at both ends of the
+cable. A typical BUS ARCnet network looks like:
+
+ RT----T------T------T------T------TR
+ B B B B B B
+
+ B - BUS type card
+ R - Terminator
+ T - T connector
+
+But that is not all! The two types can be connected together. According to
+the official documentation the only way of connecting them is using an active
+hub:
+
+ A------T------T------TR
+ | B B B
+ S---H---S
+ |
+ S
+
+The official docs also state that you can use STAR cards at the ends of
+BUS network in place of a BUS card and a terminator:
+
+ S------T------T------S
+ B B
+
+But, according to my own experiments, you can simply hang a BUS type card
+anywhere in middle of a cable in a STAR topology network. And more - you
+can use the bus card in place of any star card if you use a terminator. Then
+you can build very complicated networks fulfilling all your needs! An
+example:
+
+ S
+ |
+ RT------T-------T------H------S
+ B B B |
+ | R
+ S------A------T-------T-------A-------H------TR
+ | B B | | B
+ | S BT |
+ | | | S----A-----S
+ S------H---A----S | |
+ | | S------T----H---S |
+ S S B R S
+
+A basically different cabling scheme is used with Twisted Pair cabling. Each
+of the TP cards has two RJ (phone-cord style) connectors. The cards are
+then daisy-chained together using a cable connecting every two neighboring
+cards. The ends are terminated with RJ 93 Ohm terminators which plug into
+the empty connectors of cards on the ends of the chain. An example:
+
+ ___________ ___________
+ _R_|_ _|_|_ _|_R_
+ | | | | | |
+ |Card | |Card | |Card |
+ |_____| |_____| |_____|
+
+
+There are also hubs for the TP topology. There is nothing difficult
+involved in using them; you just connect a TP chain to a hub on any end or
+even at both. This way you can create almost any network configuration.
+The maximum of 11 hubs between any two computers on the net applies here as
+well. An example:
+
+ RP-------P--------P--------H-----P------P-----PR
+ |
+ RP-----H--------P--------H-----P------PR
+ | |
+ PR PR
+
+ R - RJ Terminator
+ P - TP Card
+ H - TP Hub
+
+Like any network, ARCnet has a limited cable length. These are the maximum
+cable lengths between two active ends (an active end being an active hub or
+a STAR card).
+
+ RG-62 93 Ohm up to 650 m
+ RG-59/U 75 Ohm up to 457 m
+ RG-11/U 75 Ohm up to 533 m
+ IBM Type 1 150 Ohm up to 200 m
+ IBM Type 3 100 Ohm up to 100 m
+
+The maximum length of all cables connected to a passive hub is limited to 65
+meters for RG-62 cabling; less for others. You can see that using passive
+hubs in a large network is a bad idea. The maximum length of a single "BUS
+Trunk" is about 300 meters for RG-62. The maximum distance between the two
+most distant points of the net is limited to 3000 meters. The maximum length
+of a TP cable between two cards/hubs is 650 meters.
+
+
+SETTING THE JUMPERS
+-------------------
+
+All ARCnet cards should have a total of four or five different settings:
+
+ - the I/O address: this is the "port" your ARCnet card is on. Probed
+ values in the Linux ARCnet driver are only from 0x200 through 0x3F0. (If
+ your card has additional ones, which is possible, please tell me.) This
+ should not be the same as any other device on your system. According to
+ a doc I got from Novell, MS Windows prefers values of 0x300 or more,
+ eating net connections on my system (at least) otherwise. My guess is
+ this may be because, if your card is at 0x2E0, probing for a serial port
+ at 0x2E8 will reset the card and probably mess things up royally.
+ - Avery's favourite: 0x300.
+
+ - the IRQ: on 8-bit cards, it might be 2 (9), 3, 4, 5, or 7.
+ on 16-bit cards, it might be 2 (9), 3, 4, 5, 7, or 10-15.
+
+ Make sure this is different from any other card on your system. Note
+ that IRQ2 is the same as IRQ9, as far as Linux is concerned. You can
+ "cat /proc/interrupts" for a somewhat complete list of which ones are in
+ use at any given time. Here is a list of common usages from Vojtech
+ Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz>:
+ ("Not on bus" means there is no way for a card to generate this
+ interrupt)
+ IRQ 0 - Timer 0 (Not on bus)
+ IRQ 1 - Keyboard (Not on bus)
+ IRQ 2 - IRQ Controller 2 (Not on bus, nor does interrupt the CPU)
+ IRQ 3 - COM2
+ IRQ 4 - COM1
+ IRQ 5 - FREE (LPT2 if you have it; sometimes COM3; maybe PLIP)
+ IRQ 6 - Floppy disk controller
+ IRQ 7 - FREE (LPT1 if you don't use the polling driver; PLIP)
+ IRQ 8 - Realtime Clock Interrupt (Not on bus)
+ IRQ 9 - FREE (VGA vertical sync interrupt if enabled)
+ IRQ 10 - FREE
+ IRQ 11 - FREE
+ IRQ 12 - FREE
+ IRQ 13 - Numeric Coprocessor (Not on bus)
+ IRQ 14 - Fixed Disk Controller
+ IRQ 15 - FREE (Fixed Disk Controller 2 if you have it)
+
+ Note: IRQ 9 is used on some video cards for the "vertical retrace"
+ interrupt. This interrupt would have been handy for things like
+ video games, as it occurs exactly once per screen refresh, but
+ unfortunately IBM cancelled this feature starting with the original
+ VGA and thus many VGA/SVGA cards do not support it. For this
+ reason, no modern software uses this interrupt and it can almost
+ always be safely disabled, if your video card supports it at all.
+
+ If your card for some reason CANNOT disable this IRQ (usually there
+ is a jumper), one solution would be to clip the printed circuit
+ contact on the board: it's the fourth contact from the left on the
+ back side. I take no responsibility if you try this.
+
+ - Avery's favourite: IRQ2 (actually IRQ9). Watch that VGA, though.
+
+ - the memory address: Unlike most cards, ARCnets use "shared memory" for
+ copying buffers around. Make SURE it doesn't conflict with any other
+ used memory in your system!
+ A0000 - VGA graphics memory (ok if you don't have VGA)
+ B0000 - Monochrome text mode
+ C0000 \ One of these is your VGA BIOS - usually C0000.
+ E0000 /
+ F0000 - System BIOS
+
+ Anything less than 0xA0000 is, well, a BAD idea since it isn't above
+ 640k.
+ - Avery's favourite: 0xD0000
+
+ - the station address: Every ARCnet card has its own "unique" network
+ address from 0 to 255. Unlike Ethernet, you can set this address
+ yourself with a jumper or switch (or on some cards, with special
+ software). Since it's only 8 bits, you can only have 254 ARCnet cards
+ on a network. DON'T use 0 or 255, since these are reserved (although
+ neat stuff will probably happen if you DO use them). By the way, if you
+ haven't already guessed, don't set this the same as any other ARCnet on
+ your network!
+ - Avery's favourite: 3 and 4. Not that it matters.
+
+ - There may be ETS1 and ETS2 settings. These may or may not make a
+ difference on your card (many manuals call them "reserved"), but are
+ used to change the delays used when powering up a computer on the
+ network. This is only necessary when wiring VERY long range ARCnet
+ networks, on the order of 4km or so; in any case, the only real
+ requirement here is that all cards on the network with ETS1 and ETS2
+ jumpers have them in the same position. Chris Hindy <chrish@io.org>
+ sent in a chart with actual values for this:
+ ET1 ET2 Response Time Reconfiguration Time
+ --- --- ------------- --------------------
+ open open 74.7us 840us
+ open closed 283.4us 1680us
+ closed open 561.8us 1680us
+ closed closed 1118.6us 1680us
+
+ Make sure you set ETS1 and ETS2 to the SAME VALUE for all cards on your
+ network.
+
+Also, on many cards (not mine, though) there are red and green LED's.
+Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz> tells me this is what they mean:
+ GREEN RED Status
+ ----- --- ------
+ OFF OFF Power off
+ OFF Short flashes Cabling problems (broken cable or not
+ terminated)
+ OFF (short) ON Card init
+ ON ON Normal state - everything OK, nothing
+ happens
+ ON Long flashes Data transfer
+ ON OFF Never happens (maybe when wrong ID)
+
+
+The following is all the specific information people have sent me about
+their own particular ARCnet cards. It is officially a mess, and contains
+huge amounts of duplicated information. I have no time to fix it. If you
+want to, PLEASE DO! Just send me a 'diff -u' of all your changes.
+
+The model # is listed right above specifics for that card, so you should be
+able to use your text viewer's "search" function to find the entry you want.
+If you don't KNOW what kind of card you have, try looking through the
+various diagrams to see if you can tell.
+
+If your model isn't listed and/or has different settings, PLEASE PLEASE
+tell me. I had to figure mine out without the manual, and it WASN'T FUN!
+
+Even if your ARCnet model isn't listed, but has the same jumpers as another
+model that is, please e-mail me to say so.
+
+Cards Listed in this file (in this order, mostly):
+
+ Manufacturer Model # Bits
+ ------------ ------- ----
+ SMC PC100 8
+ SMC PC110 8
+ SMC PC120 8
+ SMC PC130 8
+ SMC PC270E 8
+ SMC PC500 16
+ SMC PC500Longboard 16
+ SMC PC550Longboard 16
+ SMC PC600 16
+ SMC PC710 8
+ SMC? LCS-8830(-T) 8/16
+ Puredata PDI507 8
+ CNet Tech CN120-Series 8
+ CNet Tech CN160-Series 16
+ Lantech? UM9065L chipset 8
+ Acer 5210-003 8
+ Datapoint? LAN-ARC-8 8
+ Topware TA-ARC/10 8
+ Thomas-Conrad 500-6242-0097 REV A 8
+ Waterloo? (C)1985 Waterloo Micro. 8
+ No Name -- 8/16
+ No Name Taiwan R.O.C? 8
+ No Name Model 9058 8
+ Tiara Tiara Lancard? 8
+
+
+** SMC = Standard Microsystems Corp.
+** CNet Tech = CNet Technology, Inc.
+
+
+Unclassified Stuff
+------------------
+ - Please send any other information you can find.
+
+ - And some other stuff (more info is welcome!):
+ From: root@ultraworld.xs4all.nl (Timo Hilbrink)
+ To: apenwarr@foxnet.net (Avery Pennarun)
+ Date: Wed, 26 Oct 1994 02:10:32 +0000 (GMT)
+ Reply-To: timoh@xs4all.nl
+
+ [...parts deleted...]
+
+ About the jumpers: On my PC130 there is one more jumper, located near the
+ cable-connector and it's for changing to star or bus topology;
+ closed: star - open: bus
+ On the PC500 are some more jumper-pins, one block labeled with RX,PDN,TXI
+ and another with ALE,LA17,LA18,LA19 these are undocumented..
+
+ [...more parts deleted...]
+
+ --- CUT ---
+
+
+** Standard Microsystems Corp (SMC) **
+PC100, PC110, PC120, PC130 (8-bit cards)
+PC500, PC600 (16-bit cards)
+---------------------------------
+ - mainly from Avery Pennarun <apenwarr@worldvisions.ca>. Values depicted
+ are from Avery's setup.
+ - special thanks to Timo Hilbrink <timoh@xs4all.nl> for noting that PC120,
+ 130, 500, and 600 all have the same switches as Avery's PC100.
+ PC500/600 have several extra, undocumented pins though. (?)
+ - PC110 settings were verified by Stephen A. Wood <saw@cebaf.gov>
+ - Also, the JP- and S-numbers probably don't match your card exactly. Try
+ to find jumpers/switches with the same number of settings - it's
+ probably more reliable.
+
+
+ JP5 [|] : : : :
+(IRQ Setting) IRQ2 IRQ3 IRQ4 IRQ5 IRQ7
+ Put exactly one jumper on exactly one set of pins.
+
+
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
+ S1 /----------------------------------\
+(I/O and Memory | 1 1 * 0 0 0 0 * 1 1 0 1 |
+ addresses) \----------------------------------/
+ |--| |--------| |--------|
+ (a) (b) (m)
+
+ WARNING. It's very important when setting these which way
+ you're holding the card, and which way you think is '1'!
+
+ If you suspect that your settings are not being made
+ correctly, try reversing the direction or inverting the
+ switch positions.
+
+ a: The first digit of the I/O address.
+ Setting Value
+ ------- -----
+ 00 0
+ 01 1
+ 10 2
+ 11 3
+
+ b: The second digit of the I/O address.
+ Setting Value
+ ------- -----
+ 0000 0
+ 0001 1
+ 0010 2
+ ... ...
+ 1110 E
+ 1111 F
+
+ The I/O address is in the form ab0. For example, if
+ a is 0x2 and b is 0xE, the address will be 0x2E0.
+
+ DO NOT SET THIS LESS THAN 0x200!!!!!
+
+
+ m: The first digit of the memory address.
+ Setting Value
+ ------- -----
+ 0000 0
+ 0001 1
+ 0010 2
+ ... ...
+ 1110 E
+ 1111 F
+
+ The memory address is in the form m0000. For example, if
+ m is D, the address will be 0xD0000.
+
+ DO NOT SET THIS TO C0000, F0000, OR LESS THAN A0000!
+
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
+ S2 /--------------------------\
+(Station Address) | 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 |
+ \--------------------------/
+
+ Setting Value
+ ------- -----
+ 00000000 00
+ 10000000 01
+ 01000000 02
+ ...
+ 01111111 FE
+ 11111111 FF
+
+ Note that this is binary with the digits reversed!
+
+ DO NOT SET THIS TO 0 OR 255 (0xFF)!
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Standard Microsystems Corp (SMC) **
+PC130E/PC270E (8-bit cards)
+---------------------------
+ - from Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+
+
+STANDARD MICROSYSTEMS CORPORATION (SMC) ARCNET(R)-PC130E/PC270E
+===============================================================
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the following Original SMC Manual
+
+ "Configuration Guide for
+ ARCNET(R)-PC130E/PC270
+ Network Controller Boards
+ Pub. # 900.044A
+ June, 1989"
+
+ARCNET is a registered trademark of the Datapoint Corporation
+SMC is a registered trademark of the Standard Microsystems Corporation
+
+The PC130E is an enhanced version of the PC130 board, is equipped with a
+standard BNC female connector for connection to RG-62/U coax cable.
+Since this board is designed both for point-to-point connection in star
+networks and for connection to bus networks, it is downwardly compatible
+with all the other standard boards designed for coax networks (that is,
+the PC120, PC110 and PC100 star topology boards and the PC220, PC210 and
+PC200 bus topology boards).
+
+The PC270E is an enhanced version of the PC260 board, is equipped with two
+modular RJ11-type jacks for connection to twisted pair wiring.
+It can be used in a star or a daisy-chained network.
+
+
+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
+ ________________________________________________________________
+ | | S1 | |
+ | |_________________| |
+ | Offs|Base |I/O Addr |
+ | RAM Addr | ___|
+ | ___ ___ CR3 |___|
+ | | \/ | CR4 |___|
+ | | PROM | ___|
+ | | | N | | 8
+ | | SOCKET | o | | 7
+ | |________| d | | 6
+ | ___________________ e | | 5
+ | | | A | S | 4
+ | |oo| EXT2 | | d | 2 | 3
+ | |oo| EXT1 | SMC | d | | 2
+ | |oo| ROM | 90C63 | r |___| 1
+ | |oo| IRQ7 | | |o| _____|
+ | |oo| IRQ5 | | |o| | J1 |
+ | |oo| IRQ4 | | STAR |_____|
+ | |oo| IRQ3 | | | J2 |
+ | |oo| IRQ2 |___________________| |_____|
+ |___ ______________|
+ | |
+ |_____________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+SMC 90C63 ARCNET Controller / Transceiver /Logic
+S1 1-3: I/O Base Address Select
+ 4-6: Memory Base Address Select
+ 7-8: RAM Offset Select
+S2 1-8: Node ID Select
+EXT Extended Timeout Select
+ROM ROM Enable Select
+STAR Selected - Star Topology (PC130E only)
+ Deselected - Bus Topology (PC130E only)
+CR3/CR4 Diagnostic LEDs
+J1 BNC RG62/U Connector (PC130E only)
+J1 6-position Telephone Jack (PC270E only)
+J2 6-position Telephone Jack (PC270E only)
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off/Open means "1", On/Closed means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in group S2 are used to set the node ID.
+These switches work in a way similar to the PC100-series cards; see that
+entry for more information.
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The first three switches in switch group S1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 1 2 3 | Address
+ -------|--------
+ 0 0 0 | 260
+ 0 0 1 | 290
+ 0 1 0 | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 | 2F0
+ 1 0 0 | 300
+ 1 0 1 | 350
+ 1 1 0 | 380
+ 1 1 1 | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer requires 2K of a 16K block of RAM. The base of this
+16K block can be located in any of eight positions.
+Switches 4-6 of switch group S1 select the Base of the 16K block.
+Within that 16K address space, the buffer may be assigned any one of four
+positions, determined by the offset, switches 7 and 8 of group S1.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 4 5 6 7 8 | Address | Address *)
+ -----------|---------|-----------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 | C0000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 0 1 | C0800 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 0 | C1000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 1 | C1800 | C2000
+ | |
+ 0 0 1 0 0 | C4000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 0 1 | C4800 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 0 | C5000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 1 | C5800 | C6000
+ | |
+ 0 1 0 0 0 | CC000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 0 1 | CC800 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 0 | CD000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 1 | CD800 | CE000
+ | |
+ 0 1 1 0 0 | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 0 1 | D0800 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 0 | D1000 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 1 | D1800 | D2000
+ | |
+ 1 0 0 0 0 | D4000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 0 1 | D4800 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 0 | D5000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 1 | D5800 | D6000
+ | |
+ 1 0 1 0 0 | D8000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 0 1 | D8800 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 0 | D9000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 1 | D9800 | DA000
+ | |
+ 1 1 0 0 0 | DC000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 0 1 | DC800 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 0 | DD000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 1 | DD800 | DE000
+ | |
+ 1 1 1 0 0 | E0000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 0 1 | E0800 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 0 | E1000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 1 | E1800 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the 8K Boot PROM install the jumper ROM.
+ The default is jumper ROM not installed.
+
+
+Setting the Timeouts and Interrupt
+----------------------------------
+
+The jumpers labeled EXT1 and EXT2 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters. These two jumpers are normally left open.
+
+To select a hardware interrupt level set one (only one!) of the jumpers
+IRQ2, IRQ3, IRQ4, IRQ5, IRQ7. The Manufacturer's default is IRQ2.
+
+
+Configuring the PC130E for Star or Bus Topology
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+The single jumper labeled STAR is used to configure the PC130E board for
+star or bus topology.
+When the jumper is installed, the board may be used in a star network, when
+it is removed, the board can be used in a bus topology.
+
+
+Diagnostic LEDs
+---------------
+
+Two diagnostic LEDs are visible on the rear bracket of the board.
+The green LED monitors the network activity: the red one shows the
+board activity:
+
+ Green | Status Red | Status
+ -------|------------------- ---------|-------------------
+ on | normal activity flash/on | data transfer
+ blink | reconfiguration off | no data transfer;
+ off | defective board or | incorrect memory or
+ | node ID is zero | I/O address
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Standard Microsystems Corp (SMC) **
+PC500/PC550 Longboard (16-bit cards)
+-------------------------------------
+ - from Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+
+
+STANDARD MICROSYSTEMS CORPORATION (SMC) ARCNET-PC500/PC550 Long Board
+=====================================================================
+
+Note: There is another Version of the PC500 called Short Version, which
+ is different in hard- and software! The most important differences
+ are:
+ - The long board has no Shared memory.
+ - On the long board the selection of the interrupt is done by binary
+ coded switch, on the short board directly by jumper.
+
+[Avery's note: pay special attention to that: the long board HAS NO SHARED
+MEMORY. This means the current Linux-ARCnet driver can't use these cards.
+I have obtained a PC500Longboard and will be doing some experiments on it in
+the future, but don't hold your breath. Thanks again to Juergen Seifert for
+his advice about this!]
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the following Original SMC Manual
+
+ "Configuration Guide for
+ SMC ARCNET-PC500/PC550
+ Series Network Controller Boards
+ Pub. # 900.033 Rev. A
+ November, 1989"
+
+ARCNET is a registered trademark of the Datapoint Corporation
+SMC is a registered trademark of the Standard Microsystems Corporation
+
+The PC500 is equipped with a standard BNC female connector for connection
+to RG-62/U coax cable.
+The board is designed both for point-to-point connection in star networks
+and for connection to bus networks.
+
+The PC550 is equipped with two modular RJ11-type jacks for connection
+to twisted pair wiring.
+It can be used in a star or a daisy-chained (BUS) network.
+
+ 1
+ 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1
+ ____________________________________________________________________
+ < | SW1 | | SW2 | |
+ > |_____________________| |_____________| |
+ < IRQ |I/O Addr |
+ > ___|
+ < CR4 |___|
+ > CR3 |___|
+ < ___|
+ > N | | 8
+ < o | | 7
+ > d | S | 6
+ < e | W | 5
+ > A | 3 | 4
+ < d | | 3
+ > d | | 2
+ < r |___| 1
+ > |o| _____|
+ < |o| | J1 |
+ > 3 1 JP6 |_____|
+ < |o|o| JP2 | J2 |
+ > |o|o| |_____|
+ < 4 2__ ______________|
+ > | | |
+ <____| |_____________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+SW1 1-6: I/O Base Address Select
+ 7-10: Interrupt Select
+SW2 1-6: Reserved for Future Use
+SW3 1-8: Node ID Select
+JP2 1-4: Extended Timeout Select
+JP6 Selected - Star Topology (PC500 only)
+ Deselected - Bus Topology (PC500 only)
+CR3 Green Monitors Network Activity
+CR4 Red Monitors Board Activity
+J1 BNC RG62/U Connector (PC500 only)
+J1 6-position Telephone Jack (PC550 only)
+J2 6-position Telephone Jack (PC550 only)
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off/Open means "1", On/Closed means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in group SW3 are used to set the node ID. Each node
+attached to the network must have an unique node ID which must be
+different from 0.
+Switch 1 serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 1 | 1
+ 2 | 2
+ 3 | 4
+ 4 | 8
+ 5 | 16
+ 6 | 32
+ 7 | 64
+ 8 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The first six switches in switch group SW1 are used to select one
+of 32 possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Address
+ -------------|--------
+ 0 1 0 0 0 0 | 200
+ 0 1 0 0 0 1 | 210
+ 0 1 0 0 1 0 | 220
+ 0 1 0 0 1 1 | 230
+ 0 1 0 1 0 0 | 240
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 250
+ 0 1 0 1 1 0 | 260
+ 0 1 0 1 1 1 | 270
+ 0 1 1 0 0 0 | 280
+ 0 1 1 0 0 1 | 290
+ 0 1 1 0 1 0 | 2A0
+ 0 1 1 0 1 1 | 2B0
+ 0 1 1 1 0 0 | 2C0
+ 0 1 1 1 0 1 | 2D0
+ 0 1 1 1 1 0 | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 1 1 1 | 2F0
+ 1 1 0 0 0 0 | 300
+ 1 1 0 0 0 1 | 310
+ 1 1 0 0 1 0 | 320
+ 1 1 0 0 1 1 | 330
+ 1 1 0 1 0 0 | 340
+ 1 1 0 1 0 1 | 350
+ 1 1 0 1 1 0 | 360
+ 1 1 0 1 1 1 | 370
+ 1 1 1 0 0 0 | 380
+ 1 1 1 0 0 1 | 390
+ 1 1 1 0 1 0 | 3A0
+ 1 1 1 0 1 1 | 3B0
+ 1 1 1 1 0 0 | 3C0
+ 1 1 1 1 0 1 | 3D0
+ 1 1 1 1 1 0 | 3E0
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 3F0
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt
+---------------------
+
+Switches seven through ten of switch group SW1 are used to select the
+interrupt level. The interrupt level is binary coded, so selections
+from 0 to 15 would be possible, but only the following eight values will
+be supported: 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12.
+
+ Switch | IRQ
+ 10 9 8 7 |
+ ---------|--------
+ 0 0 1 1 | 3
+ 0 1 0 0 | 4
+ 0 1 0 1 | 5
+ 0 1 1 1 | 7
+ 1 0 0 1 | 9 (=2) (default)
+ 1 0 1 0 | 10
+ 1 0 1 1 | 11
+ 1 1 0 0 | 12
+
+
+Setting the Timeouts
+--------------------
+
+The two jumpers JP2 (1-4) are used to determine the timeout parameters.
+These two jumpers are normally left open.
+Refer to the COM9026 Data Sheet for alternate configurations.
+
+
+Configuring the PC500 for Star or Bus Topology
+----------------------------------------------
+
+The single jumper labeled JP6 is used to configure the PC500 board for
+star or bus topology.
+When the jumper is installed, the board may be used in a star network, when
+it is removed, the board can be used in a bus topology.
+
+
+Diagnostic LEDs
+---------------
+
+Two diagnostic LEDs are visible on the rear bracket of the board.
+The green LED monitors the network activity: the red one shows the
+board activity:
+
+ Green | Status Red | Status
+ -------|------------------- ---------|-------------------
+ on | normal activity flash/on | data transfer
+ blink | reconfiguration off | no data transfer;
+ off | defective board or | incorrect memory or
+ | node ID is zero | I/O address
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** SMC **
+PC710 (8-bit card)
+------------------
+ - from J.S. van Oosten <jvoosten@compiler.tdcnet.nl>
+
+Note: this data is gathered by experimenting and looking at info of other
+cards. However, I'm sure I got 99% of the settings right.
+
+The SMC710 card resembles the PC270 card, but is much more basic (i.e. no
+LEDs, RJ11 jacks, etc.) and 8 bit. Here's a little drawing:
+
+ _______________________________________
+ | +---------+ +---------+ |____
+ | | S2 | | S1 | |
+ | +---------+ +---------+ |
+ | |
+ | +===+ __ |
+ | | R | | | X-tal ###___
+ | | O | |__| ####__'|
+ | | M | || ###
+ | +===+ |
+ | |
+ | .. JP1 +----------+ |
+ | .. | big chip | |
+ | .. | 90C63 | |
+ | .. | | |
+ | .. +----------+ |
+ ------- -----------
+ |||||||||||||||||||||
+
+The row of jumpers at JP1 actually consists of 8 jumpers, (sometimes
+labelled) the same as on the PC270, from top to bottom: EXT2, EXT1, ROM,
+IRQ7, IRQ5, IRQ4, IRQ3, IRQ2 (gee, wonder what they would do? :-) )
+
+S1 and S2 perform the same function as on the PC270, only their numbers
+are swapped (S1 is the nodeaddress, S2 sets IO- and RAM-address).
+
+I know it works when connected to a PC110 type ARCnet board.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Possibly SMC **
+LCS-8830(-T) (8 and 16-bit cards)
+---------------------------------
+ - from Mathias Katzer <mkatzer@HRZ.Uni-Bielefeld.DE>
+ - Marek Michalkiewicz <marekm@i17linuxb.ists.pwr.wroc.pl> says the
+ LCS-8830 is slightly different from LCS-8830-T. These are 8 bit, BUS
+ only (the JP0 jumper is hardwired), and BNC only.
+
+This is a LCS-8830-T made by SMC, I think ('SMC' only appears on one PLCC,
+nowhere else, not even on the few Xeroxed sheets from the manual).
+
+SMC ARCnet Board Type LCS-8830-T
+
+ ------------------------------------
+ | |
+ | JP3 88 8 JP2 |
+ | ##### | \ |
+ | ##### ET1 ET2 ###|
+ | 8 ###|
+ | U3 SW 1 JP0 ###| Phone Jacks
+ | -- ###|
+ | | | |
+ | | | SW2 |
+ | | | |
+ | | | ##### |
+ | -- ##### #### BNC Connector
+ | ####
+ | 888888 JP1 |
+ | 234567 |
+ -- -------
+ |||||||||||||||||||||||||||
+ --------------------------
+
+
+SW1: DIP-Switches for Station Address
+SW2: DIP-Switches for Memory Base and I/O Base addresses
+
+JP0: If closed, internal termination on (default open)
+JP1: IRQ Jumpers
+JP2: Boot-ROM enabled if closed
+JP3: Jumpers for response timeout
+
+U3: Boot-ROM Socket
+
+
+ET1 ET2 Response Time Idle Time Reconfiguration Time
+
+ 78 86 840
+ X 285 316 1680
+ X 563 624 1680
+ X X 1130 1237 1680
+
+(X means closed jumper)
+
+(DIP-Switch downwards means "0")
+
+The station address is binary-coded with SW1.
+
+The I/O base address is coded with DIP-Switches 6,7 and 8 of SW2:
+
+Switches Base
+678 Address
+000 260-26f
+100 290-29f
+010 2e0-2ef
+110 2f0-2ff
+001 300-30f
+101 350-35f
+011 380-38f
+111 3e0-3ef
+
+
+DIP Switches 1-5 of SW2 encode the RAM and ROM Address Range:
+
+Switches RAM ROM
+12345 Address Range Address Range
+00000 C:0000-C:07ff C:2000-C:3fff
+10000 C:0800-C:0fff
+01000 C:1000-C:17ff
+11000 C:1800-C:1fff
+00100 C:4000-C:47ff C:6000-C:7fff
+10100 C:4800-C:4fff
+01100 C:5000-C:57ff
+11100 C:5800-C:5fff
+00010 C:C000-C:C7ff C:E000-C:ffff
+10010 C:C800-C:Cfff
+01010 C:D000-C:D7ff
+11010 C:D800-C:Dfff
+00110 D:0000-D:07ff D:2000-D:3fff
+10110 D:0800-D:0fff
+01110 D:1000-D:17ff
+11110 D:1800-D:1fff
+00001 D:4000-D:47ff D:6000-D:7fff
+10001 D:4800-D:4fff
+01001 D:5000-D:57ff
+11001 D:5800-D:5fff
+00101 D:8000-D:87ff D:A000-D:bfff
+10101 D:8800-D:8fff
+01101 D:9000-D:97ff
+11101 D:9800-D:9fff
+00011 D:C000-D:c7ff D:E000-D:ffff
+10011 D:C800-D:cfff
+01011 D:D000-D:d7ff
+11011 D:D800-D:dfff
+00111 E:0000-E:07ff E:2000-E:3fff
+10111 E:0800-E:0fff
+01111 E:1000-E:17ff
+11111 E:1800-E:1fff
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** PureData Corp **
+PDI507 (8-bit card)
+--------------------
+ - from Mark Rejhon <mdrejhon@magi.com> (slight modifications by Avery)
+ - Avery's note: I think PDI508 cards (but definitely NOT PDI508Plus cards)
+ are mostly the same as this. PDI508Plus cards appear to be mainly
+ software-configured.
+
+Jumpers:
+ There is a jumper array at the bottom of the card, near the edge
+ connector. This array is labelled J1. They control the IRQs and
+ something else. Put only one jumper on the IRQ pins.
+
+ ETS1, ETS2 are for timing on very long distance networks. See the
+ more general information near the top of this file.
+
+ There is a J2 jumper on two pins. A jumper should be put on them,
+ since it was already there when I got the card. I don't know what
+ this jumper is for though.
+
+ There is a two-jumper array for J3. I don't know what it is for,
+ but there were already two jumpers on it when I got the card. It's
+ a six pin grid in a two-by-three fashion. The jumpers were
+ configured as follows:
+
+ .-------.
+ o | o o |
+ :-------: ------> Accessible end of card with connectors
+ o | o o | in this direction ------->
+ `-------'
+
+Carl de Billy <CARL@carainfo.com> explains J3 and J4:
+
+ J3 Diagram:
+
+ .-------.
+ o | o o |
+ :-------: TWIST Technology
+ o | o o |
+ `-------'
+ .-------.
+ | o o | o
+ :-------: COAX Technology
+ | o o | o
+ `-------'
+
+ - If using coax cable in a bus topology the J4 jumper must be removed;
+ place it on one pin.
+
+ - If using bus topology with twisted pair wiring move the J3
+ jumpers so they connect the middle pin and the pins closest to the RJ11
+ Connectors. Also the J4 jumper must be removed; place it on one pin of
+ J4 jumper for storage.
+
+ - If using star topology with twisted pair wiring move the J3
+ jumpers so they connect the middle pin and the pins closest to the RJ11
+ connectors.
+
+
+DIP Switches:
+
+ The DIP switches accessible on the accessible end of the card while
+ it is installed, is used to set the ARCnet address. There are 8
+ switches. Use an address from 1 to 254.
+
+ Switch No.
+ 12345678 ARCnet address
+ -----------------------------------------
+ 00000000 FF (Don't use this!)
+ 00000001 FE
+ 00000010 FD
+ ....
+ 11111101 2
+ 11111110 1
+ 11111111 0 (Don't use this!)
+
+ There is another array of eight DIP switches at the top of the
+ card. There are five labelled MS0-MS4 which seem to control the
+ memory address, and another three labelled IO0-IO2 which seem to
+ control the base I/O address of the card.
+
+ This was difficult to test by trial and error, and the I/O addresses
+ are in a weird order. This was tested by setting the DIP switches,
+ rebooting the computer, and attempting to load ARCETHER at various
+ addresses (mostly between 0x200 and 0x400). The address that caused
+ the red transmit LED to blink, is the one that I thought works.
+
+ Also, the address 0x3D0 seem to have a special meaning, since the
+ ARCETHER packet driver loaded fine, but without the red LED
+ blinking. I don't know what 0x3D0 is for though. I recommend using
+ an address of 0x300 since Windows may not like addresses below
+ 0x300.
+
+ IO Switch No.
+ 210 I/O address
+ -------------------------------
+ 111 0x260
+ 110 0x290
+ 101 0x2E0
+ 100 0x2F0
+ 011 0x300
+ 010 0x350
+ 001 0x380
+ 000 0x3E0
+
+ The memory switches set a reserved address space of 0x1000 bytes
+ (0x100 segment units, or 4k). For example if I set an address of
+ 0xD000, it will use up addresses 0xD000 to 0xD100.
+
+ The memory switches were tested by booting using QEMM386 stealth,
+ and using LOADHI to see what address automatically became excluded
+ from the upper memory regions, and then attempting to load ARCETHER
+ using these addresses.
+
+ I recommend using an ARCnet memory address of 0xD000, and putting
+ the EMS page frame at 0xC000 while using QEMM stealth mode. That
+ way, you get contiguous high memory from 0xD100 almost all the way
+ the end of the megabyte.
+
+ Memory Switch 0 (MS0) didn't seem to work properly when set to OFF
+ on my card. It could be malfunctioning on my card. Experiment with
+ it ON first, and if it doesn't work, set it to OFF. (It may be a
+ modifier for the 0x200 bit?)
+
+ MS Switch No.
+ 43210 Memory address
+ --------------------------------
+ 00001 0xE100 (guessed - was not detected by QEMM)
+ 00011 0xE000 (guessed - was not detected by QEMM)
+ 00101 0xDD00
+ 00111 0xDC00
+ 01001 0xD900
+ 01011 0xD800
+ 01101 0xD500
+ 01111 0xD400
+ 10001 0xD100
+ 10011 0xD000
+ 10101 0xCD00
+ 10111 0xCC00
+ 11001 0xC900 (guessed - crashes tested system)
+ 11011 0xC800 (guessed - crashes tested system)
+ 11101 0xC500 (guessed - crashes tested system)
+ 11111 0xC400 (guessed - crashes tested system)
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** CNet Technology Inc. **
+120 Series (8-bit cards)
+------------------------
+ - from Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+
+
+CNET TECHNOLOGY INC. (CNet) ARCNET 120A SERIES
+==============================================
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the following Original CNet Manual
+
+ "ARCNET
+ USER'S MANUAL
+ for
+ CN120A
+ CN120AB
+ CN120TP
+ CN120ST
+ CN120SBT
+ P/N:12-01-0007
+ Revision 3.00"
+
+ARCNET is a registered trademark of the Datapoint Corporation
+
+P/N 120A ARCNET 8 bit XT/AT Star
+P/N 120AB ARCNET 8 bit XT/AT Bus
+P/N 120TP ARCNET 8 bit XT/AT Twisted Pair
+P/N 120ST ARCNET 8 bit XT/AT Star, Twisted Pair
+P/N 120SBT ARCNET 8 bit XT/AT Star, Bus, Twisted Pair
+
+ __________________________________________________________________
+ | |
+ | ___|
+ | LED |___|
+ | ___|
+ | N | | ID7
+ | o | | ID6
+ | d | S | ID5
+ | e | W | ID4
+ | ___________________ A | 2 | ID3
+ | | | d | | ID2
+ | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 d | | ID1
+ | | | _________________ r |___| ID0
+ | | 90C65 || SW1 | ____|
+ | JP 8 7 | ||_________________| | |
+ | |o|o| JP1 | | | J2 |
+ | |o|o| |oo| | | JP 1 1 1 | |
+ | ______________ | | 0 1 2 |____|
+ | | PROM | |___________________| |o|o|o| _____|
+ | > SOCKET | JP 6 5 4 3 2 |o|o|o| | J1 |
+ | |______________| |o|o|o|o|o| |o|o|o| |_____|
+ |_____ |o|o|o|o|o| ______________|
+ | |
+ |_____________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+90C65 ARCNET Probe
+S1 1-5: Base Memory Address Select
+ 6-8: Base I/O Address Select
+S2 1-8: Node ID Select (ID0-ID7)
+JP1 ROM Enable Select
+JP2 IRQ2
+JP3 IRQ3
+JP4 IRQ4
+JP5 IRQ5
+JP6 IRQ7
+JP7/JP8 ET1, ET2 Timeout Parameters
+JP10/JP11 Coax / Twisted Pair Select (CN120ST/SBT only)
+JP12 Terminator Select (CN120AB/ST/SBT only)
+J1 BNC RG62/U Connector (all except CN120TP)
+J2 Two 6-position Telephone Jack (CN120TP/ST/SBT only)
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW2 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached
+to the network must have an unique node ID which must be different from 0.
+Switch 1 (ID0) serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Label | Value
+ -------|-------|-------
+ 1 | ID0 | 1
+ 2 | ID1 | 2
+ 3 | ID2 | 4
+ 4 | ID3 | 8
+ 5 | ID4 | 16
+ 6 | ID5 | 32
+ 7 | ID6 | 64
+ 8 | ID7 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The last three switches in switch block SW1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 6 7 8 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260
+ OFF ON ON | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ OFF OFF ON | 2F0
+ ON ON OFF | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ ON OFF OFF | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer (RAM) requires 2K. The base of this buffer can be
+located in any of eight positions. The address of the Boot Prom is
+memory base + 8K or memory base + 0x2000.
+Switches 1-5 of switch block SW1 select the Memory Base address.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 1 2 3 4 5 | Address | Address *)
+ --------------------|---------|-----------
+ ON ON ON ON ON | C0000 | C2000
+ ON ON OFF ON ON | C4000 | C6000
+ ON ON ON OFF ON | CC000 | CE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF ON | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON ON ON ON OFF | D4000 | D6000
+ ON ON OFF ON OFF | D8000 | DA000
+ ON ON ON OFF OFF | DC000 | DE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF OFF | E0000 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the Boot ROM install the jumper JP1
+
+Note: Since the switches 1 and 2 are always set to ON it may be possible
+ that they can be used to add an offset of 2K, 4K or 6K to the base
+ address, but this feature is not documented in the manual and I
+ haven't tested it yet.
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+To select a hardware interrupt level install one (only one!) of the jumpers
+JP2, JP3, JP4, JP5, JP6. JP2 is the default.
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ -------|-----
+ 2 | 2
+ 3 | 3
+ 4 | 4
+ 5 | 5
+ 6 | 7
+
+
+Setting the Internal Terminator on CN120AB/TP/SBT
+--------------------------------------------------
+
+The jumper JP12 is used to enable the internal terminator.
+
+ -----
+ 0 | 0 |
+ ----- ON | | ON
+ | 0 | | 0 |
+ | | OFF ----- OFF
+ | 0 | 0
+ -----
+ Terminator Terminator
+ disabled enabled
+
+
+Selecting the Connector Type on CN120ST/SBT
+-------------------------------------------
+
+ JP10 JP11 JP10 JP11
+ ----- -----
+ 0 0 | 0 | | 0 |
+ ----- ----- | | | |
+ | 0 | | 0 | | 0 | | 0 |
+ | | | | ----- -----
+ | 0 | | 0 | 0 0
+ ----- -----
+ Coaxial Cable Twisted Pair Cable
+ (Default)
+
+
+Setting the Timeout Parameters
+------------------------------
+
+The jumpers labeled EXT1 and EXT2 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters. These two jumpers are normally left open.
+
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** CNet Technology Inc. **
+160 Series (16-bit cards)
+-------------------------
+ - from Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+
+CNET TECHNOLOGY INC. (CNet) ARCNET 160A SERIES
+==============================================
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the following Original CNet Manual
+
+ "ARCNET
+ USER'S MANUAL
+ for
+ CN160A
+ CN160AB
+ CN160TP
+ P/N:12-01-0006
+ Revision 3.00"
+
+ARCNET is a registered trademark of the Datapoint Corporation
+
+P/N 160A ARCNET 16 bit XT/AT Star
+P/N 160AB ARCNET 16 bit XT/AT Bus
+P/N 160TP ARCNET 16 bit XT/AT Twisted Pair
+
+ ___________________________________________________________________
+ < _________________________ ___|
+ > |oo| JP2 | | LED |___|
+ < |oo| JP1 | 9026 | LED |___|
+ > |_________________________| ___|
+ < N | | ID7
+ > 1 o | | ID6
+ < 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 d | S | ID5
+ > _______________ _____________________ e | W | ID4
+ < | PROM | | SW1 | A | 2 | ID3
+ > > SOCKET | |_____________________| d | | ID2
+ < |_______________| | IO-Base | MEM | d | | ID1
+ > r |___| ID0
+ < ____|
+ > | |
+ < | J1 |
+ > | |
+ < |____|
+ > 1 1 1 1 |
+ < 3 4 5 6 7 JP 8 9 0 1 2 3 |
+ > |o|o|o|o|o| |o|o|o|o|o|o| |
+ < |o|o|o|o|o| __ |o|o|o|o|o|o| ___________|
+ > | | |
+ <____________| |_______________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+9026 ARCNET Probe
+SW1 1-6: Base I/O Address Select
+ 7-10: Base Memory Address Select
+SW2 1-8: Node ID Select (ID0-ID7)
+JP1/JP2 ET1, ET2 Timeout Parameters
+JP3-JP13 Interrupt Select
+J1 BNC RG62/U Connector (CN160A/AB only)
+J1 Two 6-position Telephone Jack (CN160TP only)
+LED
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW2 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached
+to the network must have an unique node ID which must be different from 0.
+Switch 1 (ID0) serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Label | Value
+ -------|-------|-------
+ 1 | ID0 | 1
+ 2 | ID1 | 2
+ 3 | ID2 | 4
+ 4 | ID3 | 8
+ 5 | ID4 | 16
+ 6 | ID5 | 32
+ 7 | ID6 | 64
+ 8 | ID7 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The first six switches in switch block SW1 are used to select the I/O Base
+address using the following table:
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Address
+ ------------------------|--------
+ OFF ON ON OFF OFF ON | 260
+ OFF ON OFF ON ON OFF | 290
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF OFF | 2F0
+ OFF OFF ON ON ON ON | 300
+ OFF OFF ON OFF ON OFF | 350
+ OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF ON | 3E0
+
+Note: Other IO-Base addresses seem to be selectable, but only the above
+ combinations are documented.
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The switches 7-10 of switch block SW1 are used to select the Memory
+Base address of the RAM (2K) and the PROM.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 7 8 9 10 | Address | Address
+ ----------------|---------|-----------
+ OFF OFF ON ON | C0000 | C8000
+ OFF OFF ON OFF | D0000 | D8000 (Default)
+ OFF OFF OFF ON | E0000 | E8000
+
+Note: Other MEM-Base addresses seem to be selectable, but only the above
+ combinations are documented.
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+To select a hardware interrupt level install one (only one!) of the jumpers
+JP3 through JP13 using the following table:
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ -------|-----------------
+ 3 | 14
+ 4 | 15
+ 5 | 12
+ 6 | 11
+ 7 | 10
+ 8 | 3
+ 9 | 4
+ 10 | 5
+ 11 | 6
+ 12 | 7
+ 13 | 2 (=9) Default!
+
+Note: - Do not use JP11=IRQ6, it may conflict with your Floppy Disk
+ Controller
+ - Use JP3=IRQ14 only, if you don't have an IDE-, MFM-, or RLL-
+ Hard Disk, it may conflict with their controllers
+
+
+Setting the Timeout Parameters
+------------------------------
+
+The jumpers labeled JP1 and JP2 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters. These two jumpers are normally left open.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Lantech **
+8-bit card, unknown model
+-------------------------
+ - from Vlad Lungu <vlungu@ugal.ro> - his e-mail address seemed broken at
+ the time I tried to reach him. Sorry Vlad, if you didn't get my reply.
+
+ ________________________________________________________________
+ | 1 8 |
+ | ___________ __|
+ | | SW1 | LED |__|
+ | |__________| |
+ | ___|
+ | _____________________ |S | 8
+ | | | |W |
+ | | | |2 |
+ | | | |__| 1
+ | | UM9065L | |o| JP4 ____|____
+ | | | |o| | CN |
+ | | | |________|
+ | | | |
+ | |___________________| |
+ | |
+ | |
+ | _____________ |
+ | | | |
+ | | PROM | |ooooo| JP6 |
+ | |____________| |ooooo| |
+ |_____________ _ _|
+ |____________________________________________| |__|
+
+
+UM9065L : ARCnet Controller
+
+SW 1 : Shared Memory Address and I/O Base
+
+ ON=0
+
+ 12345|Memory Address
+ -----|--------------
+ 00001| D4000
+ 00010| CC000
+ 00110| D0000
+ 01110| D1000
+ 01101| D9000
+ 10010| CC800
+ 10011| DC800
+ 11110| D1800
+
+It seems that the bits are considered in reverse order. Also, you must
+observe that some of those addresses are unusual and I didn't probe them; I
+used a memory dump in DOS to identify them. For the 00000 configuration and
+some others that I didn't write here the card seems to conflict with the
+video card (an S3 GENDAC). I leave the full decoding of those addresses to
+you.
+
+ 678| I/O Address
+ ---|------------
+ 000| 260
+ 001| failed probe
+ 010| 2E0
+ 011| 380
+ 100| 290
+ 101| 350
+ 110| failed probe
+ 111| 3E0
+
+SW 2 : Node ID (binary coded)
+
+JP 4 : Boot PROM enable CLOSE - enabled
+ OPEN - disabled
+
+JP 6 : IRQ set (ONLY ONE jumper on 1-5 for IRQ 2-6)
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Acer **
+8-bit card, Model 5210-003
+--------------------------
+ - from Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz> using portions of the existing
+ arcnet-hardware file.
+
+This is a 90C26 based card. Its configuration seems similar to the SMC
+PC100, but has some additional jumpers I don't know the meaning of.
+
+ __
+ | |
+ ___________|__|_________________________
+ | | | |
+ | | BNC | |
+ | |______| ___|
+ | _____________________ |___
+ | | | |
+ | | Hybrid IC | |
+ | | | o|o J1 |
+ | |_____________________| 8|8 |
+ | 8|8 J5 |
+ | o|o |
+ | 8|8 |
+ |__ 8|8 |
+ (|__| LED o|o |
+ | 8|8 |
+ | 8|8 J15 |
+ | |
+ | _____ |
+ | | | _____ |
+ | | | | | ___|
+ | | | | | |
+ | _____ | ROM | | UFS | |
+ | | | | | | | |
+ | | | ___ | | | | |
+ | | | | | |__.__| |__.__| |
+ | | NCR | |XTL| _____ _____ |
+ | | | |___| | | | | |
+ | |90C26| | | | | |
+ | | | | RAM | | UFS | |
+ | | | J17 o|o | | | | |
+ | | | J16 o|o | | | | |
+ | |__.__| |__.__| |__.__| |
+ | ___ |
+ | | |8 |
+ | |SW2| |
+ | | | |
+ | |___|1 |
+ | ___ |
+ | | |10 J18 o|o |
+ | | | o|o |
+ | |SW1| o|o |
+ | | | J21 o|o |
+ | |___|1 |
+ | |
+ |____________________________________|
+
+
+Legend:
+
+90C26 ARCNET Chip
+XTL 20 MHz Crystal
+SW1 1-6 Base I/O Address Select
+ 7-10 Memory Address Select
+SW2 1-8 Node ID Select (ID0-ID7)
+J1-J5 IRQ Select
+J6-J21 Unknown (Probably extra timeouts & ROM enable ...)
+LED1 Activity LED
+BNC Coax connector (STAR ARCnet)
+RAM 2k of SRAM
+ROM Boot ROM socket
+UFS Unidentified Flying Sockets
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW2 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached
+to the network must have an unique node ID which must not be 0.
+Switch 1 (ID0) serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+Setting one of the switches to OFF means "1", ON means "0".
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 1 | 1
+ 2 | 2
+ 3 | 4
+ 4 | 8
+ 5 | 16
+ 6 | 32
+ 7 | 64
+ 8 | 128
+
+Don't set this to 0 or 255; these values are reserved.
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The switches 1 to 6 of switch block SW1 are used to select one
+of 32 possible I/O Base addresses using the following tables
+
+ | Hex
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 1 | 200
+ 2 | 100
+ 3 | 80
+ 4 | 40
+ 5 | 20
+ 6 | 10
+
+The I/O address is sum of all switches set to "1". Remember that
+the I/O address space bellow 0x200 is RESERVED for mainboard, so
+switch 1 should be ALWAYS SET TO OFF.
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer (RAM) requires 2K. The base of this buffer can be
+located in any of sixteen positions. However, the addresses below
+A0000 are likely to cause system hang because there's main RAM.
+
+Jumpers 7-10 of switch block SW1 select the Memory Base address.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM
+ 7 8 9 10 | Address
+ ----------------|---------
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF | F0000 (conflicts with main BIOS)
+ OFF OFF OFF ON | E0000
+ OFF OFF ON OFF | D0000
+ OFF OFF ON ON | C0000 (conflicts with video BIOS)
+ OFF ON OFF OFF | B0000 (conflicts with mono video)
+ OFF ON OFF ON | A0000 (conflicts with graphics)
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+Jumpers 1-5 of the jumper block J1 control the IRQ level. ON means
+shorted, OFF means open.
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ 1 2 3 4 5 |
+ ----------------------------
+ ON OFF OFF OFF OFF | 7
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF | 5
+ OFF OFF ON OFF OFF | 4
+ OFF OFF OFF ON OFF | 3
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF ON | 2
+
+
+Unknown jumpers & sockets
+-------------------------
+
+I know nothing about these. I just guess that J16&J17 are timeout
+jumpers and maybe one of J18-J21 selects ROM. Also J6-J10 and
+J11-J15 are connecting IRQ2-7 to some pins on the UFSs. I can't
+guess the purpose.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Datapoint? **
+LAN-ARC-8, an 8-bit card
+------------------------
+ - from Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz>
+
+This is another SMC 90C65-based ARCnet card. I couldn't identify the
+manufacturer, but it might be DataPoint, because the card has the
+original arcNet logo in its upper right corner.
+
+ _______________________________________________________
+ | _________ |
+ | | SW2 | ON arcNet |
+ | |_________| OFF ___|
+ | _____________ 1 ______ 8 | | 8
+ | | | SW1 | XTAL | ____________ | S |
+ | > RAM (2k) | |______|| | | W |
+ | |_____________| | H | | 3 |
+ | _________|_____ y | |___| 1
+ | _________ | | |b | |
+ | |_________| | | |r | |
+ | | SMC | |i | |
+ | | 90C65| |d | |
+ | _________ | | | | |
+ | | SW1 | ON | | |I | |
+ | |_________| OFF |_________|_____/C | _____|
+ | 1 8 | | | |___
+ | ______________ | | | BNC |___|
+ | | | |____________| |_____|
+ | > EPROM SOCKET | _____________ |
+ | |______________| |_____________| |
+ | ______________|
+ | |
+ |________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+90C65 ARCNET Chip
+SW1 1-5: Base Memory Address Select
+ 6-8: Base I/O Address Select
+SW2 1-8: Node ID Select
+SW3 1-5: IRQ Select
+ 6-7: Extra Timeout
+ 8 : ROM Enable
+BNC Coax connector
+XTAL 20 MHz Crystal
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW3 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached
+to the network must have an unique node ID which must not be 0.
+Switch 1 serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 1 | 1
+ 2 | 2
+ 3 | 4
+ 4 | 8
+ 5 | 16
+ 6 | 32
+ 7 | 64
+ 8 | 128
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The last three switches in switch block SW1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 6 7 8 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260
+ OFF ON ON | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ OFF OFF ON | 2F0
+ ON ON OFF | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ ON OFF OFF | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer (RAM) requires 2K. The base of this buffer can be
+located in any of eight positions. The address of the Boot Prom is
+memory base + 0x2000.
+Jumpers 3-5 of switch block SW1 select the Memory Base address.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 1 2 3 4 5 | Address | Address *)
+ --------------------|---------|-----------
+ ON ON ON ON ON | C0000 | C2000
+ ON ON OFF ON ON | C4000 | C6000
+ ON ON ON OFF ON | CC000 | CE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF ON | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON ON ON ON OFF | D4000 | D6000
+ ON ON OFF ON OFF | D8000 | DA000
+ ON ON ON OFF OFF | DC000 | DE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF OFF | E0000 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the Boot ROM set the switch 8 of switch block SW3 to position ON.
+
+The switches 1 and 2 probably add 0x0800 and 0x1000 to RAM base address.
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+Switches 1-5 of the switch block SW3 control the IRQ level.
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ 1 2 3 4 5 |
+ ----------------------------
+ ON OFF OFF OFF OFF | 3
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF | 4
+ OFF OFF ON OFF OFF | 5
+ OFF OFF OFF ON OFF | 7
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF ON | 2
+
+
+Setting the Timeout Parameters
+------------------------------
+
+The switches 6-7 of the switch block SW3 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters. These two switches are normally left in the OFF position.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Topware **
+8-bit card, TA-ARC/10
+-------------------------
+ - from Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz>
+
+This is another very similar 90C65 card. Most of the switches and jumpers
+are the same as on other clones.
+
+ _____________________________________________________________________
+| ___________ | | ______ |
+| |SW2 NODE ID| | | | XTAL | |
+| |___________| | Hybrid IC | |______| |
+| ___________ | | __|
+| |SW1 MEM+I/O| |_________________________| LED1|__|)
+| |___________| 1 2 |
+| J3 |o|o| TIMEOUT ______|
+| ______________ |o|o| | |
+| | | ___________________ | RJ |
+| > EPROM SOCKET | | \ |------|
+|J2 |______________| | | | |
+||o| | | |______|
+||o| ROM ENABLE | SMC | _________ |
+| _____________ | 90C65 | |_________| _____|
+| | | | | | |___
+| > RAM (2k) | | | | BNC |___|
+| |_____________| | | |_____|
+| |____________________| |
+| ________ IRQ 2 3 4 5 7 ___________ |
+||________| |o|o|o|o|o| |___________| |
+|________ J1|o|o|o|o|o| ______________|
+ | |
+ |_____________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+90C65 ARCNET Chip
+XTAL 20 MHz Crystal
+SW1 1-5 Base Memory Address Select
+ 6-8 Base I/O Address Select
+SW2 1-8 Node ID Select (ID0-ID7)
+J1 IRQ Select
+J2 ROM Enable
+J3 Extra Timeout
+LED1 Activity LED
+BNC Coax connector (BUS ARCnet)
+RJ Twisted Pair Connector (daisy chain)
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW2 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached to
+the network must have an unique node ID which must not be 0. Switch 1 (ID0)
+serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Label | Value
+ -------|-------|-------
+ 1 | ID0 | 1
+ 2 | ID1 | 2
+ 3 | ID2 | 4
+ 4 | ID3 | 8
+ 5 | ID4 | 16
+ 6 | ID5 | 32
+ 7 | ID6 | 64
+ 8 | ID7 | 128
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The last three switches in switch block SW1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table:
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 6 7 8 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260 (Manufacturer's default)
+ OFF ON ON | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0
+ OFF OFF ON | 2F0
+ ON ON OFF | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ ON OFF OFF | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer (RAM) requires 2K. The base of this buffer can be
+located in any of eight positions. The address of the Boot Prom is
+memory base + 0x2000.
+Jumpers 3-5 of switch block SW1 select the Memory Base address.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 1 2 3 4 5 | Address | Address *)
+ --------------------|---------|-----------
+ ON ON ON ON ON | C0000 | C2000
+ ON ON OFF ON ON | C4000 | C6000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON ON ON OFF ON | CC000 | CE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF ON | D0000 | D2000
+ ON ON ON ON OFF | D4000 | D6000
+ ON ON OFF ON OFF | D8000 | DA000
+ ON ON ON OFF OFF | DC000 | DE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF OFF | E0000 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the Boot ROM short the jumper J2.
+
+The jumpers 1 and 2 probably add 0x0800 and 0x1000 to RAM address.
+
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+Jumpers 1-5 of the jumper block J1 control the IRQ level. ON means
+shorted, OFF means open.
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ 1 2 3 4 5 |
+ ----------------------------
+ ON OFF OFF OFF OFF | 2
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF | 3
+ OFF OFF ON OFF OFF | 4
+ OFF OFF OFF ON OFF | 5
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF ON | 7
+
+
+Setting the Timeout Parameters
+------------------------------
+
+The jumpers J3 are used to set the timeout parameters. These two
+jumpers are normally left open.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Thomas-Conrad **
+Model #500-6242-0097 REV A (8-bit card)
+---------------------------------------
+ - from Lars Karlsson <100617.3473@compuserve.com>
+
+ ________________________________________________________
+ | ________ ________ |_____
+ | |........| |........| |
+ | |________| |________| ___|
+ | SW 3 SW 1 | |
+ | Base I/O Base Addr. Station | |
+ | address | |
+ | ______ switch | |
+ | | | | |
+ | | | |___|
+ | | | ______ |___._
+ | |______| |______| ____| BNC
+ | Jumper- _____| Connector
+ | Main chip block _ __| '
+ | | | | RJ Connector
+ | |_| | with 110 Ohm
+ | |__ Terminator
+ | ___________ __|
+ | |...........| | RJ-jack
+ | |...........| _____ | (unused)
+ | |___________| |_____| |__
+ | Boot PROM socket IRQ-jumpers |_ Diagnostic
+ |________ __ _| LED (red)
+ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
+ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |________|
+ |
+ |
+
+And here are the settings for some of the switches and jumpers on the cards.
+
+
+ I/O
+
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
+
+2E0----- 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
+2F0----- 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
+300----- 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
+350----- 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0
+
+"0" in the above example means switch is off "1" means that it is on.
+
+
+ ShMem address.
+
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
+
+CX00--0 0 1 1 | | |
+DX00--0 0 1 0 |
+X000--------- 1 1 |
+X400--------- 1 0 |
+X800--------- 0 1 |
+XC00--------- 0 0
+ENHANCED----------- 1
+COMPATIBLE--------- 0
+
+
+ IRQ
+
+
+ 3 4 5 7 2
+ . . . . .
+ . . . . .
+
+
+There is a DIP-switch with 8 switches, used to set the shared memory address
+to be used. The first 6 switches set the address, the 7th doesn't have any
+function, and the 8th switch is used to select "compatible" or "enhanced".
+When I got my two cards, one of them had this switch set to "enhanced". That
+card didn't work at all, it wasn't even recognized by the driver. The other
+card had this switch set to "compatible" and it behaved absolutely normally. I
+guess that the switch on one of the cards, must have been changed accidentally
+when the card was taken out of its former host. The question remains
+unanswered, what is the purpose of the "enhanced" position?
+
+[Avery's note: "enhanced" probably either disables shared memory (use IO
+ports instead) or disables IO ports (use memory addresses instead). This
+varies by the type of card involved. I fail to see how either of these
+enhance anything. Send me more detailed information about this mode, or
+just use "compatible" mode instead.]
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Waterloo Microsystems Inc. ?? **
+8-bit card (C) 1985
+-------------------
+ - from Robert Michael Best <rmb117@cs.usask.ca>
+
+[Avery's note: these don't work with my driver for some reason. These cards
+SEEM to have settings similar to the PDI508Plus, which is
+software-configured and doesn't work with my driver either. The "Waterloo
+chip" is a boot PROM, probably designed specifically for the University of
+Waterloo. If you have any further information about this card, please
+e-mail me.]
+
+The probe has not been able to detect the card on any of the J2 settings,
+and I tried them again with the "Waterloo" chip removed.
+
+ _____________________________________________________________________
+| \/ \/ ___ __ __ |
+| C4 C4 |^| | M || ^ ||^| |
+| -- -- |_| | 5 || || | C3 |
+| \/ \/ C10 |___|| ||_| |
+| C4 C4 _ _ | | ?? |
+| -- -- | \/ || | |
+| | || | |
+| | || C1 | |
+| | || | \/ _____|
+| | C6 || | C9 | |___
+| | || | -- | BNC |___|
+| | || | >C7| |_____|
+| | || | |
+| __ __ |____||_____| 1 2 3 6 |
+|| ^ | >C4| |o|o|o|o|o|o| J2 >C4| |
+|| | |o|o|o|o|o|o| |
+|| C2 | >C4| >C4| |
+|| | >C8| |
+|| | 2 3 4 5 6 7 IRQ >C4| |
+||_____| |o|o|o|o|o|o| J3 |
+|_______ |o|o|o|o|o|o| _______________|
+ | |
+ |_____________________________________________|
+
+C1 -- "COM9026
+ SMC 8638"
+ In a chip socket.
+
+C2 -- "@Copyright
+ Waterloo Microsystems Inc.
+ 1985"
+ In a chip Socket with info printed on a label covering a round window
+ showing the circuit inside. (The window indicates it is an EPROM chip.)
+
+C3 -- "COM9032
+ SMC 8643"
+ In a chip socket.
+
+C4 -- "74LS"
+ 9 total no sockets.
+
+M5 -- "50006-136
+ 20.000000 MHZ
+ MTQ-T1-S3
+ 0 M-TRON 86-40"
+ Metallic case with 4 pins, no socket.
+
+C6 -- "MOSTEK@TC8643
+ MK6116N-20
+ MALAYSIA"
+ No socket.
+
+C7 -- No stamp or label but in a 20 pin chip socket.
+
+C8 -- "PAL10L8CN
+ 8623"
+ In a 20 pin socket.
+
+C9 -- "PAl16R4A-2CN
+ 8641"
+ In a 20 pin socket.
+
+C10 -- "M8640
+ NMC
+ 9306N"
+ In an 8 pin socket.
+
+?? -- Some components on a smaller board and attached with 20 pins all
+ along the side closest to the BNC connector. The are coated in a dark
+ resin.
+
+On the board there are two jumper banks labeled J2 and J3. The
+manufacturer didn't put a J1 on the board. The two boards I have both
+came with a jumper box for each bank.
+
+J2 -- Numbered 1 2 3 4 5 6.
+ 4 and 5 are not stamped due to solder points.
+
+J3 -- IRQ 2 3 4 5 6 7
+
+The board itself has a maple leaf stamped just above the irq jumpers
+and "-2 46-86" beside C2. Between C1 and C6 "ASS 'Y 300163" and "@1986
+CORMAN CUSTOM ELECTRONICS CORP." stamped just below the BNC connector.
+Below that "MADE IN CANADA"
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** No Name **
+8-bit cards, 16-bit cards
+-------------------------
+ - from Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+
+NONAME 8-BIT ARCNET
+===================
+
+I have named this ARCnet card "NONAME", since there is no name of any
+manufacturer on the Installation manual nor on the shipping box. The only
+hint to the existence of a manufacturer at all is written in copper,
+it is "Made in Taiwan"
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the Original
+ "ARCnet Installation Manual"
+
+
+ ________________________________________________________________
+ | |STAR| BUS| T/P| |
+ | |____|____|____| |
+ | _____________________ |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | | SMC | |
+ | | | |
+ | | COM90C65 | |
+ | | | |
+ | | | |
+ | |__________-__________| |
+ | _____|
+ | _______________ | CN |
+ | | PROM | |_____|
+ | > SOCKET | |
+ | |_______________| 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 |
+ | _______________ _______________ |
+ | |o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| | SW1 || SW2 ||
+ | |o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| |_______________||_______________||
+ |___ 2 3 4 5 7 E E R Node ID IOB__|__MEM____|
+ | \ IRQ / T T O |
+ |__________________1_2_M______________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+COM90C65: ARCnet Probe
+S1 1-8: Node ID Select
+S2 1-3: I/O Base Address Select
+ 4-6: Memory Base Address Select
+ 7-8: RAM Offset Select
+ET1, ET2 Extended Timeout Select
+ROM ROM Enable Select
+CN RG62 Coax Connector
+STAR| BUS | T/P Three fields for placing a sign (colored circle)
+ indicating the topology of the card
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in group SW1 are used to set the node ID.
+Each node attached to the network must have an unique node ID which
+must be different from 0.
+Switch 8 serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 8 | 1
+ 7 | 2
+ 6 | 4
+ 5 | 8
+ 4 | 16
+ 3 | 32
+ 2 | 64
+ 1 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The first three switches in switch group SW2 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 1 2 3 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260
+ ON ON OFF | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON OFF OFF | 2F0
+ OFF ON ON | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ OFF OFF ON | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer requires 2K of a 16K block of RAM. The base of this
+16K block can be located in any of eight positions.
+Switches 4-6 of switch group SW2 select the Base of the 16K block.
+Within that 16K address space, the buffer may be assigned any one of four
+positions, determined by the offset, switches 7 and 8 of group SW2.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 4 5 6 7 8 | Address | Address *)
+ -----------|---------|-----------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 | C0000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 0 1 | C0800 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 0 | C1000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 1 | C1800 | C2000
+ | |
+ 0 0 1 0 0 | C4000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 0 1 | C4800 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 0 | C5000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 1 | C5800 | C6000
+ | |
+ 0 1 0 0 0 | CC000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 0 1 | CC800 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 0 | CD000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 1 | CD800 | CE000
+ | |
+ 0 1 1 0 0 | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 0 1 | D0800 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 0 | D1000 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 1 | D1800 | D2000
+ | |
+ 1 0 0 0 0 | D4000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 0 1 | D4800 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 0 | D5000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 1 | D5800 | D6000
+ | |
+ 1 0 1 0 0 | D8000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 0 1 | D8800 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 0 | D9000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 1 | D9800 | DA000
+ | |
+ 1 1 0 0 0 | DC000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 0 1 | DC800 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 0 | DD000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 1 | DD800 | DE000
+ | |
+ 1 1 1 0 0 | E0000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 0 1 | E0800 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 0 | E1000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 1 | E1800 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the 8K Boot PROM install the jumper ROM.
+ The default is jumper ROM not installed.
+
+
+Setting Interrupt Request Lines (IRQ)
+-------------------------------------
+
+To select a hardware interrupt level set one (only one!) of the jumpers
+IRQ2, IRQ3, IRQ4, IRQ5 or IRQ7. The manufacturer's default is IRQ2.
+
+
+Setting the Timeouts
+--------------------
+
+The two jumpers labeled ET1 and ET2 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters (response and reconfiguration time). Every node in a network
+must be set to the same timeout values.
+
+ ET1 ET2 | Response Time (us) | Reconfiguration Time (ms)
+ --------|--------------------|--------------------------
+ Off Off | 78 | 840 (Default)
+ Off On | 285 | 1680
+ On Off | 563 | 1680
+ On On | 1130 | 1680
+
+On means jumper installed, Off means jumper not installed
+
+
+NONAME 16-BIT ARCNET
+====================
+
+The manual of my 8-Bit NONAME ARCnet Card contains another description
+of a 16-Bit Coax / Twisted Pair Card. This description is incomplete,
+because there are missing two pages in the manual booklet. (The table
+of contents reports pages ... 2-9, 2-11, 2-12, 3-1, ... but inside
+the booklet there is a different way of counting ... 2-9, 2-10, A-1,
+(empty page), 3-1, ..., 3-18, A-1 (again), A-2)
+Also the picture of the board layout is not as good as the picture of
+8-Bit card, because there isn't any letter like "SW1" written to the
+picture.
+Should somebody have such a board, please feel free to complete this
+description or to send a mail to me!
+
+This description has been written by Juergen Seifert <seifert@htwm.de>
+using information from the Original
+ "ARCnet Installation Manual"
+
+
+ ___________________________________________________________________
+ < _________________ _________________ |
+ > | SW? || SW? | |
+ < |_________________||_________________| |
+ > ____________________ |
+ < | | |
+ > | | |
+ < | | |
+ > | | |
+ < | | |
+ > | | |
+ < | | |
+ > |____________________| |
+ < ____|
+ > ____________________ | |
+ < | | | J1 |
+ > | < | |
+ < |____________________| ? ? ? ? ? ? |____|
+ > |o|o|o|o|o|o| |
+ < |o|o|o|o|o|o| |
+ > |
+ < __ ___________|
+ > | | |
+ <____________| |_______________________________________|
+
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in group SW2 are used to set the node ID.
+Each node attached to the network must have an unique node ID which
+must be different from 0.
+Switch 8 serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 8 | 1
+ 7 | 2
+ 6 | 4
+ 5 | 8
+ 4 | 16
+ 3 | 32
+ 2 | 64
+ 1 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The first three switches in switch group SW1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 3 2 1 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260
+ ON ON OFF | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON OFF OFF | 2F0
+ OFF ON ON | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ OFF OFF ON | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer requires 2K of a 16K block of RAM. The base of this
+16K block can be located in any of eight positions.
+Switches 6-8 of switch group SW1 select the Base of the 16K block.
+Within that 16K address space, the buffer may be assigned any one of four
+positions, determined by the offset, switches 4 and 5 of group SW1.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 8 7 6 5 4 | Address | Address
+ -----------|---------|-----------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 | C0000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 0 1 | C0800 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 0 | C1000 | C2000
+ 0 0 0 1 1 | C1800 | C2000
+ | |
+ 0 0 1 0 0 | C4000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 0 1 | C4800 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 0 | C5000 | C6000
+ 0 0 1 1 1 | C5800 | C6000
+ | |
+ 0 1 0 0 0 | CC000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 0 1 | CC800 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 0 | CD000 | CE000
+ 0 1 0 1 1 | CD800 | CE000
+ | |
+ 0 1 1 0 0 | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 0 1 | D0800 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 0 | D1000 | D2000
+ 0 1 1 1 1 | D1800 | D2000
+ | |
+ 1 0 0 0 0 | D4000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 0 1 | D4800 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 0 | D5000 | D6000
+ 1 0 0 1 1 | D5800 | D6000
+ | |
+ 1 0 1 0 0 | D8000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 0 1 | D8800 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 0 | D9000 | DA000
+ 1 0 1 1 1 | D9800 | DA000
+ | |
+ 1 1 0 0 0 | DC000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 0 1 | DC800 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 0 | DD000 | DE000
+ 1 1 0 1 1 | DD800 | DE000
+ | |
+ 1 1 1 0 0 | E0000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 0 1 | E0800 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 0 | E1000 | E2000
+ 1 1 1 1 1 | E1800 | E2000
+
+
+Setting Interrupt Request Lines (IRQ)
+-------------------------------------
+
+??????????????????????????????????????
+
+
+Setting the Timeouts
+--------------------
+
+??????????????????????????????????????
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** No Name **
+8-bit cards ("Made in Taiwan R.O.C.")
+-----------
+ - from Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@suse.cz>
+
+I have named this ARCnet card "NONAME", since I got only the card with
+no manual at all and the only text identifying the manufacturer is
+"MADE IN TAIWAN R.O.C" printed on the card.
+
+ ____________________________________________________________
+ | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 |
+ | |o|o| JP1 o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| ON |
+ | + o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| ___|
+ | _____________ o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| OFF _____ | | ID7
+ | | | SW1 | | | | ID6
+ | > RAM (2k) | ____________________ | H | | S | ID5
+ | |_____________| | || y | | W | ID4
+ | | || b | | 2 | ID3
+ | | || r | | | ID2
+ | | || i | | | ID1
+ | | 90C65 || d | |___| ID0
+ | SW3 | || | |
+ | |o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| ON | || I | |
+ | |o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| | || C | |
+ | |o|o|o|o|o|o|o|o| OFF |____________________|| | _____|
+ | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | | | |___
+ | ______________ | | | BNC |___|
+ | | | |_____| |_____|
+ | > EPROM SOCKET | |
+ | |______________| |
+ | ______________|
+ | |
+ |_____________________________________________|
+
+Legend:
+
+90C65 ARCNET Chip
+SW1 1-5: Base Memory Address Select
+ 6-8: Base I/O Address Select
+SW2 1-8: Node ID Select (ID0-ID7)
+SW3 1-5: IRQ Select
+ 6-7: Extra Timeout
+ 8 : ROM Enable
+JP1 Led connector
+BNC Coax connector
+
+Although the jumpers SW1 and SW3 are marked SW, not JP, they are jumpers, not
+switches.
+
+Setting the jumpers to ON means connecting the upper two pins, off the bottom
+two - or - in case of IRQ setting, connecting none of them at all.
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in SW2 are used to set the node ID. Each node attached
+to the network must have an unique node ID which must not be 0.
+Switch 1 (ID0) serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+
+Setting one of the switches to Off means "1", On means "0".
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+
+ Switch | Label | Value
+ -------|-------|-------
+ 1 | ID0 | 1
+ 2 | ID1 | 2
+ 3 | ID2 | 4
+ 4 | ID3 | 8
+ 5 | ID4 | 16
+ 6 | ID5 | 32
+ 7 | ID6 | 64
+ 8 | ID7 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch | Hex | Decimal
+ 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Node ID | Node ID
+ ----------------|---------|---------
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2
+ 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3
+ . . . | |
+ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85
+ . . . | |
+ 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170
+ . . . | |
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254
+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The last three switches in switch block SW1 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 6 7 8 | Address
+ ------------|--------
+ ON ON ON | 260
+ OFF ON ON | 290
+ ON OFF ON | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ OFF OFF ON | 2F0
+ ON ON OFF | 300
+ OFF ON OFF | 350
+ ON OFF OFF | 380
+ OFF OFF OFF | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory (RAM) buffer Address
+--------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer (RAM) requires 2K. The base of this buffer can be
+located in any of eight positions. The address of the Boot Prom is
+memory base + 0x2000.
+Jumpers 3-5 of jumper block SW1 select the Memory Base address.
+
+ Switch | Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 1 2 3 4 5 | Address | Address *)
+ --------------------|---------|-----------
+ ON ON ON ON ON | C0000 | C2000
+ ON ON OFF ON ON | C4000 | C6000
+ ON ON ON OFF ON | CC000 | CE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF ON | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ ON ON ON ON OFF | D4000 | D6000
+ ON ON OFF ON OFF | D8000 | DA000
+ ON ON ON OFF OFF | DC000 | DE000
+ ON ON OFF OFF OFF | E0000 | E2000
+
+*) To enable the Boot ROM set the jumper 8 of jumper block SW3 to position ON.
+
+The jumpers 1 and 2 probably add 0x0800, 0x1000 and 0x1800 to RAM adders.
+
+Setting the Interrupt Line
+--------------------------
+
+Jumpers 1-5 of the jumper block SW3 control the IRQ level.
+
+ Jumper | IRQ
+ 1 2 3 4 5 |
+ ----------------------------
+ ON OFF OFF OFF OFF | 2
+ OFF ON OFF OFF OFF | 3
+ OFF OFF ON OFF OFF | 4
+ OFF OFF OFF ON OFF | 5
+ OFF OFF OFF OFF ON | 7
+
+
+Setting the Timeout Parameters
+------------------------------
+
+The jumpers 6-7 of the jumper block SW3 are used to determine the timeout
+parameters. These two jumpers are normally left in the OFF position.
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** No Name **
+(Generic Model 9058)
+--------------------
+ - from Andrew J. Kroll <ag784@freenet.buffalo.edu>
+ - Sorry this sat in my to-do box for so long, Andrew! (yikes - over a
+ year!)
+ _____
+ | <
+ | .---'
+ ________________________________________________________________ | |
+ | | SW2 | | |
+ | ___________ |_____________| | |
+ | | | 1 2 3 4 5 6 ___| |
+ | > 6116 RAM | _________ 8 | | |
+ | |___________| |20MHzXtal| 7 | | |
+ | |_________| __________ 6 | S | |
+ | 74LS373 | |- 5 | W | |
+ | _________ | E |- 4 | | |
+ | >_______| ______________|..... P |- 3 | 3 | |
+ | | | : O |- 2 | | |
+ | | | : X |- 1 |___| |
+ | ________________ | | : Y |- | |
+ | | SW1 | | SL90C65 | : |- | |
+ | |________________| | | : B |- | |
+ | 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 | | : O |- | |
+ | |_________o____|..../ A |- _______| |
+ | ____________________ | R |- | |------,
+ | | | | D |- | BNC | # |
+ | > 2764 PROM SOCKET | |__________|- |_______|------'
+ | |____________________| _________ | |
+ | >________| <- 74LS245 | |
+ | | |
+ |___ ______________| |
+ |H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H| | |
+ |U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U_U| | |
+ \|
+Legend:
+
+SL90C65 ARCNET Controller / Transceiver /Logic
+SW1 1-5: IRQ Select
+ 6: ET1
+ 7: ET2
+ 8: ROM ENABLE
+SW2 1-3: Memory Buffer/PROM Address
+ 3-6: I/O Address Map
+SW3 1-8: Node ID Select
+BNC BNC RG62/U Connection
+ *I* have had success using RG59B/U with *NO* terminators!
+ What gives?!
+
+SW1: Timeouts, Interrupt and ROM
+---------------------------------
+
+To select a hardware interrupt level set one (only one!) of the dip switches
+up (on) SW1...(switches 1-5)
+IRQ3, IRQ4, IRQ5, IRQ7, IRQ2. The Manufacturer's default is IRQ2.
+
+The switches on SW1 labeled EXT1 (switch 6) and EXT2 (switch 7)
+are used to determine the timeout parameters. These two dip switches
+are normally left off (down).
+
+ To enable the 8K Boot PROM position SW1 switch 8 on (UP) labeled ROM.
+ The default is jumper ROM not installed.
+
+
+Setting the I/O Base Address
+----------------------------
+
+The last three switches in switch group SW2 are used to select one
+of eight possible I/O Base addresses using the following table
+
+
+ Switch | Hex I/O
+ 4 5 6 | Address
+ -------|--------
+ 0 0 0 | 260
+ 0 0 1 | 290
+ 0 1 0 | 2E0 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 1 | 2F0
+ 1 0 0 | 300
+ 1 0 1 | 350
+ 1 1 0 | 380
+ 1 1 1 | 3E0
+
+
+Setting the Base Memory Address (RAM & ROM)
+-------------------------------------------
+
+The memory buffer requires 2K of a 16K block of RAM. The base of this
+16K block can be located in any of eight positions.
+Switches 1-3 of switch group SW2 select the Base of the 16K block.
+(0 = DOWN, 1 = UP)
+I could, however, only verify two settings...
+
+ Switch| Hex RAM | Hex ROM
+ 1 2 3 | Address | Address
+ ------|---------|-----------
+ 0 0 0 | E0000 | E2000
+ 0 0 1 | D0000 | D2000 (Manufacturer's default)
+ 0 1 0 | ????? | ?????
+ 0 1 1 | ????? | ?????
+ 1 0 0 | ????? | ?????
+ 1 0 1 | ????? | ?????
+ 1 1 0 | ????? | ?????
+ 1 1 1 | ????? | ?????
+
+
+Setting the Node ID
+-------------------
+
+The eight switches in group SW3 are used to set the node ID.
+Each node attached to the network must have an unique node ID which
+must be different from 0.
+Switch 1 serves as the least significant bit (LSB).
+switches in the DOWN position are OFF (0) and in the UP position are ON (1)
+
+The node ID is the sum of the values of all switches set to "1"
+These values are:
+ Switch | Value
+ -------|-------
+ 1 | 1
+ 2 | 2
+ 3 | 4
+ 4 | 8
+ 5 | 16
+ 6 | 32
+ 7 | 64
+ 8 | 128
+
+Some Examples:
+
+ Switch# | Hex | Decimal
+8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 | Node ID | Node ID
+----------------|---------|---------
+0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 | not allowed <-.
+0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 | 1 | 1 |
+0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 | 2 | 2 |
+0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 | 3 | 3 |
+ . . . | | |
+0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 | 55 | 85 |
+ . . . | | + Don't use 0 or 255!
+1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 | AA | 170 |
+ . . . | | |
+1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 | FD | 253 |
+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 | FE | 254 |
+1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | FF | 255 <-'
+
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+** Tiara **
+(model unknown)
+-------------------------
+ - from Christoph Lameter <christoph@lameter.com>
+
+
+Here is information about my card as far as I could figure it out:
+----------------------------------------------- tiara
+Tiara LanCard of Tiara Computer Systems.
+
++----------------------------------------------+
+! ! Transmitter Unit ! !
+! +------------------+ -------
+! MEM Coax Connector
+! ROM 7654321 <- I/O -------
+! : : +--------+ !
+! : : ! 90C66LJ! +++
+! : : ! ! !D Switch to set
+! : : ! ! !I the Nodenumber
+! : : +--------+ !P
+! !++
+! 234567 <- IRQ !
++------------!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!--------+
+ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
+
+0 = Jumper Installed
+1 = Open
+
+Top Jumper line Bit 7 = ROM Enable 654=Memory location 321=I/O
+
+Settings for Memory Location (Top Jumper Line)
+456 Address selected
+000 C0000
+001 C4000
+010 CC000
+011 D0000
+100 D4000
+101 D8000
+110 DC000
+111 E0000
+
+Settings for I/O Address (Top Jumper Line)
+123 Port
+000 260
+001 290
+010 2E0
+011 2F0
+100 300
+101 350
+110 380
+111 3E0
+
+Settings for IRQ Selection (Lower Jumper Line)
+234567
+011111 IRQ 2
+101111 IRQ 3
+110111 IRQ 4
+111011 IRQ 5
+111110 IRQ 7
+
+*****************************************************************************
+
+
+Other Cards
+-----------
+
+I have no information on other models of ARCnet cards at the moment. Please
+send any and all info to:
+ apenwarr@worldvisions.ca
+
+Thanks.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/arcnet.txt b/Documentation/networking/arcnet.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..770fc41a78e8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/arcnet.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,555 @@
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+NOTE: See also arcnet-hardware.txt in this directory for jumper-setting
+and cabling information if you're like many of us and didn't happen to get a
+manual with your ARCnet card.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Since no one seems to listen to me otherwise, perhaps a poem will get your
+attention:
+ This driver's getting fat and beefy,
+ But my cat is still named Fifi.
+
+Hmm, I think I'm allowed to call that a poem, even though it's only two
+lines. Hey, I'm in Computer Science, not English. Give me a break.
+
+The point is: I REALLY REALLY REALLY REALLY REALLY want to hear from you if
+you test this and get it working. Or if you don't. Or anything.
+
+ARCnet 0.32 ALPHA first made it into the Linux kernel 1.1.80 - this was
+nice, but after that even FEWER people started writing to me because they
+didn't even have to install the patch. <sigh>
+
+Come on, be a sport! Send me a success report!
+
+(hey, that was even better than my original poem... this is getting bad!)
+
+
+--------
+WARNING:
+--------
+
+If you don't e-mail me about your success/failure soon, I may be forced to
+start SINGING. And we don't want that, do we?
+
+(You know, it might be argued that I'm pushing this point a little too much.
+If you think so, why not flame me in a quick little e-mail? Please also
+include the type of card(s) you're using, software, size of network, and
+whether it's working or not.)
+
+My e-mail address is: apenwarr@worldvisions.ca
+
+
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+These are the ARCnet drivers for Linux.
+
+
+This new release (2.91) has been put together by David Woodhouse
+<dwmw2@cam.ac.uk>, in an attempt to tidy up the driver after adding support
+for yet another chipset. Now the generic support has been separated from the
+individual chipset drivers, and the source files aren't quite so packed with
+#ifdefs! I've changed this file a bit, but kept it in the first person from
+Avery, because I didn't want to completely rewrite it.
+
+The previous release resulted from many months of on-and-off effort from me
+(Avery Pennarun), many bug reports/fixes and suggestions from others, and in
+particular a lot of input and coding from Tomasz Motylewski. Starting with
+ARCnet 2.10 ALPHA, Tomasz's all-new-and-improved RFC1051 support has been
+included and seems to be working fine!
+
+
+Where do I discuss these drivers?
+---------------------------------
+
+Tomasz has been so kind as to set up a new and improved mailing list.
+Subscribe by sending a message with the BODY "subscribe linux-arcnet YOUR
+REAL NAME" to listserv@tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl. Then, to submit messages to the
+list, mail to linux-arcnet@tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl.
+
+There are archives of the mailing list at:
+ http://tichy.ch.uj.edu.pl/lists/linux-arcnet
+
+The people on linux-net@vger.kernel.org have also been known to be very
+helpful, especially when we're talking about ALPHA Linux kernels that may or
+may not work right in the first place.
+
+
+Other Drivers and Info
+----------------------
+
+You can try my ARCNET page on the World Wide Web at:
+ http://www.worldvisions.ca/~apenwarr/arcnet/
+
+Also, SMC (one of the companies that makes ARCnet cards) has a WWW site you
+might be interested in, which includes several drivers for various cards
+including ARCnet. Try:
+ http://www.smc.com/
+
+Performance Technologies makes various network software that supports
+ARCnet:
+ http://www.perftech.com/ or ftp to ftp.perftech.com.
+
+Novell makes a networking stack for DOS which includes ARCnet drivers. Try
+FTPing to ftp.novell.com.
+
+You can get the Crynwr packet driver collection (including arcether.com, the
+one you'll want to use with ARCnet cards) from
+oak.oakland.edu:/simtel/msdos/pktdrvr. It won't work perfectly on a 386+
+without patches, though, and also doesn't like several cards. Fixed
+versions are available on my WWW page, or via e-mail if you don't have WWW
+access.
+
+
+Installing the Driver
+---------------------
+
+All you will need to do in order to install the driver is:
+ make config
+ (be sure to choose ARCnet in the network devices
+ and at least one chipset driver.)
+ make clean
+ make zImage
+
+If you obtained this ARCnet package as an upgrade to the ARCnet driver in
+your current kernel, you will need to first copy arcnet.c over the one in
+the linux/drivers/net directory.
+
+You will know the driver is installed properly if you get some ARCnet
+messages when you reboot into the new Linux kernel.
+
+There are four chipset options:
+
+ 1. Standard ARCnet COM90xx chipset.
+
+This is the normal ARCnet card, which you've probably got. This is the only
+chipset driver which will autoprobe if not told where the card is.
+It following options on the command line:
+ com90xx=[<io>[,<irq>[,<shmem>]]][,<name>] | <name>
+
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> shmem=<shmem> device=<name>
+
+To disable the autoprobe, just specify "com90xx=" on the kernel command line.
+To specify the name alone, but allow autoprobe, just put "com90xx=<name>"
+
+ 2. ARCnet COM20020 chipset.
+
+This is the new chipset from SMC with support for promiscuous mode (packet
+sniffing), extra diagnostic information, etc. Unfortunately, there is no
+sensible method of autoprobing for these cards. You must specify the I/O
+address on the kernel command line.
+The command line options are:
+ com20020=<io>[,<irq>[,<node_ID>[,backplane[,CKP[,timeout]]]]][,name]
+
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> node=<node_ID> backplane=<backplane> clock=<CKP>
+ timeout=<timeout> device=<name>
+
+The COM20020 chipset allows you to set the node ID in software, overriding the
+default which is still set in DIP switches on the card. If you don't have the
+COM20020 data sheets, and you don't know what the other three options refer
+to, then they won't interest you - forget them.
+
+ 3. ARCnet COM90xx chipset in IO-mapped mode.
+
+This will also work with the normal ARCnet cards, but doesn't use the shared
+memory. It performs less well than the above driver, but is provided in case
+you have a card which doesn't support shared memory, or (strangely) in case
+you have so many ARCnet cards in your machine that you run out of shmem slots.
+If you don't give the IO address on the kernel command line, then the driver
+will not find the card.
+The command line options are:
+ com90io=<io>[,<irq>][,<name>]
+
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ io=<io> irq=<irq> device=<name>
+
+ 4. ARCnet RIM I cards.
+
+These are COM90xx chips which are _completely_ memory mapped. The support for
+these is not tested. If you have one, please mail the author with a success
+report. All options must be specified, except the device name.
+Command line options:
+ arcrimi=<shmem>,<irq>,<node_ID>[,<name>]
+
+If you load the chipset support as a module, the options are:
+ shmem=<shmem> irq=<irq> node=<node_ID> device=<name>
+
+
+Loadable Module Support
+-----------------------
+
+Configure and rebuild Linux. When asked, answer 'm' to "Generic ARCnet
+support" and to support for your ARCnet chipset if you want to use the
+loadable module. You can also say 'y' to "Generic ARCnet support" and 'm'
+to the chipset support if you wish.
+
+ make config
+ make clean
+ make zImage
+ make modules
+
+If you're using a loadable module, you need to use insmod to load it, and
+you can specify various characteristics of your card on the command
+line. (In recent versions of the driver, autoprobing is much more reliable
+and works as a module, so most of this is now unnecessary.)
+
+For example:
+ cd /usr/src/linux/modules
+ insmod arcnet.o
+ insmod com90xx.o
+ insmod com20020.o io=0x2e0 device=eth1
+
+
+Using the Driver
+----------------
+
+If you build your kernel with ARCnet COM90xx support included, it should
+probe for your card automatically when you boot. If you use a different
+chipset driver complied into the kernel, you must give the necessary options
+on the kernel command line, as detailed above.
+
+Go read the NET-2-HOWTO and ETHERNET-HOWTO for Linux; they should be
+available where you picked up this driver. Think of your ARCnet as a
+souped-up (or down, as the case may be) Ethernet card.
+
+By the way, be sure to change all references from "eth0" to "arc0" in the
+HOWTOs. Remember that ARCnet isn't a "true" Ethernet, and the device name
+is DIFFERENT.
+
+
+Multiple Cards in One Computer
+------------------------------
+
+Linux has pretty good support for this now, but since I've been busy, the
+ARCnet driver has somewhat suffered in this respect. COM90xx support, if
+compiled into the kernel, will (try to) autodetect all the installed cards.
+
+If you have other cards, with support compiled into the kernel, then you can
+just repeat the options on the kernel command line, e.g.:
+LILO: linux com20020=0x2e0 com20020=0x380 com90io=0x260
+
+If you have the chipset support built as a loadable module, then you need to
+do something like this:
+ insmod -o arc0 com90xx
+ insmod -o arc1 com20020 io=0x2e0
+ insmod -o arc2 com90xx
+The ARCnet drivers will now sort out their names automatically.
+
+
+How do I get it to work with...?
+--------------------------------
+
+NFS: Should be fine linux->linux, just pretend you're using Ethernet cards.
+ oak.oakland.edu:/simtel/msdos/nfs has some nice DOS clients. There
+ is also a DOS-based NFS server called SOSS. It doesn't multitask
+ quite the way Linux does (actually, it doesn't multitask AT ALL) but
+ you never know what you might need.
+
+ With AmiTCP (and possibly others), you may need to set the following
+ options in your Amiga nfstab: MD 1024 MR 1024 MW 1024
+ (Thanks to Christian Gottschling <ferksy@indigo.tng.oche.de>
+ for this.)
+
+ Probably these refer to maximum NFS data/read/write block sizes. I
+ don't know why the defaults on the Amiga didn't work; write to me if
+ you know more.
+
+DOS: If you're using the freeware arcether.com, you might want to install
+ the driver patch from my web page. It helps with PC/TCP, and also
+ can get arcether to load if it timed out too quickly during
+ initialization. In fact, if you use it on a 386+ you REALLY need
+ the patch, really.
+
+Windows: See DOS :) Trumpet Winsock works fine with either the Novell or
+ Arcether client, assuming you remember to load winpkt of course.
+
+LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups: These programs use protocols that
+ are incompatible with the Internet standard. They try to pretend
+ the cards are Ethernet, and confuse everyone else on the network.
+
+ However, v2.00 and higher of the Linux ARCnet driver supports this
+ protocol via the 'arc0e' device. See the section on "Multiprotocol
+ Support" for more information.
+
+ Using the freeware Samba server and clients for Linux, you can now
+ interface quite nicely with TCP/IP-based WfWg or Lan Manager
+ networks.
+
+Windows 95: Tools are included with Win95 that let you use either the LANMAN
+ style network drivers (NDIS) or Novell drivers (ODI) to handle your
+ ARCnet packets. If you use ODI, you'll need to use the 'arc0'
+ device with Linux. If you use NDIS, then try the 'arc0e' device.
+ See the "Multiprotocol Support" section below if you need arc0e,
+ you're completely insane, and/or you need to build some kind of
+ hybrid network that uses both encapsulation types.
+
+OS/2: I've been told it works under Warp Connect with an ARCnet driver from
+ SMC. You need to use the 'arc0e' interface for this. If you get
+ the SMC driver to work with the TCP/IP stuff included in the
+ "normal" Warp Bonus Pack, let me know.
+
+ ftp.microsoft.com also has a freeware "Lan Manager for OS/2" client
+ which should use the same protocol as WfWg does. I had no luck
+ installing it under Warp, however. Please mail me with any results.
+
+NetBSD/AmiTCP: These use an old version of the Internet standard ARCnet
+ protocol (RFC1051) which is compatible with the Linux driver v2.10
+ ALPHA and above using the arc0s device. (See "Multiprotocol ARCnet"
+ below.) ** Newer versions of NetBSD apparently support RFC1201.
+
+
+Using Multiprotocol ARCnet
+--------------------------
+
+The ARCnet driver v2.10 ALPHA supports three protocols, each on its own
+"virtual network device":
+
+ arc0 - RFC1201 protocol, the official Internet standard which just
+ happens to be 100% compatible with Novell's TRXNET driver.
+ Version 1.00 of the ARCnet driver supported _only_ this
+ protocol. arc0 is the fastest of the three protocols (for
+ whatever reason), and allows larger packets to be used
+ because it supports RFC1201 "packet splitting" operations.
+ Unless you have a specific need to use a different protocol,
+ I strongly suggest that you stick with this one.
+
+ arc0e - "Ethernet-Encapsulation" which sends packets over ARCnet
+ that are actually a lot like Ethernet packets, including the
+ 6-byte hardware addresses. This protocol is compatible with
+ Microsoft's NDIS ARCnet driver, like the one in WfWg and
+ LANMAN. Because the MTU of 493 is actually smaller than the
+ one "required" by TCP/IP (576), there is a chance that some
+ network operations will not function properly. The Linux
+ TCP/IP layer can compensate in most cases, however, by
+ automatically fragmenting the TCP/IP packets to make them
+ fit. arc0e also works slightly more slowly than arc0, for
+ reasons yet to be determined. (Probably it's the smaller
+ MTU that does it.)
+
+ arc0s - The "[s]imple" RFC1051 protocol is the "previous" Internet
+ standard that is completely incompatible with the new
+ standard. Some software today, however, continues to
+ support the old standard (and only the old standard)
+ including NetBSD and AmiTCP. RFC1051 also does not support
+ RFC1201's packet splitting, and the MTU of 507 is still
+ smaller than the Internet "requirement," so it's quite
+ possible that you may run into problems. It's also slower
+ than RFC1201 by about 25%, for the same reason as arc0e.
+
+ The arc0s support was contributed by Tomasz Motylewski
+ and modified somewhat by me. Bugs are probably my fault.
+
+You can choose not to compile arc0e and arc0s into the driver if you want -
+this will save you a bit of memory and avoid confusion when eg. trying to
+use the "NFS-root" stuff in recent Linux kernels.
+
+The arc0e and arc0s devices are created automatically when you first
+ifconfig the arc0 device. To actually use them, though, you need to also
+ifconfig the other virtual devices you need. There are a number of ways you
+can set up your network then:
+
+
+1. Single Protocol.
+
+ This is the simplest way to configure your network: use just one of the
+ two available protocols. As mentioned above, it's a good idea to use
+ only arc0 unless you have a good reason (like some other software, ie.
+ WfWg, that only works with arc0e).
+
+ If you need only arc0, then the following commands should get you going:
+ ifconfig arc0 MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ route add MY.IP.ADD.RESS arc0
+ route add -net SUB.NET.ADD.RESS arc0
+ [add other local routes here]
+
+ If you need arc0e (and only arc0e), it's a little different:
+ ifconfig arc0 MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ ifconfig arc0e MY.IP.ADD.RESS
+ route add MY.IP.ADD.RESS arc0e
+ route add -net SUB.NET.ADD.RESS arc0e
+
+ arc0s works much the same way as arc0e.
+
+
+2. More than one protocol on the same wire.
+
+ Now things start getting confusing. To even try it, you may need to be
+ partly crazy. Here's what *I* did. :) Note that I don't include arc0s in
+ my home network; I don't have any NetBSD or AmiTCP computers, so I only
+ use arc0s during limited testing.
+
+ I have three computers on my home network; two Linux boxes (which prefer
+ RFC1201 protocol, for reasons listed above), and one XT that can't run
+ Linux but runs the free Microsoft LANMAN Client instead.
+
+ Worse, one of the Linux computers (freedom) also has a modem and acts as
+ a router to my Internet provider. The other Linux box (insight) also has
+ its own IP address and needs to use freedom as its default gateway. The
+ XT (patience), however, does not have its own Internet IP address and so
+ I assigned it one on a "private subnet" (as defined by RFC1597).
+
+ To start with, take a simple network with just insight and freedom.
+ Insight needs to:
+ - talk to freedom via RFC1201 (arc0) protocol, because I like it
+ more and it's faster.
+ - use freedom as its Internet gateway.
+
+ That's pretty easy to do. Set up insight like this:
+ ifconfig arc0 insight
+ route add insight arc0
+ route add freedom arc0 /* I would use the subnet here (like I said
+ to to in "single protocol" above),
+ but the rest of the subnet
+ unfortunately lies across the PPP
+ link on freedom, which confuses
+ things. */
+ route add default gw freedom
+
+ And freedom gets configured like so:
+ ifconfig arc0 freedom
+ route add freedom arc0
+ route add insight arc0
+ /* and default gateway is configured by pppd */
+
+ Great, now insight talks to freedom directly on arc0, and sends packets
+ to the Internet through freedom. If you didn't know how to do the above,
+ you should probably stop reading this section now because it only gets
+ worse.
+
+ Now, how do I add patience into the network? It will be using LANMAN
+ Client, which means I need the arc0e device. It needs to be able to talk
+ to both insight and freedom, and also use freedom as a gateway to the
+ Internet. (Recall that patience has a "private IP address" which won't
+ work on the Internet; that's okay, I configured Linux IP masquerading on
+ freedom for this subnet).
+
+ So patience (necessarily; I don't have another IP number from my
+ provider) has an IP address on a different subnet than freedom and
+ insight, but needs to use freedom as an Internet gateway. Worse, most
+ DOS networking programs, including LANMAN, have braindead networking
+ schemes that rely completely on the netmask and a 'default gateway' to
+ determine how to route packets. This means that to get to freedom or
+ insight, patience WILL send through its default gateway, regardless of
+ the fact that both freedom and insight (courtesy of the arc0e device)
+ could understand a direct transmission.
+
+ I compensate by giving freedom an extra IP address - aliased 'gatekeeper'
+ - that is on my private subnet, the same subnet that patience is on. I
+ then define gatekeeper to be the default gateway for patience.
+
+ To configure freedom (in addition to the commands above):
+ ifconfig arc0e gatekeeper
+ route add gatekeeper arc0e
+ route add patience arc0e
+
+ This way, freedom will send all packets for patience through arc0e,
+ giving its IP address as gatekeeper (on the private subnet). When it
+ talks to insight or the Internet, it will use its "freedom" Internet IP
+ address.
+
+ You will notice that we haven't configured the arc0e device on insight.
+ This would work, but is not really necessary, and would require me to
+ assign insight another special IP number from my private subnet. Since
+ both insight and patience are using freedom as their default gateway, the
+ two can already talk to each other.
+
+ It's quite fortunate that I set things up like this the first time (cough
+ cough) because it's really handy when I boot insight into DOS. There, it
+ runs the Novell ODI protocol stack, which only works with RFC1201 ARCnet.
+ In this mode it would be impossible for insight to communicate directly
+ with patience, since the Novell stack is incompatible with Microsoft's
+ Ethernet-Encap. Without changing any settings on freedom or patience, I
+ simply set freedom as the default gateway for insight (now in DOS,
+ remember) and all the forwarding happens "automagically" between the two
+ hosts that would normally not be able to communicate at all.
+
+ For those who like diagrams, I have created two "virtual subnets" on the
+ same physical ARCnet wire. You can picture it like this:
+
+
+ [RFC1201 NETWORK] [ETHER-ENCAP NETWORK]
+ (registered Internet subnet) (RFC1597 private subnet)
+
+ (IP Masquerade)
+ /---------------\ * /---------------\
+ | | * | |
+ | +-Freedom-*-Gatekeeper-+ |
+ | | | * | |
+ \-------+-------/ | * \-------+-------/
+ | | |
+ Insight | Patience
+ (Internet)
+
+
+
+It works: what now?
+-------------------
+
+Send mail describing your setup, preferably including driver version, kernel
+version, ARCnet card model, CPU type, number of systems on your network, and
+list of software in use to me at the following address:
+ apenwarr@worldvisions.ca
+
+I do send (sometimes automated) replies to all messages I receive. My email
+can be weird (and also usually gets forwarded all over the place along the
+way to me), so if you don't get a reply within a reasonable time, please
+resend.
+
+
+It doesn't work: what now?
+--------------------------
+
+Do the same as above, but also include the output of the ifconfig and route
+commands, as well as any pertinent log entries (ie. anything that starts
+with "arcnet:" and has shown up since the last reboot) in your mail.
+
+If you want to try fixing it yourself (I strongly recommend that you mail me
+about the problem first, since it might already have been solved) you may
+want to try some of the debug levels available. For heavy testing on
+D_DURING or more, it would be a REALLY good idea to kill your klogd daemon
+first! D_DURING displays 4-5 lines for each packet sent or received. D_TX,
+D_RX, and D_SKB actually DISPLAY each packet as it is sent or received,
+which is obviously quite big.
+
+Starting with v2.40 ALPHA, the autoprobe routines have changed
+significantly. In particular, they won't tell you why the card was not
+found unless you turn on the D_INIT_REASONS debugging flag.
+
+Once the driver is running, you can run the arcdump shell script (available
+from me or in the full ARCnet package, if you have it) as root to list the
+contents of the arcnet buffers at any time. To make any sense at all out of
+this, you should grab the pertinent RFCs. (some are listed near the top of
+arcnet.c). arcdump assumes your card is at 0xD0000. If it isn't, edit the
+script.
+
+Buffers 0 and 1 are used for receiving, and Buffers 2 and 3 are for sending.
+Ping-pong buffers are implemented both ways.
+
+If your debug level includes D_DURING and you did NOT define SLOW_XMIT_COPY,
+the buffers are cleared to a constant value of 0x42 every time the card is
+reset (which should only happen when you do an ifconfig up, or when Linux
+decides that the driver is broken). During a transmit, unused parts of the
+buffer will be cleared to 0x42 as well. This is to make it easier to figure
+out which bytes are being used by a packet.
+
+You can change the debug level without recompiling the kernel by typing:
+ ifconfig arc0 down metric 1xxx
+ /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1
+where "xxx" is the debug level you want. For example, "metric 1015" would put
+you at debug level 15. Debug level 7 is currently the default.
+
+Note that the debug level is (starting with v1.90 ALPHA) a binary
+combination of different debug flags; so debug level 7 is really 1+2+4 or
+D_NORMAL+D_EXTRA+D_INIT. To include D_DURING, you would add 16 to this,
+resulting in debug level 23.
+
+If you don't understand that, you probably don't want to know anyway.
+E-mail me about your problem.
+
+
+I want to send money: what now?
+-------------------------------
+
+Go take a nap or something. You'll feel better in the morning.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/atm.txt b/Documentation/networking/atm.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..82921cee77fe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/atm.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+In order to use anything but the most primitive functions of ATM,
+several user-mode programs are required to assist the kernel. These
+programs and related material can be found via the ATM on Linux Web
+page at http://linux-atm.sourceforge.net/
+
+If you encounter problems with ATM, please report them on the ATM
+on Linux mailing list. Subscription information, archives, etc.,
+can be found on http://linux-atm.sourceforge.net/
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ax25.txt b/Documentation/networking/ax25.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..37c25b0925f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ax25.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+To use the amateur radio protocols within Linux you will need to get a
+suitable copy of the AX.25 Utilities. More detailed information about these
+and associated programs can be found on http://zone.pspt.fi/~jsn/.
+
+For more information about the AX.25, NET/ROM and ROSE protocol stacks, see
+the AX25-HOWTO written by Terry Dawson <terry@perf.no.itg.telstra.com.au>
+who is also the AX.25 Utilities maintainer.
+
+There is an active mailing list for discussing Linux amateur radio matters
+called linux-hams. To subscribe to it, send a message to
+majordomo@vger.kernel.org with the words "subscribe linux-hams" in the body
+of the message, the subject field is ignored.
+
+Jonathan G4KLX
+
+g4klx@g4klx.demon.co.uk
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt b/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4e68849d5639
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/baycom.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,158 @@
+ LINUX DRIVERS FOR BAYCOM MODEMS
+
+ Thomas M. Sailer, HB9JNX/AE4WA, <sailer@ife.ee.ethz.ch>
+
+!!NEW!! (04/98) The drivers for the baycom modems have been split into
+separate drivers as they did not share any code, and the driver
+and device names have changed.
+
+This document describes the Linux Kernel Drivers for simple Baycom style
+amateur radio modems.
+
+The following drivers are available:
+
+baycom_ser_fdx:
+ This driver supports the SER12 modems either full or half duplex.
+ Its baud rate may be changed via the `baud' module parameter,
+ therefore it supports just about every bit bang modem on a
+ serial port. Its devices are called bcsf0 through bcsf3.
+ This is the recommended driver for SER12 type modems,
+ however if you have a broken UART clone that does not have working
+ delta status bits, you may try baycom_ser_hdx.
+
+baycom_ser_hdx:
+ This is an alternative driver for SER12 type modems.
+ It only supports half duplex, and only 1200 baud. Its devices
+ are called bcsh0 through bcsh3. Use this driver only if baycom_ser_fdx
+ does not work with your UART.
+
+baycom_par:
+ This driver supports the par96 and picpar modems.
+ Its devices are called bcp0 through bcp3.
+
+baycom_epp:
+ This driver supports the EPP modem.
+ Its devices are called bce0 through bce3.
+ This driver is work-in-progress.
+
+The following modems are supported:
+
+ser12: This is a very simple 1200 baud AFSK modem. The modem consists only
+ of a modulator/demodulator chip, usually a TI TCM3105. The computer
+ is responsible for regenerating the receiver bit clock, as well as
+ for handling the HDLC protocol. The modem connects to a serial port,
+ hence the name. Since the serial port is not used as an async serial
+ port, the kernel driver for serial ports cannot be used, and this
+ driver only supports standard serial hardware (8250, 16450, 16550)
+
+par96: This is a modem for 9600 baud FSK compatible to the G3RUH standard.
+ The modem does all the filtering and regenerates the receiver clock.
+ Data is transferred from and to the PC via a shift register.
+ The shift register is filled with 16 bits and an interrupt is signalled.
+ The PC then empties the shift register in a burst. This modem connects
+ to the parallel port, hence the name. The modem leaves the
+ implementation of the HDLC protocol and the scrambler polynomial to
+ the PC.
+
+picpar: This is a redesign of the par96 modem by Henning Rech, DF9IC. The modem
+ is protocol compatible to par96, but uses only three low power ICs
+ and can therefore be fed from the parallel port and does not require
+ an additional power supply. Furthermore, it incorporates a carrier
+ detect circuitry.
+
+EPP: This is a high-speed modem adaptor that connects to an enhanced parallel port.
+ Its target audience is users working over a high speed hub (76.8kbit/s).
+
+eppfpga: This is a redesign of the EPP adaptor.
+
+
+
+All of the above modems only support half duplex communications. However,
+the driver supports the KISS (see below) fullduplex command. It then simply
+starts to send as soon as there's a packet to transmit and does not care
+about DCD, i.e. it starts to send even if there's someone else on the channel.
+This command is required by some implementations of the DAMA channel
+access protocol.
+
+
+The Interface of the drivers
+
+Unlike previous drivers, these drivers are no longer character devices,
+but they are now true kernel network interfaces. Installation is therefore
+simple. Once installed, four interfaces named bc{sf,sh,p,e}[0-3] are available.
+sethdlc from the ax25 utilities may be used to set driver states etc.
+Users of userland AX.25 stacks may use the net2kiss utility (also available
+in the ax25 utilities package) to convert packets of a network interface
+to a KISS stream on a pseudo tty. There's also a patch available from
+me for WAMPES which allows attaching a kernel network interface directly.
+
+
+Configuring the driver
+
+Every time a driver is inserted into the kernel, it has to know which
+modems it should access at which ports. This can be done with the setbaycom
+utility. If you are only using one modem, you can also configure the
+driver from the insmod command line (or by means of an option line in
+/etc/modprobe.conf).
+
+Examples:
+ modprobe baycom_ser_fdx mode="ser12*" iobase=0x3f8 irq=4
+ sethdlc -i bcsf0 -p mode "ser12*" io 0x3f8 irq 4
+
+Both lines configure the first port to drive a ser12 modem at the first
+serial port (COM1 under DOS). The * in the mode parameter instructs the driver to use
+the software DCD algorithm (see below).
+
+ insmod baycom_par mode="picpar" iobase=0x378
+ sethdlc -i bcp0 -p mode "picpar" io 0x378
+
+Both lines configure the first port to drive a picpar modem at the
+first parallel port (LPT1 under DOS). (Note: picpar implies
+hardware DCD, par96 implies software DCD).
+
+The channel access parameters can be set with sethdlc -a or kissparms.
+Note that both utilities interpret the values slightly differently.
+
+
+Hardware DCD versus Software DCD
+
+To avoid collisions on the air, the driver must know when the channel is
+busy. This is the task of the DCD circuitry/software. The driver may either
+utilise a software DCD algorithm (options=1) or use a DCD signal from
+the hardware (options=0).
+
+ser12: if software DCD is utilised, the radio's squelch should always be
+ open. It is highly recommended to use the software DCD algorithm,
+ as it is much faster than most hardware squelch circuitry. The
+ disadvantage is a slightly higher load on the system.
+
+par96: the software DCD algorithm for this type of modem is rather poor.
+ The modem simply does not provide enough information to implement
+ a reasonable DCD algorithm in software. Therefore, if your radio
+ feeds the DCD input of the PAR96 modem, the use of the hardware
+ DCD circuitry is recommended.
+
+picpar: the picpar modem features a builtin DCD hardware, which is highly
+ recommended.
+
+
+
+Compatibility with the rest of the Linux kernel
+
+The serial driver and the baycom serial drivers compete
+for the same hardware resources. Of course only one driver can access a given
+interface at a time. The serial driver grabs all interfaces it can find at
+startup time. Therefore the baycom drivers subsequently won't be able to
+access a serial port. You might therefore find it necessary to release
+a port owned by the serial driver with 'setserial /dev/ttyS# uart none', where
+# is the number of the interface. The baycom drivers do not reserve any
+ports at startup, unless one is specified on the 'insmod' command line. Another
+method to solve the problem is to compile all drivers as modules and
+leave it to kmod to load the correct driver depending on the application.
+
+The parallel port drivers (baycom_par, baycom_epp) now use the parport subsystem
+to arbitrate the ports between different client drivers.
+
+vy 73s de
+Tom Sailer, sailer@ife.ee.ethz.ch
+hb9jnx @ hb9w.ampr.org
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt b/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..0bc2ed136a38
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/bonding.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1618 @@
+
+ Linux Ethernet Bonding Driver HOWTO
+
+Initial release : Thomas Davis <tadavis at lbl.gov>
+Corrections, HA extensions : 2000/10/03-15 :
+ - Willy Tarreau <willy at meta-x.org>
+ - Constantine Gavrilov <const-g at xpert.com>
+ - Chad N. Tindel <ctindel at ieee dot org>
+ - Janice Girouard <girouard at us dot ibm dot com>
+ - Jay Vosburgh <fubar at us dot ibm dot com>
+
+Reorganized and updated Feb 2005 by Jay Vosburgh
+
+Note :
+------
+
+The bonding driver originally came from Donald Becker's beowulf patches for
+kernel 2.0. It has changed quite a bit since, and the original tools from
+extreme-linux and beowulf sites will not work with this version of the driver.
+
+For new versions of the driver, patches for older kernels and the updated
+userspace tools, please follow the links at the end of this file.
+
+Table of Contents
+=================
+
+1. Bonding Driver Installation
+
+2. Bonding Driver Options
+
+3. Configuring Bonding Devices
+3.1 Configuration with sysconfig support
+3.2 Configuration with initscripts support
+3.3 Configuring Bonding Manually
+3.4 Configuring Multiple Bonds
+
+5. Querying Bonding Configuration
+5.1 Bonding Configuration
+5.2 Network Configuration
+
+6. Switch Configuration
+
+7. 802.1q VLAN Support
+
+8. Link Monitoring
+8.1 ARP Monitor Operation
+8.2 Configuring Multiple ARP Targets
+8.3 MII Monitor Operation
+
+9. Potential Trouble Sources
+9.1 Adventures in Routing
+9.2 Ethernet Device Renaming
+9.3 Painfully Slow Or No Failed Link Detection By Miimon
+
+10. SNMP agents
+
+11. Promiscuous mode
+
+12. High Availability Information
+12.1 High Availability in a Single Switch Topology
+12.1.1 Bonding Mode Selection for Single Switch Topology
+12.1.2 Link Monitoring for Single Switch Topology
+12.2 High Availability in a Multiple Switch Topology
+12.2.1 Bonding Mode Selection for Multiple Switch Topology
+12.2.2 Link Monitoring for Multiple Switch Topology
+12.3 Switch Behavior Issues for High Availability
+
+13. Hardware Specific Considerations
+13.1 IBM BladeCenter
+
+14. Frequently Asked Questions
+
+15. Resources and Links
+
+
+1. Bonding Driver Installation
+==============================
+
+ Most popular distro kernels ship with the bonding driver
+already available as a module and the ifenslave user level control
+program installed and ready for use. If your distro does not, or you
+have need to compile bonding from source (e.g., configuring and
+installing a mainline kernel from kernel.org), you'll need to perform
+the following steps:
+
+1.1 Configure and build the kernel with bonding
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+ The latest version of the bonding driver is available in the
+drivers/net/bonding subdirectory of the most recent kernel source
+(which is available on http://kernel.org).
+
+ Prior to the 2.4.11 kernel, the bonding driver was maintained
+largely outside the kernel tree; patches for some earlier kernels are
+available on the bonding sourceforge site, although those patches are
+still several years out of date. Most users will want to use either
+the most recent kernel from kernel.org or whatever kernel came with
+their distro.
+
+ Configure kernel with "make menuconfig" (or "make xconfig" or
+"make config"), then select "Bonding driver support" in the "Network
+device support" section. It is recommended that you configure the
+driver as module since it is currently the only way to pass parameters
+to the driver or configure more than one bonding device.
+
+ Build and install the new kernel and modules, then proceed to
+step 2.
+
+1.2 Install ifenslave Control Utility
+-------------------------------------
+
+ The ifenslave user level control program is included in the
+kernel source tree, in the file Documentation/networking/ifenslave.c.
+It is generally recommended that you use the ifenslave that
+corresponds to the kernel that you are using (either from the same
+source tree or supplied with the distro), however, ifenslave
+executables from older kernels should function (but features newer
+than the ifenslave release are not supported). Running an ifenslave
+that is newer than the kernel is not supported, and may or may not
+work.
+
+ To install ifenslave, do the following:
+
+# gcc -Wall -O -I/usr/src/linux/include ifenslave.c -o ifenslave
+# cp ifenslave /sbin/ifenslave
+
+ If your kernel source is not in "/usr/src/linux," then replace
+"/usr/src/linux/include" in the above with the location of your kernel
+source include directory.
+
+ You may wish to back up any existing /sbin/ifenslave, or, for
+testing or informal use, tag the ifenslave to the kernel version
+(e.g., name the ifenslave executable /sbin/ifenslave-2.6.10).
+
+IMPORTANT NOTE:
+
+ If you omit the "-I" or specify an incorrect directory, you
+may end up with an ifenslave that is incompatible with the kernel
+you're trying to build it for. Some distros (e.g., Red Hat from 7.1
+onwards) do not have /usr/include/linux symbolically linked to the
+default kernel source include directory.
+
+
+2. Bonding Driver Options
+=========================
+
+ Options for the bonding driver are supplied as parameters to
+the bonding module at load time. They may be given as command line
+arguments to the insmod or modprobe command, but are usually specified
+in either the /etc/modprobe.conf configuration file, or in a
+distro-specific configuration file (some of which are detailed in the
+next section).
+
+ The available bonding driver parameters are listed below. If a
+parameter is not specified the default value is used. When initially
+configuring a bond, it is recommended "tail -f /var/log/messages" be
+run in a separate window to watch for bonding driver error messages.
+
+ It is critical that either the miimon or arp_interval and
+arp_ip_target parameters be specified, otherwise serious network
+degradation will occur during link failures. Very few devices do not
+support at least miimon, so there is really no reason not to use it.
+
+ Options with textual values will accept either the text name
+ or, for backwards compatibility, the option value. E.g.,
+ "mode=802.3ad" and "mode=4" set the same mode.
+
+ The parameters are as follows:
+
+arp_interval
+
+ Specifies the ARP monitoring frequency in milli-seconds. If
+ ARP monitoring is used in a load-balancing mode (mode 0 or 2),
+ the switch should be configured in a mode that evenly
+ distributes packets across all links - such as round-robin. If
+ the switch is configured to distribute the packets in an XOR
+ fashion, all replies from the ARP targets will be received on
+ the same link which could cause the other team members to
+ fail. ARP monitoring should not be used in conjunction with
+ miimon. A value of 0 disables ARP monitoring. The default
+ value is 0.
+
+arp_ip_target
+
+ Specifies the ip addresses to use when arp_interval is > 0.
+ These are the targets of the ARP request sent to determine the
+ health of the link to the targets. Specify these values in
+ ddd.ddd.ddd.ddd format. Multiple ip adresses must be
+ seperated by a comma. At least one IP address must be given
+ for ARP monitoring to function. The maximum number of targets
+ that can be specified is 16. The default value is no IP
+ addresses.
+
+downdelay
+
+ Specifies the time, in milliseconds, to wait before disabling
+ a slave after a link failure has been detected. This option
+ is only valid for the miimon link monitor. The downdelay
+ value should be a multiple of the miimon value; if not, it
+ will be rounded down to the nearest multiple. The default
+ value is 0.
+
+lacp_rate
+
+ Option specifying the rate in which we'll ask our link partner
+ to transmit LACPDU packets in 802.3ad mode. Possible values
+ are:
+
+ slow or 0
+ Request partner to transmit LACPDUs every 30 seconds (default)
+
+ fast or 1
+ Request partner to transmit LACPDUs every 1 second
+
+max_bonds
+
+ Specifies the number of bonding devices to create for this
+ instance of the bonding driver. E.g., if max_bonds is 3, and
+ the bonding driver is not already loaded, then bond0, bond1
+ and bond2 will be created. The default value is 1.
+
+miimon
+
+ Specifies the frequency in milli-seconds that MII link
+ monitoring will occur. A value of zero disables MII link
+ monitoring. A value of 100 is a good starting point. The
+ use_carrier option, below, affects how the link state is
+ determined. See the High Availability section for additional
+ information. The default value is 0.
+
+mode
+
+ Specifies one of the bonding policies. The default is
+ balance-rr (round robin). Possible values are:
+
+ balance-rr or 0
+
+ Round-robin policy: Transmit packets in sequential
+ order from the first available slave through the
+ last. This mode provides load balancing and fault
+ tolerance.
+
+ active-backup or 1
+
+ Active-backup policy: Only one slave in the bond is
+ active. A different slave becomes active if, and only
+ if, the active slave fails. The bond's MAC address is
+ externally visible on only one port (network adapter)
+ to avoid confusing the switch. This mode provides
+ fault tolerance. The primary option affects the
+ behavior of this mode.
+
+ balance-xor or 2
+
+ XOR policy: Transmit based on [(source MAC address
+ XOR'd with destination MAC address) modulo slave
+ count]. This selects the same slave for each
+ destination MAC address. This mode provides load
+ balancing and fault tolerance.
+
+ broadcast or 3
+
+ Broadcast policy: transmits everything on all slave
+ interfaces. This mode provides fault tolerance.
+
+ 802.3ad or 4
+
+ IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link aggregation. Creates
+ aggregation groups that share the same speed and
+ duplex settings. Utilizes all slaves in the active
+ aggregator according to the 802.3ad specification.
+
+ Pre-requisites:
+
+ 1. Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving
+ the speed and duplex of each slave.
+
+ 2. A switch that supports IEEE 802.3ad Dynamic link
+ aggregation.
+
+ Most switches will require some type of configuration
+ to enable 802.3ad mode.
+
+ balance-tlb or 5
+
+ Adaptive transmit load balancing: channel bonding that
+ does not require any special switch support. The
+ outgoing traffic is distributed according to the
+ current load (computed relative to the speed) on each
+ slave. Incoming traffic is received by the current
+ slave. If the receiving slave fails, another slave
+ takes over the MAC address of the failed receiving
+ slave.
+
+ Prerequisite:
+
+ Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving the
+ speed of each slave.
+
+ balance-alb or 6
+
+ Adaptive load balancing: includes balance-tlb plus
+ receive load balancing (rlb) for IPV4 traffic, and
+ does not require any special switch support. The
+ receive load balancing is achieved by ARP negotiation.
+ The bonding driver intercepts the ARP Replies sent by
+ the local system on their way out and overwrites the
+ source hardware address with the unique hardware
+ address of one of the slaves in the bond such that
+ different peers use different hardware addresses for
+ the server.
+
+ Receive traffic from connections created by the server
+ is also balanced. When the local system sends an ARP
+ Request the bonding driver copies and saves the peer's
+ IP information from the ARP packet. When the ARP
+ Reply arrives from the peer, its hardware address is
+ retrieved and the bonding driver initiates an ARP
+ reply to this peer assigning it to one of the slaves
+ in the bond. A problematic outcome of using ARP
+ negotiation for balancing is that each time that an
+ ARP request is broadcast it uses the hardware address
+ of the bond. Hence, peers learn the hardware address
+ of the bond and the balancing of receive traffic
+ collapses to the current slave. This is handled by
+ sending updates (ARP Replies) to all the peers with
+ their individually assigned hardware address such that
+ the traffic is redistributed. Receive traffic is also
+ redistributed when a new slave is added to the bond
+ and when an inactive slave is re-activated. The
+ receive load is distributed sequentially (round robin)
+ among the group of highest speed slaves in the bond.
+
+ When a link is reconnected or a new slave joins the
+ bond the receive traffic is redistributed among all
+ active slaves in the bond by intiating ARP Replies
+ with the selected mac address to each of the
+ clients. The updelay parameter (detailed below) must
+ be set to a value equal or greater than the switch's
+ forwarding delay so that the ARP Replies sent to the
+ peers will not be blocked by the switch.
+
+ Prerequisites:
+
+ 1. Ethtool support in the base drivers for retrieving
+ the speed of each slave.
+
+ 2. Base driver support for setting the hardware
+ address of a device while it is open. This is
+ required so that there will always be one slave in the
+ team using the bond hardware address (the
+ curr_active_slave) while having a unique hardware
+ address for each slave in the bond. If the
+ curr_active_slave fails its hardware address is
+ swapped with the new curr_active_slave that was
+ chosen.
+
+primary
+
+ A string (eth0, eth2, etc) specifying which slave is the
+ primary device. The specified device will always be the
+ active slave while it is available. Only when the primary is
+ off-line will alternate devices be used. This is useful when
+ one slave is preferred over another, e.g., when one slave has
+ higher throughput than another.
+
+ The primary option is only valid for active-backup mode.
+
+updelay
+
+ Specifies the time, in milliseconds, to wait before enabling a
+ slave after a link recovery has been detected. This option is
+ only valid for the miimon link monitor. The updelay value
+ should be a multiple of the miimon value; if not, it will be
+ rounded down to the nearest multiple. The default value is 0.
+
+use_carrier
+
+ Specifies whether or not miimon should use MII or ETHTOOL
+ ioctls vs. netif_carrier_ok() to determine the link
+ status. The MII or ETHTOOL ioctls are less efficient and
+ utilize a deprecated calling sequence within the kernel. The
+ netif_carrier_ok() relies on the device driver to maintain its
+ state with netif_carrier_on/off; at this writing, most, but
+ not all, device drivers support this facility.
+
+ If bonding insists that the link is up when it should not be,
+ it may be that your network device driver does not support
+ netif_carrier_on/off. The default state for netif_carrier is
+ "carrier on," so if a driver does not support netif_carrier,
+ it will appear as if the link is always up. In this case,
+ setting use_carrier to 0 will cause bonding to revert to the
+ MII / ETHTOOL ioctl method to determine the link state.
+
+ A value of 1 enables the use of netif_carrier_ok(), a value of
+ 0 will use the deprecated MII / ETHTOOL ioctls. The default
+ value is 1.
+
+
+
+3. Configuring Bonding Devices
+==============================
+
+ There are, essentially, two methods for configuring bonding:
+with support from the distro's network initialization scripts, and
+without. Distros generally use one of two packages for the network
+initialization scripts: initscripts or sysconfig. Recent versions of
+these packages have support for bonding, while older versions do not.
+
+ We will first describe the options for configuring bonding for
+distros using versions of initscripts and sysconfig with full or
+partial support for bonding, then provide information on enabling
+bonding without support from the network initialization scripts (i.e.,
+older versions of initscripts or sysconfig).
+
+ If you're unsure whether your distro uses sysconfig or
+initscripts, or don't know if it's new enough, have no fear.
+Determining this is fairly straightforward.
+
+ First, issue the command:
+
+$ rpm -qf /sbin/ifup
+
+ It will respond with a line of text starting with either
+"initscripts" or "sysconfig," followed by some numbers. This is the
+package that provides your network initialization scripts.
+
+ Next, to determine if your installation supports bonding,
+issue the command:
+
+$ grep ifenslave /sbin/ifup
+
+ If this returns any matches, then your initscripts or
+sysconfig has support for bonding.
+
+3.1 Configuration with sysconfig support
+----------------------------------------
+
+ This section applies to distros using a version of sysconfig
+with bonding support, for example, SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 9.
+
+ SuSE SLES 9's networking configuration system does support
+bonding, however, at this writing, the YaST system configuration
+frontend does not provide any means to work with bonding devices.
+Bonding devices can be managed by hand, however, as follows.
+
+ First, if they have not already been configured, configure the
+slave devices. On SLES 9, this is most easily done by running the
+yast2 sysconfig configuration utility. The goal is for to create an
+ifcfg-id file for each slave device. The simplest way to accomplish
+this is to configure the devices for DHCP. The name of the
+configuration file for each device will be of the form:
+
+ifcfg-id-xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
+
+ Where the "xx" portion will be replaced with the digits from
+the device's permanent MAC address.
+
+ Once the set of ifcfg-id-xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx files has been
+created, it is necessary to edit the configuration files for the slave
+devices (the MAC addresses correspond to those of the slave devices).
+Before editing, the file will contain muliple lines, and will look
+something like this:
+
+BOOTPROTO='dhcp'
+STARTMODE='on'
+USERCTL='no'
+UNIQUE='XNzu.WeZGOGF+4wE'
+_nm_name='bus-pci-0001:61:01.0'
+
+ Change the BOOTPROTO and STARTMODE lines to the following:
+
+BOOTPROTO='none'
+STARTMODE='off'
+
+ Do not alter the UNIQUE or _nm_name lines. Remove any other
+lines (USERCTL, etc).
+
+ Once the ifcfg-id-xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx files have been modified,
+it's time to create the configuration file for the bonding device
+itself. This file is named ifcfg-bondX, where X is the number of the
+bonding device to create, starting at 0. The first such file is
+ifcfg-bond0, the second is ifcfg-bond1, and so on. The sysconfig
+network configuration system will correctly start multiple instances
+of bonding.
+
+ The contents of the ifcfg-bondX file is as follows:
+
+BOOTPROTO="static"
+BROADCAST="10.0.2.255"
+IPADDR="10.0.2.10"
+NETMASK="255.255.0.0"
+NETWORK="10.0.2.0"
+REMOTE_IPADDR=""
+STARTMODE="onboot"
+BONDING_MASTER="yes"
+BONDING_MODULE_OPTS="mode=active-backup miimon=100"
+BONDING_SLAVE0="eth0"
+BONDING_SLAVE1="eth1"
+
+ Replace the sample BROADCAST, IPADDR, NETMASK and NETWORK
+values with the appropriate values for your network.
+
+ Note that configuring the bonding device with BOOTPROTO='dhcp'
+does not work; the scripts attempt to obtain the device address from
+DHCP prior to adding any of the slave devices. Without active slaves,
+the DHCP requests are not sent to the network.
+
+ The STARTMODE specifies when the device is brought online.
+The possible values are:
+
+ onboot: The device is started at boot time. If you're not
+ sure, this is probably what you want.
+
+ manual: The device is started only when ifup is called
+ manually. Bonding devices may be configured this
+ way if you do not wish them to start automatically
+ at boot for some reason.
+
+ hotplug: The device is started by a hotplug event. This is not
+ a valid choice for a bonding device.
+
+ off or ignore: The device configuration is ignored.
+
+ The line BONDING_MASTER='yes' indicates that the device is a
+bonding master device. The only useful value is "yes."
+
+ The contents of BONDING_MODULE_OPTS are supplied to the
+instance of the bonding module for this device. Specify the options
+for the bonding mode, link monitoring, and so on here. Do not include
+the max_bonds bonding parameter; this will confuse the configuration
+system if you have multiple bonding devices.
+
+ Finally, supply one BONDING_SLAVEn="ethX" for each slave,
+where "n" is an increasing value, one for each slave, and "ethX" is
+the name of the slave device (eth0, eth1, etc).
+
+ When all configuration files have been modified or created,
+networking must be restarted for the configuration changes to take
+effect. This can be accomplished via the following:
+
+# /etc/init.d/network restart
+
+ Note that the network control script (/sbin/ifdown) will
+remove the bonding module as part of the network shutdown processing,
+so it is not necessary to remove the module by hand if, e.g., the
+module paramters have changed.
+
+ Also, at this writing, YaST/YaST2 will not manage bonding
+devices (they do not show bonding interfaces on its list of network
+devices). It is necessary to edit the configuration file by hand to
+change the bonding configuration.
+
+ Additional general options and details of the ifcfg file
+format can be found in an example ifcfg template file:
+
+/etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg.template
+
+ Note that the template does not document the various BONDING_
+settings described above, but does describe many of the other options.
+
+3.2 Configuration with initscripts support
+------------------------------------------
+
+ This section applies to distros using a version of initscripts
+with bonding support, for example, Red Hat Linux 9 or Red Hat
+Enterprise Linux version 3. On these systems, the network
+initialization scripts have some knowledge of bonding, and can be
+configured to control bonding devices.
+
+ These distros will not automatically load the network adapter
+driver unless the ethX device is configured with an IP address.
+Because of this constraint, users must manually configure a
+network-script file for all physical adapters that will be members of
+a bondX link. Network script files are located in the directory:
+
+/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts
+
+ The file name must be prefixed with "ifcfg-eth" and suffixed
+with the adapter's physical adapter number. For example, the script
+for eth0 would be named /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0.
+Place the following text in the file:
+
+DEVICE=eth0
+USERCTL=no
+ONBOOT=yes
+MASTER=bond0
+SLAVE=yes
+BOOTPROTO=none
+
+ The DEVICE= line will be different for every ethX device and
+must correspond with the name of the file, i.e., ifcfg-eth1 must have
+a device line of DEVICE=eth1. The setting of the MASTER= line will
+also depend on the final bonding interface name chosen for your bond.
+As with other network devices, these typically start at 0, and go up
+one for each device, i.e., the first bonding instance is bond0, the
+second is bond1, and so on.
+
+ Next, create a bond network script. The file name for this
+script will be /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bondX where X is
+the number of the bond. For bond0 the file is named "ifcfg-bond0",
+for bond1 it is named "ifcfg-bond1", and so on. Within that file,
+place the following text:
+
+DEVICE=bond0
+IPADDR=192.168.1.1
+NETMASK=255.255.255.0
+NETWORK=192.168.1.0
+BROADCAST=192.168.1.255
+ONBOOT=yes
+BOOTPROTO=none
+USERCTL=no
+
+ Be sure to change the networking specific lines (IPADDR,
+NETMASK, NETWORK and BROADCAST) to match your network configuration.
+
+ Finally, it is necessary to edit /etc/modules.conf to load the
+bonding module when the bond0 interface is brought up. The following
+sample lines in /etc/modules.conf will load the bonding module, and
+select its options:
+
+alias bond0 bonding
+options bond0 mode=balance-alb miimon=100
+
+ Replace the sample parameters with the appropriate set of
+options for your configuration.
+
+ Finally run "/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart" as root. This
+will restart the networking subsystem and your bond link should be now
+up and running.
+
+
+3.3 Configuring Bonding Manually
+--------------------------------
+
+ This section applies to distros whose network initialization
+scripts (the sysconfig or initscripts package) do not have specific
+knowledge of bonding. One such distro is SuSE Linux Enterprise Server
+version 8.
+
+ The general methodology for these systems is to place the
+bonding module parameters into /etc/modprobe.conf, then add modprobe
+and/or ifenslave commands to the system's global init script. The
+name of the global init script differs; for sysconfig, it is
+/etc/init.d/boot.local and for initscripts it is /etc/rc.d/rc.local.
+
+ For example, if you wanted to make a simple bond of two e100
+devices (presumed to be eth0 and eth1), and have it persist across
+reboots, edit the appropriate file (/etc/init.d/boot.local or
+/etc/rc.d/rc.local), and add the following:
+
+modprobe bonding -obond0 mode=balance-alb miimon=100
+modprobe e100
+ifconfig bond0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
+ifenslave bond0 eth0
+ifenslave bond0 eth1
+
+ Replace the example bonding module parameters and bond0
+network configuration (IP address, netmask, etc) with the appropriate
+values for your configuration. The above example loads the bonding
+module with the name "bond0," this simplifies the naming if multiple
+bonding modules are loaded (each successive instance of the module is
+given a different name, and the module instance names match the
+bonding interface names).
+
+ Unfortunately, this method will not provide support for the
+ifup and ifdown scripts on the bond devices. To reload the bonding
+configuration, it is necessary to run the initialization script, e.g.,
+
+# /etc/init.d/boot.local
+
+ or
+
+# /etc/rc.d/rc.local
+
+ It may be desirable in such a case to create a separate script
+which only initializes the bonding configuration, then call that
+separate script from within boot.local. This allows for bonding to be
+enabled without re-running the entire global init script.
+
+ To shut down the bonding devices, it is necessary to first
+mark the bonding device itself as being down, then remove the
+appropriate device driver modules. For our example above, you can do
+the following:
+
+# ifconfig bond0 down
+# rmmod bond0
+# rmmod e100
+
+ Again, for convenience, it may be desirable to create a script
+with these commands.
+
+
+3.4 Configuring Multiple Bonds
+------------------------------
+
+ This section contains information on configuring multiple
+bonding devices with differing options. If you require multiple
+bonding devices, but all with the same options, see the "max_bonds"
+module paramter, documented above.
+
+ To create multiple bonding devices with differing options, it
+is necessary to load the bonding driver multiple times. Note that
+current versions of the sysconfig network initialization scripts
+handle this automatically; if your distro uses these scripts, no
+special action is needed. See the section Configuring Bonding
+Devices, above, if you're not sure about your network initialization
+scripts.
+
+ To load multiple instances of the module, it is necessary to
+specify a different name for each instance (the module loading system
+requires that every loaded module, even multiple instances of the same
+module, have a unique name). This is accomplished by supplying
+multiple sets of bonding options in /etc/modprobe.conf, for example:
+
+alias bond0 bonding
+options bond0 -o bond0 mode=balance-rr miimon=100
+
+alias bond1 bonding
+options bond1 -o bond1 mode=balance-alb miimon=50
+
+ will load the bonding module two times. The first instance is
+named "bond0" and creates the bond0 device in balance-rr mode with an
+miimon of 100. The second instance is named "bond1" and creates the
+bond1 device in balance-alb mode with an miimon of 50.
+
+ This may be repeated any number of times, specifying a new and
+unique name in place of bond0 or bond1 for each instance.
+
+ When the appropriate module paramters are in place, then
+configure bonding according to the instructions for your distro.
+
+5. Querying Bonding Configuration
+=================================
+
+5.1 Bonding Configuration
+-------------------------
+
+ Each bonding device has a read-only file residing in the
+/proc/net/bonding directory. The file contents include information
+about the bonding configuration, options and state of each slave.
+
+ For example, the contents of /proc/net/bonding/bond0 after the
+driver is loaded with parameters of mode=0 and miimon=1000 is
+generally as follows:
+
+ Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: 2.6.1 (October 29, 2004)
+ Bonding Mode: load balancing (round-robin)
+ Currently Active Slave: eth0
+ MII Status: up
+ MII Polling Interval (ms): 1000
+ Up Delay (ms): 0
+ Down Delay (ms): 0
+
+ Slave Interface: eth1
+ MII Status: up
+ Link Failure Count: 1
+
+ Slave Interface: eth0
+ MII Status: up
+ Link Failure Count: 1
+
+ The precise format and contents will change depending upon the
+bonding configuration, state, and version of the bonding driver.
+
+5.2 Network configuration
+-------------------------
+
+ The network configuration can be inspected using the ifconfig
+command. Bonding devices will have the MASTER flag set; Bonding slave
+devices will have the SLAVE flag set. The ifconfig output does not
+contain information on which slaves are associated with which masters.
+
+ In the example below, the bond0 interface is the master
+(MASTER) while eth0 and eth1 are slaves (SLAVE). Notice all slaves of
+bond0 have the same MAC address (HWaddr) as bond0 for all modes except
+TLB and ALB that require a unique MAC address for each slave.
+
+# /sbin/ifconfig
+bond0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:C0:F0:1F:37:B4
+ inet addr:XXX.XXX.XXX.YYY Bcast:XXX.XXX.XXX.255 Mask:255.255.252.0
+ UP BROADCAST RUNNING MASTER MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
+ RX packets:7224794 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
+ TX packets:3286647 errors:1 dropped:0 overruns:1 carrier:0
+ collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
+
+eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:C0:F0:1F:37:B4
+ inet addr:XXX.XXX.XXX.YYY Bcast:XXX.XXX.XXX.255 Mask:255.255.252.0
+ UP BROADCAST RUNNING SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
+ RX packets:3573025 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
+ TX packets:1643167 errors:1 dropped:0 overruns:1 carrier:0
+ collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
+ Interrupt:10 Base address:0x1080
+
+eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:C0:F0:1F:37:B4
+ inet addr:XXX.XXX.XXX.YYY Bcast:XXX.XXX.XXX.255 Mask:255.255.252.0
+ UP BROADCAST RUNNING SLAVE MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
+ RX packets:3651769 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
+ TX packets:1643480 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
+ collisions:0 txqueuelen:100
+ Interrupt:9 Base address:0x1400
+
+6. Switch Configuration
+=======================
+
+ For this section, "switch" refers to whatever system the
+bonded devices are directly connected to (i.e., where the other end of
+the cable plugs into). This may be an actual dedicated switch device,
+or it may be another regular system (e.g., another computer running
+Linux),
+
+ The active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb modes do not
+require any specific configuration of the switch.
+
+ The 802.3ad mode requires that the switch have the appropriate
+ports configured as an 802.3ad aggregation. The precise method used
+to configure this varies from switch to switch, but, for example, a
+Cisco 3550 series switch requires that the appropriate ports first be
+grouped together in a single etherchannel instance, then that
+etherchannel is set to mode "lacp" to enable 802.3ad (instead of
+standard EtherChannel).
+
+ The balance-rr, balance-xor and broadcast modes generally
+require that the switch have the appropriate ports grouped together.
+The nomenclature for such a group differs between switches, it may be
+called an "etherchannel" (as in the Cisco example, above), a "trunk
+group" or some other similar variation. For these modes, each switch
+will also have its own configuration options for the switch's transmit
+policy to the bond. Typical choices include XOR of either the MAC or
+IP addresses. The transmit policy of the two peers does not need to
+match. For these three modes, the bonding mode really selects a
+transmit policy for an EtherChannel group; all three will interoperate
+with another EtherChannel group.
+
+
+7. 802.1q VLAN Support
+======================
+
+ It is possible to configure VLAN devices over a bond interface
+using the 8021q driver. However, only packets coming from the 8021q
+driver and passing through bonding will be tagged by default. Self
+generated packets, for example, bonding's learning packets or ARP
+packets generated by either ALB mode or the ARP monitor mechanism, are
+tagged internally by bonding itself. As a result, bonding must
+"learn" the VLAN IDs configured above it, and use those IDs to tag
+self generated packets.
+
+ For reasons of simplicity, and to support the use of adapters
+that can do VLAN hardware acceleration offloding, the bonding
+interface declares itself as fully hardware offloaing capable, it gets
+the add_vid/kill_vid notifications to gather the necessary
+information, and it propagates those actions to the slaves. In case
+of mixed adapter types, hardware accelerated tagged packets that
+should go through an adapter that is not offloading capable are
+"un-accelerated" by the bonding driver so the VLAN tag sits in the
+regular location.
+
+ VLAN interfaces *must* be added on top of a bonding interface
+only after enslaving at least one slave. The bonding interface has a
+hardware address of 00:00:00:00:00:00 until the first slave is added.
+If the VLAN interface is created prior to the first enslavement, it
+would pick up the all-zeroes hardware address. Once the first slave
+is attached to the bond, the bond device itself will pick up the
+slave's hardware address, which is then available for the VLAN device.
+
+ Also, be aware that a similar problem can occur if all slaves
+are released from a bond that still has one or more VLAN interfaces on
+top of it. When a new slave is added, the bonding interface will
+obtain its hardware address from the first slave, which might not
+match the hardware address of the VLAN interfaces (which was
+ultimately copied from an earlier slave).
+
+ There are two methods to insure that the VLAN device operates
+with the correct hardware address if all slaves are removed from a
+bond interface:
+
+ 1. Remove all VLAN interfaces then recreate them
+
+ 2. Set the bonding interface's hardware address so that it
+matches the hardware address of the VLAN interfaces.
+
+ Note that changing a VLAN interface's HW address would set the
+underlying device -- i.e. the bonding interface -- to promiscouos
+mode, which might not be what you want.
+
+
+8. Link Monitoring
+==================
+
+ The bonding driver at present supports two schemes for
+monitoring a slave device's link state: the ARP monitor and the MII
+monitor.
+
+ At the present time, due to implementation restrictions in the
+bonding driver itself, it is not possible to enable both ARP and MII
+monitoring simultaneously.
+
+8.1 ARP Monitor Operation
+-------------------------
+
+ The ARP monitor operates as its name suggests: it sends ARP
+queries to one or more designated peer systems on the network, and
+uses the response as an indication that the link is operating. This
+gives some assurance that traffic is actually flowing to and from one
+or more peers on the local network.
+
+ The ARP monitor relies on the device driver itself to verify
+that traffic is flowing. In particular, the driver must keep up to
+date the last receive time, dev->last_rx, and transmit start time,
+dev->trans_start. If these are not updated by the driver, then the
+ARP monitor will immediately fail any slaves using that driver, and
+those slaves will stay down. If networking monitoring (tcpdump, etc)
+shows the ARP requests and replies on the network, then it may be that
+your device driver is not updating last_rx and trans_start.
+
+8.2 Configuring Multiple ARP Targets
+------------------------------------
+
+ While ARP monitoring can be done with just one target, it can
+be useful in a High Availability setup to have several targets to
+monitor. In the case of just one target, the target itself may go
+down or have a problem making it unresponsive to ARP requests. Having
+an additional target (or several) increases the reliability of the ARP
+monitoring.
+
+ Multiple ARP targets must be seperated by commas as follows:
+
+# example options for ARP monitoring with three targets
+alias bond0 bonding
+options bond0 arp_interval=60 arp_ip_target=192.168.0.1,192.168.0.3,192.168.0.9
+
+ For just a single target the options would resemble:
+
+# example options for ARP monitoring with one target
+alias bond0 bonding
+options bond0 arp_interval=60 arp_ip_target=192.168.0.100
+
+
+8.3 MII Monitor Operation
+-------------------------
+
+ The MII monitor monitors only the carrier state of the local
+network interface. It accomplishes this in one of three ways: by
+depending upon the device driver to maintain its carrier state, by
+querying the device's MII registers, or by making an ethtool query to
+the device.
+
+ If the use_carrier module parameter is 1 (the default value),
+then the MII monitor will rely on the driver for carrier state
+information (via the netif_carrier subsystem). As explained in the
+use_carrier parameter information, above, if the MII monitor fails to
+detect carrier loss on the device (e.g., when the cable is physically
+disconnected), it may be that the driver does not support
+netif_carrier.
+
+ If use_carrier is 0, then the MII monitor will first query the
+device's (via ioctl) MII registers and check the link state. If that
+request fails (not just that it returns carrier down), then the MII
+monitor will make an ethtool ETHOOL_GLINK request to attempt to obtain
+the same information. If both methods fail (i.e., the driver either
+does not support or had some error in processing both the MII register
+and ethtool requests), then the MII monitor will assume the link is
+up.
+
+9. Potential Sources of Trouble
+===============================
+
+9.1 Adventures in Routing
+-------------------------
+
+ When bonding is configured, it is important that the slave
+devices not have routes that supercede routes of the master (or,
+generally, not have routes at all). For example, suppose the bonding
+device bond0 has two slaves, eth0 and eth1, and the routing table is
+as follows:
+
+Kernel IP routing table
+Destination Gateway Genmask Flags MSS Window irtt Iface
+10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 40 0 0 eth0
+10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 40 0 0 eth1
+10.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 U 40 0 0 bond0
+127.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 U 40 0 0 lo
+
+ This routing configuration will likely still update the
+receive/transmit times in the driver (needed by the ARP monitor), but
+may bypass the bonding driver (because outgoing traffic to, in this
+case, another host on network 10 would use eth0 or eth1 before bond0).
+
+ The ARP monitor (and ARP itself) may become confused by this
+configuration, because ARP requests (generated by the ARP monitor)
+will be sent on one interface (bond0), but the corresponding reply
+will arrive on a different interface (eth0). This reply looks to ARP
+as an unsolicited ARP reply (because ARP matches replies on an
+interface basis), and is discarded. The MII monitor is not affected
+by the state of the routing table.
+
+ The solution here is simply to insure that slaves do not have
+routes of their own, and if for some reason they must, those routes do
+not supercede routes of their master. This should generally be the
+case, but unusual configurations or errant manual or automatic static
+route additions may cause trouble.
+
+9.2 Ethernet Device Renaming
+----------------------------
+
+ On systems with network configuration scripts that do not
+associate physical devices directly with network interface names (so
+that the same physical device always has the same "ethX" name), it may
+be necessary to add some special logic to either /etc/modules.conf or
+/etc/modprobe.conf (depending upon which is installed on the system).
+
+ For example, given a modules.conf containing the following:
+
+alias bond0 bonding
+options bond0 mode=some-mode miimon=50
+alias eth0 tg3
+alias eth1 tg3
+alias eth2 e1000
+alias eth3 e1000
+
+ If neither eth0 and eth1 are slaves to bond0, then when the
+bond0 interface comes up, the devices may end up reordered. This
+happens because bonding is loaded first, then its slave device's
+drivers are loaded next. Since no other drivers have been loaded,
+when the e1000 driver loads, it will receive eth0 and eth1 for its
+devices, but the bonding configuration tries to enslave eth2 and eth3
+(which may later be assigned to the tg3 devices).
+
+ Adding the following:
+
+add above bonding e1000 tg3
+
+ causes modprobe to load e1000 then tg3, in that order, when
+bonding is loaded. This command is fully documented in the
+modules.conf manual page.
+
+ On systems utilizing modprobe.conf (or modprobe.conf.local),
+an equivalent problem can occur. In this case, the following can be
+added to modprobe.conf (or modprobe.conf.local, as appropriate), as
+follows (all on one line; it has been split here for clarity):
+
+install bonding /sbin/modprobe tg3; /sbin/modprobe e1000;
+ /sbin/modprobe --ignore-install bonding
+
+ This will, when loading the bonding module, rather than
+performing the normal action, instead execute the provided command.
+This command loads the device drivers in the order needed, then calls
+modprobe with --ingore-install to cause the normal action to then take
+place. Full documentation on this can be found in the modprobe.conf
+and modprobe manual pages.
+
+9.3. Painfully Slow Or No Failed Link Detection By Miimon
+---------------------------------------------------------
+
+ By default, bonding enables the use_carrier option, which
+instructs bonding to trust the driver to maintain carrier state.
+
+ As discussed in the options section, above, some drivers do
+not support the netif_carrier_on/_off link state tracking system.
+With use_carrier enabled, bonding will always see these links as up,
+regardless of their actual state.
+
+ Additionally, other drivers do support netif_carrier, but do
+not maintain it in real time, e.g., only polling the link state at
+some fixed interval. In this case, miimon will detect failures, but
+only after some long period of time has expired. If it appears that
+miimon is very slow in detecting link failures, try specifying
+use_carrier=0 to see if that improves the failure detection time. If
+it does, then it may be that the driver checks the carrier state at a
+fixed interval, but does not cache the MII register values (so the
+use_carrier=0 method of querying the registers directly works). If
+use_carrier=0 does not improve the failover, then the driver may cache
+the registers, or the problem may be elsewhere.
+
+ Also, remember that miimon only checks for the device's
+carrier state. It has no way to determine the state of devices on or
+beyond other ports of a switch, or if a switch is refusing to pass
+traffic while still maintaining carrier on.
+
+10. SNMP agents
+===============
+
+ If running SNMP agents, the bonding driver should be loaded
+before any network drivers participating in a bond. This requirement
+is due to the the interface index (ipAdEntIfIndex) being associated to
+the first interface found with a given IP address. That is, there is
+only one ipAdEntIfIndex for each IP address. For example, if eth0 and
+eth1 are slaves of bond0 and the driver for eth0 is loaded before the
+bonding driver, the interface for the IP address will be associated
+with the eth0 interface. This configuration is shown below, the IP
+address 192.168.1.1 has an interface index of 2 which indexes to eth0
+in the ifDescr table (ifDescr.2).
+
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = lo
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.2 = eth0
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.3 = eth1
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.4 = eth2
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.5 = eth3
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = bond0
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.10.10.10.10 = 5
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.1.1 = 2
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.10.74.20.94 = 4
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.127.0.0.1 = 1
+
+ This problem is avoided by loading the bonding driver before
+any network drivers participating in a bond. Below is an example of
+loading the bonding driver first, the IP address 192.168.1.1 is
+correctly associated with ifDescr.2.
+
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.1 = lo
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.2 = bond0
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.3 = eth0
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.4 = eth1
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.5 = eth2
+ interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifDescr.6 = eth3
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.10.10.10.10 = 6
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.1.1 = 2
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.10.74.20.94 = 5
+ ip.ipAddrTable.ipAddrEntry.ipAdEntIfIndex.127.0.0.1 = 1
+
+ While some distributions may not report the interface name in
+ifDescr, the association between the IP address and IfIndex remains
+and SNMP functions such as Interface_Scan_Next will report that
+association.
+
+11. Promiscuous mode
+====================
+
+ When running network monitoring tools, e.g., tcpdump, it is
+common to enable promiscuous mode on the device, so that all traffic
+is seen (instead of seeing only traffic destined for the local host).
+The bonding driver handles promiscuous mode changes to the bonding
+master device (e.g., bond0), and propogates the setting to the slave
+devices.
+
+ For the balance-rr, balance-xor, broadcast, and 802.3ad modes,
+the promiscuous mode setting is propogated to all slaves.
+
+ For the active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb modes, the
+promiscuous mode setting is propogated only to the active slave.
+
+ For balance-tlb mode, the active slave is the slave currently
+receiving inbound traffic.
+
+ For balance-alb mode, the active slave is the slave used as a
+"primary." This slave is used for mode-specific control traffic, for
+sending to peers that are unassigned or if the load is unbalanced.
+
+ For the active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb modes, when
+the active slave changes (e.g., due to a link failure), the
+promiscuous setting will be propogated to the new active slave.
+
+12. High Availability Information
+=================================
+
+ High Availability refers to configurations that provide
+maximum network availability by having redundant or backup devices,
+links and switches between the host and the rest of the world.
+
+ There are currently two basic methods for configuring to
+maximize availability. They are dependent on the network topology and
+the primary goal of the configuration, but in general, a configuration
+can be optimized for maximum available bandwidth, or for maximum
+network availability.
+
+12.1 High Availability in a Single Switch Topology
+--------------------------------------------------
+
+ If two hosts (or a host and a switch) are directly connected
+via multiple physical links, then there is no network availability
+penalty for optimizing for maximum bandwidth: there is only one switch
+(or peer), so if it fails, you have no alternative access to fail over
+to.
+
+Example 1 : host to switch (or other host)
+
+ +----------+ +----------+
+ | |eth0 eth0| switch |
+ | Host A +--------------------------+ or |
+ | +--------------------------+ other |
+ | |eth1 eth1| host |
+ +----------+ +----------+
+
+
+12.1.1 Bonding Mode Selection for single switch topology
+--------------------------------------------------------
+
+ This configuration is the easiest to set up and to understand,
+although you will have to decide which bonding mode best suits your
+needs. The tradeoffs for each mode are detailed below:
+
+balance-rr: This mode is the only mode that will permit a single
+ TCP/IP connection to stripe traffic across multiple
+ interfaces. It is therefore the only mode that will allow a
+ single TCP/IP stream to utilize more than one interface's
+ worth of throughput. This comes at a cost, however: the
+ striping often results in peer systems receiving packets out
+ of order, causing TCP/IP's congestion control system to kick
+ in, often by retransmitting segments.
+
+ It is possible to adjust TCP/IP's congestion limits by
+ altering the net.ipv4.tcp_reordering sysctl parameter. The
+ usual default value is 3, and the maximum useful value is 127.
+ For a four interface balance-rr bond, expect that a single
+ TCP/IP stream will utilize no more than approximately 2.3
+ interface's worth of throughput, even after adjusting
+ tcp_reordering.
+
+ If you are utilizing protocols other than TCP/IP, UDP for
+ example, and your application can tolerate out of order
+ delivery, then this mode can allow for single stream datagram
+ performance that scales near linearly as interfaces are added
+ to the bond.
+
+ This mode requires the switch to have the appropriate ports
+ configured for "etherchannel" or "trunking."
+
+active-backup: There is not much advantage in this network topology to
+ the active-backup mode, as the inactive backup devices are all
+ connected to the same peer as the primary. In this case, a
+ load balancing mode (with link monitoring) will provide the
+ same level of network availability, but with increased
+ available bandwidth. On the plus side, it does not require
+ any configuration of the switch.
+
+balance-xor: This mode will limit traffic such that packets destined
+ for specific peers will always be sent over the same
+ interface. Since the destination is determined by the MAC
+ addresses involved, this may be desirable if you have a large
+ network with many hosts. It is likely to be suboptimal if all
+ your traffic is passed through a single router, however. As
+ with balance-rr, the switch ports need to be configured for
+ "etherchannel" or "trunking."
+
+broadcast: Like active-backup, there is not much advantage to this
+ mode in this type of network topology.
+
+802.3ad: This mode can be a good choice for this type of network
+ topology. The 802.3ad mode is an IEEE standard, so all peers
+ that implement 802.3ad should interoperate well. The 802.3ad
+ protocol includes automatic configuration of the aggregates,
+ so minimal manual configuration of the switch is needed
+ (typically only to designate that some set of devices is
+ usable for 802.3ad). The 802.3ad standard also mandates that
+ frames be delivered in order (within certain limits), so in
+ general single connections will not see misordering of
+ packets. The 802.3ad mode does have some drawbacks: the
+ standard mandates that all devices in the aggregate operate at
+ the same speed and duplex. Also, as with all bonding load
+ balance modes other than balance-rr, no single connection will
+ be able to utilize more than a single interface's worth of
+ bandwidth. Additionally, the linux bonding 802.3ad
+ implementation distributes traffic by peer (using an XOR of
+ MAC addresses), so in general all traffic to a particular
+ destination will use the same interface. Finally, the 802.3ad
+ mode mandates the use of the MII monitor, therefore, the ARP
+ monitor is not available in this mode.
+
+balance-tlb: This mode is also a good choice for this type of
+ topology. It has no special switch configuration
+ requirements, and balances outgoing traffic by peer, in a
+ vaguely intelligent manner (not a simple XOR as in balance-xor
+ or 802.3ad mode), so that unlucky MAC addresses will not all
+ "bunch up" on a single interface. Interfaces may be of
+ differing speeds. On the down side, in this mode all incoming
+ traffic arrives over a single interface, this mode requires
+ certain ethtool support in the network device driver of the
+ slave interfaces, and the ARP monitor is not available.
+
+balance-alb: This mode is everything that balance-tlb is, and more. It
+ has all of the features (and restrictions) of balance-tlb, and
+ will also balance incoming traffic from peers (as described in
+ the Bonding Module Options section, above). The only extra
+ down side to this mode is that the network device driver must
+ support changing the hardware address while the device is
+ open.
+
+12.1.2 Link Monitoring for Single Switch Topology
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+ The choice of link monitoring may largely depend upon which
+mode you choose to use. The more advanced load balancing modes do not
+support the use of the ARP monitor, and are thus restricted to using
+the MII monitor (which does not provide as high a level of assurance
+as the ARP monitor).
+
+
+12.2 High Availability in a Multiple Switch Topology
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+ With multiple switches, the configuration of bonding and the
+network changes dramatically. In multiple switch topologies, there is
+a tradeoff between network availability and usable bandwidth.
+
+ Below is a sample network, configured to maximize the
+availability of the network:
+
+ | |
+ |port3 port3|
+ +-----+----+ +-----+----+
+ | |port2 ISL port2| |
+ | switch A +--------------------------+ switch B |
+ | | | |
+ +-----+----+ +-----++---+
+ |port1 port1|
+ | +-------+ |
+ +-------------+ host1 +---------------+
+ eth0 +-------+ eth1
+
+ In this configuration, there is a link between the two
+switches (ISL, or inter switch link), and multiple ports connecting to
+the outside world ("port3" on each switch). There is no technical
+reason that this could not be extended to a third switch.
+
+12.2.1 Bonding Mode Selection for Multiple Switch Topology
+----------------------------------------------------------
+
+ In a topology such as this, the active-backup and broadcast
+modes are the only useful bonding modes; the other modes require all
+links to terminate on the same peer for them to behave rationally.
+
+active-backup: This is generally the preferred mode, particularly if
+ the switches have an ISL and play together well. If the
+ network configuration is such that one switch is specifically
+ a backup switch (e.g., has lower capacity, higher cost, etc),
+ then the primary option can be used to insure that the
+ preferred link is always used when it is available.
+
+broadcast: This mode is really a special purpose mode, and is suitable
+ only for very specific needs. For example, if the two
+ switches are not connected (no ISL), and the networks beyond
+ them are totally independant. In this case, if it is
+ necessary for some specific one-way traffic to reach both
+ independent networks, then the broadcast mode may be suitable.
+
+12.2.2 Link Monitoring Selection for Multiple Switch Topology
+-------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ The choice of link monitoring ultimately depends upon your
+switch. If the switch can reliably fail ports in response to other
+failures, then either the MII or ARP monitors should work. For
+example, in the above example, if the "port3" link fails at the remote
+end, the MII monitor has no direct means to detect this. The ARP
+monitor could be configured with a target at the remote end of port3,
+thus detecting that failure without switch support.
+
+ In general, however, in a multiple switch topology, the ARP
+monitor can provide a higher level of reliability in detecting link
+failures. Additionally, it should be configured with multiple targets
+(at least one for each switch in the network). This will insure that,
+regardless of which switch is active, the ARP monitor has a suitable
+target to query.
+
+
+12.3 Switch Behavior Issues for High Availability
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+ You may encounter issues with the timing of link up and down
+reporting by the switch.
+
+ First, when a link comes up, some switches may indicate that
+the link is up (carrier available), but not pass traffic over the
+interface for some period of time. This delay is typically due to
+some type of autonegotiation or routing protocol, but may also occur
+during switch initialization (e.g., during recovery after a switch
+failure). If you find this to be a problem, specify an appropriate
+value to the updelay bonding module option to delay the use of the
+relevant interface(s).
+
+ Second, some switches may "bounce" the link state one or more
+times while a link is changing state. This occurs most commonly while
+the switch is initializing. Again, an appropriate updelay value may
+help, but note that if all links are down, then updelay is ignored
+when any link becomes active (the slave closest to completing its
+updelay is chosen).
+
+ Note that when a bonding interface has no active links, the
+driver will immediately reuse the first link that goes up, even if
+updelay parameter was specified. If there are slave interfaces
+waiting for the updelay timeout to expire, the interface that first
+went into that state will be immediately reused. This reduces down
+time of the network if the value of updelay has been overestimated.
+
+ In addition to the concerns about switch timings, if your
+switches take a long time to go into backup mode, it may be desirable
+to not activate a backup interface immediately after a link goes down.
+Failover may be delayed via the downdelay bonding module option.
+
+13. Hardware Specific Considerations
+====================================
+
+ This section contains additional information for configuring
+bonding on specific hardware platforms, or for interfacing bonding
+with particular switches or other devices.
+
+13.1 IBM BladeCenter
+--------------------
+
+ This applies to the JS20 and similar systems.
+
+ On the JS20 blades, the bonding driver supports only
+balance-rr, active-backup, balance-tlb and balance-alb modes. This is
+largely due to the network topology inside the BladeCenter, detailed
+below.
+
+JS20 network adapter information
+--------------------------------
+
+ All JS20s come with two Broadcom Gigabit Ethernet ports
+integrated on the planar. In the BladeCenter chassis, the eth0 port
+of all JS20 blades is hard wired to I/O Module #1; similarly, all eth1
+ports are wired to I/O Module #2. An add-on Broadcom daughter card
+can be installed on a JS20 to provide two more Gigabit Ethernet ports.
+These ports, eth2 and eth3, are wired to I/O Modules 3 and 4,
+respectively.
+
+ Each I/O Module may contain either a switch or a passthrough
+module (which allows ports to be directly connected to an external
+switch). Some bonding modes require a specific BladeCenter internal
+network topology in order to function; these are detailed below.
+
+ Additional BladeCenter-specific networking information can be
+found in two IBM Redbooks (www.ibm.com/redbooks):
+
+"IBM eServer BladeCenter Networking Options"
+"IBM eServer BladeCenter Layer 2-7 Network Switching"
+
+BladeCenter networking configuration
+------------------------------------
+
+ Because a BladeCenter can be configured in a very large number
+of ways, this discussion will be confined to describing basic
+configurations.
+
+ Normally, Ethernet Switch Modules (ESM) are used in I/O
+modules 1 and 2. In this configuration, the eth0 and eth1 ports of a
+JS20 will be connected to different internal switches (in the
+respective I/O modules).
+
+ An optical passthru module (OPM) connects the I/O module
+directly to an external switch. By using OPMs in I/O module #1 and
+#2, the eth0 and eth1 interfaces of a JS20 can be redirected to the
+outside world and connected to a common external switch.
+
+ Depending upon the mix of ESM and OPM modules, the network
+will appear to bonding as either a single switch topology (all OPM
+modules) or as a multiple switch topology (one or more ESM modules,
+zero or more OPM modules). It is also possible to connect ESM modules
+together, resulting in a configuration much like the example in "High
+Availability in a multiple switch topology."
+
+Requirements for specifc modes
+------------------------------
+
+ The balance-rr mode requires the use of OPM modules for
+devices in the bond, all connected to an common external switch. That
+switch must be configured for "etherchannel" or "trunking" on the
+appropriate ports, as is usual for balance-rr.
+
+ The balance-alb and balance-tlb modes will function with
+either switch modules or passthrough modules (or a mix). The only
+specific requirement for these modes is that all network interfaces
+must be able to reach all destinations for traffic sent over the
+bonding device (i.e., the network must converge at some point outside
+the BladeCenter).
+
+ The active-backup mode has no additional requirements.
+
+Link monitoring issues
+----------------------
+
+ When an Ethernet Switch Module is in place, only the ARP
+monitor will reliably detect link loss to an external switch. This is
+nothing unusual, but examination of the BladeCenter cabinet would
+suggest that the "external" network ports are the ethernet ports for
+the system, when it fact there is a switch between these "external"
+ports and the devices on the JS20 system itself. The MII monitor is
+only able to detect link failures between the ESM and the JS20 system.
+
+ When a passthrough module is in place, the MII monitor does
+detect failures to the "external" port, which is then directly
+connected to the JS20 system.
+
+Other concerns
+--------------
+
+ The Serial Over LAN link is established over the primary
+ethernet (eth0) only, therefore, any loss of link to eth0 will result
+in losing your SoL connection. It will not fail over with other
+network traffic.
+
+ It may be desirable to disable spanning tree on the switch
+(either the internal Ethernet Switch Module, or an external switch) to
+avoid fail-over delays issues when using bonding.
+
+
+14. Frequently Asked Questions
+==============================
+
+1. Is it SMP safe?
+
+ Yes. The old 2.0.xx channel bonding patch was not SMP safe.
+The new driver was designed to be SMP safe from the start.
+
+2. What type of cards will work with it?
+
+ Any Ethernet type cards (you can even mix cards - a Intel
+EtherExpress PRO/100 and a 3com 3c905b, for example). They need not
+be of the same speed.
+
+3. How many bonding devices can I have?
+
+ There is no limit.
+
+4. How many slaves can a bonding device have?
+
+ This is limited only by the number of network interfaces Linux
+supports and/or the number of network cards you can place in your
+system.
+
+5. What happens when a slave link dies?
+
+ If link monitoring is enabled, then the failing device will be
+disabled. The active-backup mode will fail over to a backup link, and
+other modes will ignore the failed link. The link will continue to be
+monitored, and should it recover, it will rejoin the bond (in whatever
+manner is appropriate for the mode). See the section on High
+Availability for additional information.
+
+ Link monitoring can be enabled via either the miimon or
+arp_interval paramters (described in the module paramters section,
+above). In general, miimon monitors the carrier state as sensed by
+the underlying network device, and the arp monitor (arp_interval)
+monitors connectivity to another host on the local network.
+
+ If no link monitoring is configured, the bonding driver will
+be unable to detect link failures, and will assume that all links are
+always available. This will likely result in lost packets, and a
+resulting degredation of performance. The precise performance loss
+depends upon the bonding mode and network configuration.
+
+6. Can bonding be used for High Availability?
+
+ Yes. See the section on High Availability for details.
+
+7. Which switches/systems does it work with?
+
+ The full answer to this depends upon the desired mode.
+
+ In the basic balance modes (balance-rr and balance-xor), it
+works with any system that supports etherchannel (also called
+trunking). Most managed switches currently available have such
+support, and many unmananged switches as well.
+
+ The advanced balance modes (balance-tlb and balance-alb) do
+not have special switch requirements, but do need device drivers that
+support specific features (described in the appropriate section under
+module paramters, above).
+
+ In 802.3ad mode, it works with with systems that support IEEE
+802.3ad Dynamic Link Aggregation. Most managed and many unmanaged
+switches currently available support 802.3ad.
+
+ The active-backup mode should work with any Layer-II switch.
+
+8. Where does a bonding device get its MAC address from?
+
+ If not explicitly configured with ifconfig, the MAC address of
+the bonding device is taken from its first slave device. This MAC
+address is then passed to all following slaves and remains persistent
+(even if the the first slave is removed) until the bonding device is
+brought down or reconfigured.
+
+ If you wish to change the MAC address, you can set it with
+ifconfig:
+
+# ifconfig bond0 hw ether 00:11:22:33:44:55
+
+ The MAC address can be also changed by bringing down/up the
+device and then changing its slaves (or their order):
+
+# ifconfig bond0 down ; modprobe -r bonding
+# ifconfig bond0 .... up
+# ifenslave bond0 eth...
+
+ This method will automatically take the address from the next
+slave that is added.
+
+ To restore your slaves' MAC addresses, you need to detach them
+from the bond (`ifenslave -d bond0 eth0'). The bonding driver will
+then restore the MAC addresses that the slaves had before they were
+enslaved.
+
+15. Resources and Links
+=======================
+
+The latest version of the bonding driver can be found in the latest
+version of the linux kernel, found on http://kernel.org
+
+Discussions regarding the bonding driver take place primarily on the
+bonding-devel mailing list, hosted at sourceforge.net. If you have
+questions or problems, post them to the list.
+
+bonding-devel@lists.sourceforge.net
+
+https://lists.sourceforge.net/lists/listinfo/bonding-devel
+
+There is also a project site on sourceforge.
+
+http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/bonding
+
+Donald Becker's Ethernet Drivers and diag programs may be found at :
+ - http://www.scyld.com/network/
+
+You will also find a lot of information regarding Ethernet, NWay, MII,
+etc. at www.scyld.com.
+
+-- END --
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/bridge.txt b/Documentation/networking/bridge.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..bdae2db4119c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/bridge.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+In order to use the Ethernet bridging functionality, you'll need the
+userspace tools. These programs and documentation are available
+at http://bridge.sourceforge.net. The download page is
+http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/bridge.
+
+If you still have questions, don't hesitate to post to the mailing list
+(more info http://lists.osdl.org/mailman/listinfo/bridge).
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/comx.txt b/Documentation/networking/comx.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d1526eba2645
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/comx.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,248 @@
+
+ COMX drivers for the 2.2 kernel
+
+Originally written by: Tivadar Szemethy, <tiv@itc.hu>
+Currently maintained by: Gergely Madarasz <gorgo@itc.hu>
+
+Last change: 21/06/1999.
+
+INTRODUCTION
+
+This document describes the software drivers and their use for the
+COMX line of synchronous serial adapters for Linux version 2.2.0 and
+above.
+The cards are produced and sold by ITC-Pro Ltd. Budapest, Hungary
+For further info contact <info@itc.hu>
+or http://www.itc.hu (mostly in Hungarian).
+The firmware files and software are available from ftp://ftp.itc.hu
+
+Currently, the drivers support the following cards and protocols:
+
+COMX (2x64 kbps intelligent board)
+CMX (1x256 + 1x128 kbps intelligent board)
+HiCOMX (2x2Mbps intelligent board)
+LoCOMX (1x512 kbps passive board)
+MixCOM (1x512 or 2x512kbps passive board with a hardware watchdog an
+ optional BRI interface and optional flashROM (1-32M))
+SliceCOM (1x2Mbps channelized E1 board)
+PciCOM (X21)
+
+At the moment of writing this document, the (Cisco)-HDLC, LAPB, SyncPPP and
+Frame Relay (DTE, rfc1294 IP encapsulation with partially implemented Q933a
+LMI) protocols are available as link-level protocol.
+X.25 support is being worked on.
+
+USAGE
+
+Load the comx.o module and the hardware-specific and protocol-specific
+modules you'll need into the running kernel using the insmod utility.
+This creates the /proc/comx directory.
+See the example scripts in the 'etc' directory.
+
+/proc INTERFACE INTRO
+
+The COMX driver set has a new type of user interface based on the /proc
+filesystem which eliminates the need for external user-land software doing
+IOCTL calls.
+Each network interface or device (i.e. those ones you configure with 'ifconfig'
+and 'route' etc.) has a corresponding directory under /proc/comx. You can
+dynamically create a new interface by saying 'mkdir /proc/comx/comx0' (or you
+can name it whatever you want up to 8 characters long, comx[n] is just a
+convention).
+Generally the files contained in these directories are text files, which can
+be viewed by 'cat filename' and you can write a string to such a file by
+saying 'echo _string_ >filename'. This is very similar to the sysctl interface.
+Don't use a text editor to edit these files, always use 'echo' (or 'cat'
+where appropriate).
+When you've created the comx[n] directory, two files are created automagically
+in it: 'boardtype' and 'protocol'. You have to fill in these files correctly
+for your board and protocol you intend to use (see the board and protocol
+descriptions in this file below or the example scripts in the 'etc' directory).
+After filling in these files, other files will appear in the directory for
+setting the various hardware- and protocol-related informations (for example
+irq and io addresses, keepalive values etc.) These files are set to default
+values upon creation, so you don't necessarily have to change all of them.
+
+When you're ready with filling in the files in the comx[n] directory, you can
+configure the corresponding network interface with the standard network
+configuration utilities. If you're unable to bring the interfaces up, look up
+the various kernel log files on your system, and consult the messages for
+a probable reason.
+
+EXAMPLE
+
+To create the interface 'comx0' which is the first channel of a COMX card:
+
+insmod comx
+# insmod comx-hw-comx ; insmod comx-proto-ppp (these are usually
+autoloaded if you use the kernel module loader)
+
+mkdir /proc/comx/comx0
+echo comx >/proc/comx/comx0/boardtype
+echo 0x360 >/proc/comx/comx0/io <- jumper-selectable I/O port
+echo 0x0a >/proc/comx/comx0/irq <- jumper-selectable IRQ line
+echo 0xd000 >/proc/comx/comx0/memaddr <- software-configurable memory
+ address. COMX uses 64 KB, and this
+ can be: 0xa000, 0xb000, 0xc000,
+ 0xd000, 0xe000. Avoid conflicts
+ with other hardware.
+cat </etc/siol1.rom >/proc/comx/comx0/firmware <- the firmware for the card
+echo HDLC >/proc/comx/comx0/protocol <- the data-link protocol
+echo 10 >/proc/comx/comx0/keepalive <- the keepalive for the protocol
+ifconfig comx0 1.2.3.4 pointopoint 5.6.7.8 netmask 255.255.255.255 <-
+ finally configure it with ifconfig
+Check its status:
+cat /proc/comx/comx0/status
+
+If you want to use the second channel of this board:
+
+mkdir /proc/comx/comx1
+echo comx >/proc/comx/comx1/boardtype
+echo 0x360 >/proc/comx/comx1/io
+echo 10 >/proc/comx/comx1/irq
+echo 0xd000 >/proc/comx/comx1/memaddr
+echo 1 >/proc/comx/comx1/channel <- channels are numbered
+ as 0 (default) and 1
+
+Now, check if the driver recognized that you're going to use the other
+channel of the same adapter:
+
+cat /proc/comx/comx0/twin
+comx1
+cat /proc/comx/comx1/twin
+comx0
+
+You don't have to load the firmware twice, if you use both channels of
+an adapter, just write it into the channel 0's /proc firmware file.
+
+Default values: io 0x360 for COMX, 0x320 (HICOMX), irq 10, memaddr 0xd0000
+
+THE LOCOMX HARDWARE DRIVER
+
+The LoCOMX driver doesn't require firmware, and it doesn't use memory either,
+but it uses DMA channels 1 and 3. You can set the clock rate (if enabled by
+jumpers on the board) by writing the kbps value into the file named 'clock'.
+Set it to 'external' (it is the default) if you have external clock source.
+
+(Note: currently the LoCOMX driver does not support the internal clock)
+
+THE COMX, CMX AND HICOMX DRIVERS
+
+On the HICOMX, COMX and CMX, you have to load the firmware (it is different for
+the three cards!). All these adapters can share the same memory
+address (we usually use 0xd0000). On the CMX you can set the internal
+clock rate (if enabled by jumpers on the small adapter boards) by writing
+the kbps value into the 'clock' file. You have to do this before initializing
+the card. If you use both HICOMX and CMX/COMX cards, initialize the HICOMX
+first. The I/O address of the HICOMX board is not configurable by any
+method available to the user: it is hardwired to 0x320, and if you have to
+change it, consult ITC-Pro Ltd.
+
+THE MIXCOM DRIVER
+
+The MixCOM board doesn't require firmware, the driver communicates with
+it through I/O ports. You can have three of these cards in one machine.
+
+THE SLICECOM DRIVER
+
+The SliceCOM board doesn't require firmware. You can have 4 of these cards
+in one machine. The driver doesn't (yet) support shared interrupts, so
+you will need a separate IRQ line for every board.
+Read Documentation/networking/slicecom.txt for help on configuring
+this adapter.
+
+THE HDLC/PPP LINE PROTOCOL DRIVER
+
+The HDLC/SyncPPP line protocol driver uses the kernel's built-in syncppp
+driver (syncppp.o). You don't have to manually select syncppp.o when building
+the kernel, the dependencies compile it in automatically.
+
+
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+(setting up hw parameters, see above)
+
+# using HDLC:
+echo hdlc >/proc/comx/comx0/protocol
+echo 10 >/proc/comx/comx0/keepalive <- not necessary, 10 is the default
+ifconfig comx0 1.2.3.4 pointopoint 5.6.7.8 netmask 255.255.255.255
+
+(setting up hw parameters, see above)
+
+# using PPP:
+echo ppp >/proc/comx/comx0/protocol
+ifconfig comx0 up
+ifconfig comx0 1.2.3.4 pointopoint 5.6.7.8 netmask 255.255.255.255
+
+
+THE LAPB LINE PROTOCOL DRIVER
+
+For this, you'll need to configure LAPB support (See 'LAPB Data Link Driver' in
+'Network options' section) into your kernel (thanks to Jonathan Naylor for his
+excellent implementation).
+comx-proto-lapb.o provides the following files in the appropriate directory
+(the default values in parens): t1 (5), t2 (1), n2 (20), mode (DTE, STD) and
+window (7). Agree with the administrator of your peer router on these
+settings (most people use defaults, but you have to know if you are DTE or
+DCE).
+
+EXAMPLE
+
+(setting up hw parameters, see above)
+echo lapb >/proc/comx/comx0/protocol
+echo dce >/proc/comx/comx0/mode <- DCE interface in this example
+ifconfig comx0 1.2.3.4 pointopoint 5.6.7.8 netmask 255.255.255.255
+
+
+THE FRAME RELAY PROTOCOL DRIVER
+
+You DON'T need any other frame relay related modules from the kernel to use
+COMX-Frame Relay. This protocol is a bit more complicated than the others,
+because it allows to use 'subinterfaces' or DLCIs within one physical device.
+First you have to create the 'master' device (the actual physical interface)
+as you would do for other protocols. Specify 'frad' as protocol type.
+Now you can bring this interface up by saying 'ifconfig comx0 up' (or whatever
+you've named the interface). Do not assign any IP address to this interface
+and do not set any routes through it.
+Then, set up your DLCIs the following way: create a comx interface for each
+DLCI you intend to use (with mkdir), and write 'dlci' to the 'boardtype' file,
+and 'ietf-ip' to the 'protocol' file. Currently, the only supported
+encapsulation type is this (also called as RFC1294/1490 IP encapsulation).
+Write the DLCI number to the 'dlci' file, and write the name of the physical
+COMX device to the file called 'master'.
+Now you can assign an IP address to this interface and set routes using it.
+See the example file for further info and example config script.
+Notes: this driver implements a DTE interface with partially implemented
+Q933a LMI.
+You can find an extensively commented example in the 'etc' directory.
+
+FURTHER /proc FILES
+
+boardtype:
+Type of the hardware. Valid values are:
+ 'comx', 'hicomx', 'locomx', 'cmx', 'slicecom'.
+
+protocol:
+Data-link protocol on this channel. Can be: HDLC, LAPB, PPP, FRAD
+
+status:
+You can read the channel's actual status from the 'status' file, for example
+'cat /proc/comx/comx3/status'.
+
+lineup_delay:
+Interpreted in seconds (default is 1). Used to avoid line jitter: the system
+will consider the line status 'UP' only if it is up for at least this number
+of seconds.
+
+debug:
+You can set various debug options through this file. Valid options are:
+'comx_events', 'comx_tx', 'comx_rx', 'hw_events', 'hw_tx', 'hw_rx'.
+You can enable a debug options by writing its name prepended by a '+' into
+the debug file, for example 'echo +comx_rx >comx0/debug'.
+Disabling an option happens similarly, use the '-' prefix
+(e.g. 'echo -hw_rx >debug').
+Debug results can be read from the debug file, for example:
+tail -f /proc/comx/comx2/debug
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/cops.txt b/Documentation/networking/cops.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3e344b448e07
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/cops.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+Text File for the COPS LocalTalk Linux driver (cops.c).
+ By Jay Schulist <jschlst@samba.org>
+
+This driver has two modes and they are: Dayna mode and Tangent mode.
+Each mode corresponds with the type of card. It has been found
+that there are 2 main types of cards and all other cards are
+the same and just have different names or only have minor differences
+such as more IO ports. As this driver is tested it will
+become more clear exactly what cards are supported.
+
+Right now these cards are known to work with the COPS driver. The
+LT-200 cards work in a somewhat more limited capacity than the
+DL200 cards, which work very well and are in use by many people.
+
+TANGENT driver mode:
+ Tangent ATB-II, Novell NL-1000, Daystar Digital LT-200
+DAYNA driver mode:
+ Dayna DL2000/DaynaTalk PC (Half Length), COPS LT-95,
+ Farallon PhoneNET PC III, Farallon PhoneNET PC II
+Other cards possibly supported mode unknown though:
+ Dayna DL2000 (Full length)
+
+The COPS driver defaults to using Dayna mode. To change the driver's
+mode if you built a driver with dual support use board_type=1 or
+board_type=2 for Dayna or Tangent with insmod.
+
+** Operation/loading of the driver.
+Use modprobe like this: /sbin/modprobe cops.o (IO #) (IRQ #)
+If you do not specify any options the driver will try and use the IO = 0x240,
+IRQ = 5. As of right now I would only use IRQ 5 for the card, if autoprobing.
+
+To load multiple COPS driver Localtalk cards you can do one of the following.
+
+insmod cops io=0x240 irq=5
+insmod -o cops2 cops io=0x260 irq=3
+
+Or in lilo.conf put something like this:
+ append="ether=5,0x240,lt0 ether=3,0x260,lt1"
+
+Then bring up the interface with ifconfig. It will look something like this:
+lt0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-F7-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00
+ inet addr:192.168.1.2 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
+ UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:600 Metric:1
+ RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
+ TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 coll:0
+
+** Netatalk Configuration
+You will need to configure atalkd with something like the following to make
+it work with the cops.c driver.
+
+* For single LTalk card use.
+dummy -seed -phase 2 -net 2000 -addr 2000.10 -zone "1033"
+lt0 -seed -phase 1 -net 1000 -addr 1000.50 -zone "1033"
+
+* For multiple cards, Ethernet and LocalTalk.
+eth0 -seed -phase 2 -net 3000 -addr 3000.20 -zone "1033"
+lt0 -seed -phase 1 -net 1000 -addr 1000.50 -zone "1033"
+
+* For multiple LocalTalk cards, and an Ethernet card.
+* Order seems to matter here, Ethernet last.
+lt0 -seed -phase 1 -net 1000 -addr 1000.10 -zone "LocalTalk1"
+lt1 -seed -phase 1 -net 2000 -addr 2000.20 -zone "LocalTalk2"
+eth0 -seed -phase 2 -net 3000 -addr 3000.30 -zone "EtherTalk"
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/cs89x0.txt b/Documentation/networking/cs89x0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..188beb7d6a17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/cs89x0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,703 @@
+
+NOTE
+----
+
+This document was contributed by Cirrus Logic for kernel 2.2.5. This version
+has been updated for 2.3.48 by Andrew Morton <andrewm@uow.edu.au>
+
+Cirrus make a copy of this driver available at their website, as
+described below. In general, you should use the driver version which
+comes with your Linux distribution.
+
+
+
+CIRRUS LOGIC LAN CS8900/CS8920 ETHERNET ADAPTERS
+Linux Network Interface Driver ver. 2.00 <kernel 2.3.48>
+===============================================================================
+
+
+TABLE OF CONTENTS
+
+1.0 CIRRUS LOGIC LAN CS8900/CS8920 ETHERNET ADAPTERS
+ 1.1 Product Overview
+ 1.2 Driver Description
+ 1.2.1 Driver Name
+ 1.2.2 File in the Driver Package
+ 1.3 System Requirements
+ 1.4 Licensing Information
+
+2.0 ADAPTER INSTALLATION and CONFIGURATION
+ 2.1 CS8900-based Adapter Configuration
+ 2.2 CS8920-based Adapter Configuration
+
+3.0 LOADING THE DRIVER AS A MODULE
+
+4.0 COMPILING THE DRIVER
+ 4.1 Compiling the Driver as a Loadable Module
+ 4.2 Compiling the driver to support memory mode
+ 4.3 Compiling the driver to support Rx DMA
+ 4.4 Compiling the Driver into the Kernel
+
+5.0 TESTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING
+ 5.1 Known Defects and Limitations
+ 5.2 Testing the Adapter
+ 5.2.1 Diagnostic Self-Test
+ 5.2.2 Diagnostic Network Test
+ 5.3 Using the Adapter's LEDs
+ 5.4 Resolving I/O Conflicts
+
+6.0 TECHNICAL SUPPORT
+ 6.1 Contacting Cirrus Logic's Technical Support
+ 6.2 Information Required Before Contacting Technical Support
+ 6.3 Obtaining the Latest Driver Version
+ 6.4 Current maintainer
+ 6.5 Kernel boot parameters
+
+
+1.0 CIRRUS LOGIC LAN CS8900/CS8920 ETHERNET ADAPTERS
+===============================================================================
+
+
+1.1 PRODUCT OVERVIEW
+
+The CS8900-based ISA Ethernet Adapters from Cirrus Logic follow
+IEEE 802.3 standards and support half or full-duplex operation in ISA bus
+computers on 10 Mbps Ethernet networks. The adapters are designed for operation
+in 16-bit ISA or EISA bus expansion slots and are available in
+10BaseT-only or 3-media configurations (10BaseT, 10Base2, and AUI for 10Base-5
+or fiber networks).
+
+CS8920-based adapters are similar to the CS8900-based adapter with additional
+features for Plug and Play (PnP) support and Wakeup Frame recognition. As
+such, the configuration procedures differ somewhat between the two types of
+adapters. Refer to the "Adapter Configuration" section for details on
+configuring both types of adapters.
+
+
+1.2 DRIVER DESCRIPTION
+
+The CS8900/CS8920 Ethernet Adapter driver for Linux supports the Linux
+v2.3.48 or greater kernel. It can be compiled directly into the kernel
+or loaded at run-time as a device driver module.
+
+1.2.1 Driver Name: cs89x0
+
+1.2.2 Files in the Driver Archive:
+
+The files in the driver at Cirrus' website include:
+
+ readme.txt - this file
+ build - batch file to compile cs89x0.c.
+ cs89x0.c - driver C code
+ cs89x0.h - driver header file
+ cs89x0.o - pre-compiled module (for v2.2.5 kernel)
+ config/Config.in - sample file to include cs89x0 driver in the kernel.
+ config/Makefile - sample file to include cs89x0 driver in the kernel.
+ config/Space.c - sample file to include cs89x0 driver in the kernel.
+
+
+
+1.3 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
+
+The following hardware is required:
+
+ * Cirrus Logic LAN (CS8900/20-based) Ethernet ISA Adapter
+
+ * IBM or IBM-compatible PC with:
+ * An 80386 or higher processor
+ * 16 bytes of contiguous IO space available between 210h - 370h
+ * One available IRQ (5,10,11,or 12 for the CS8900, 3-7,9-15 for CS8920).
+
+ * Appropriate cable (and connector for AUI, 10BASE-2) for your network
+ topology.
+
+The following software is required:
+
+* LINUX kernel version 2.3.48 or higher
+
+ * CS8900/20 Setup Utility (DOS-based)
+
+ * LINUX kernel sources for your kernel (if compiling into kernel)
+
+ * GNU Toolkit (gcc and make) v2.6 or above (if compiling into kernel
+ or a module)
+
+
+
+1.4 LICENSING INFORMATION
+
+This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
+the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
+Foundation, version 1.
+
+This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
+ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
+FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for
+more details.
+
+For a full copy of the GNU General Public License, write to the Free Software
+Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
+
+
+
+2.0 ADAPTER INSTALLATION and CONFIGURATION
+===============================================================================
+
+Both the CS8900 and CS8920-based adapters can be configured using parameters
+stored in an on-board EEPROM. You must use the DOS-based CS8900/20 Setup
+Utility if you want to change the adapter's configuration in EEPROM.
+
+When loading the driver as a module, you can specify many of the adapter's
+configuration parameters on the command-line to override the EEPROM's settings
+or for interface configuration when an EEPROM is not used. (CS8920-based
+adapters must use an EEPROM.) See Section 3.0 LOADING THE DRIVER AS A MODULE.
+
+Since the CS8900/20 Setup Utility is a DOS-based application, you must install
+and configure the adapter in a DOS-based system using the CS8900/20 Setup
+Utility before installation in the target LINUX system. (Not required if
+installing a CS8900-based adapter and the default configuration is acceptable.)
+
+
+2.1 CS8900-BASED ADAPTER CONFIGURATION
+
+CS8900-based adapters shipped from Cirrus Logic have been configured
+with the following "default" settings:
+
+ Operation Mode: Memory Mode
+ IRQ: 10
+ Base I/O Address: 300
+ Memory Base Address: D0000
+ Optimization: DOS Client
+ Transmission Mode: Half-duplex
+ BootProm: None
+ Media Type: Autodetect (3-media cards) or
+ 10BASE-T (10BASE-T only adapter)
+
+You should only change the default configuration settings if conflicts with
+another adapter exists. To change the adapter's configuration, run the
+CS8900/20 Setup Utility.
+
+
+2.2 CS8920-BASED ADAPTER CONFIGURATION
+
+CS8920-based adapters are shipped from Cirrus Logic configured as Plug
+and Play (PnP) enabled. However, since the cs89x0 driver does NOT
+support PnP, you must install the CS8920 adapter in a DOS-based PC and
+run the CS8900/20 Setup Utility to disable PnP and configure the
+adapter before installation in the target Linux system. Failure to do
+this will leave the adapter inactive and the driver will be unable to
+communicate with the adapter.
+
+
+ ****************************************************************
+ * CS8920-BASED ADAPTERS: *
+ * *
+ * CS8920-BASED ADAPTERS ARE PLUG and PLAY ENABLED BY DEFAULT. *
+ * THE CS89X0 DRIVER DOES NOT SUPPORT PnP. THEREFORE, YOU MUST *
+ * RUN THE CS8900/20 SETUP UTILITY TO DISABLE PnP SUPPORT AND *
+ * TO ACTIVATE THE ADAPTER. *
+ ****************************************************************
+
+
+
+
+3.0 LOADING THE DRIVER AS A MODULE
+===============================================================================
+
+If the driver is compiled as a loadable module, you can load the driver module
+with the 'modprobe' command. Many of the adapter's configuration parameters can
+be specified as command-line arguments to the load command. This facility
+provides a means to override the EEPROM's settings or for interface
+configuration when an EEPROM is not used.
+
+Example:
+
+ insmod cs89x0.o io=0x200 irq=0xA media=aui
+
+This example loads the module and configures the adapter to use an IO port base
+address of 200h, interrupt 10, and use the AUI media connection. The following
+configuration options are available on the command line:
+
+* io=### - specify IO address (200h-360h)
+* irq=## - specify interrupt level
+* use_dma=1 - Enable DMA
+* dma=# - specify dma channel (Driver is compiled to support
+ Rx DMA only)
+* dmasize=# (16 or 64) - DMA size 16K or 64K. Default value is set to 16.
+* media=rj45 - specify media type
+ or media=bnc
+ or media=aui
+ or medai=auto
+* duplex=full - specify forced half/full/autonegotiate duplex
+ or duplex=half
+ or duplex=auto
+* debug=# - debug level (only available if the driver was compiled
+ for debugging)
+
+NOTES:
+
+a) If an EEPROM is present, any specified command-line parameter
+ will override the corresponding configuration value stored in
+ EEPROM.
+
+b) The "io" parameter must be specified on the command-line.
+
+c) The driver's hardware probe routine is designed to avoid
+ writing to I/O space until it knows that there is a cs89x0
+ card at the written addresses. This could cause problems
+ with device probing. To avoid this behaviour, add one
+ to the `io=' module parameter. This doesn't actually change
+ the I/O address, but it is a flag to tell the driver
+ topartially initialise the hardware before trying to
+ identify the card. This could be dangerous if you are
+ not sure that there is a cs89x0 card at the provided address.
+
+ For example, to scan for an adapter located at IO base 0x300,
+ specify an IO address of 0x301.
+
+d) The "duplex=auto" parameter is only supported for the CS8920.
+
+e) The minimum command-line configuration required if an EEPROM is
+ not present is:
+
+ io
+ irq
+ media type (no autodetect)
+
+f) The following additional parameters are CS89XX defaults (values
+ used with no EEPROM or command-line argument).
+
+ * DMA Burst = enabled
+ * IOCHRDY Enabled = enabled
+ * UseSA = enabled
+ * CS8900 defaults to half-duplex if not specified on command-line
+ * CS8920 defaults to autoneg if not specified on command-line
+ * Use reset defaults for other config parameters
+ * dma_mode = 0
+
+g) You can use ifconfig to set the adapter's Ethernet address.
+
+h) Many Linux distributions use the 'modprobe' command to load
+ modules. This program uses the '/etc/conf.modules' file to
+ determine configuration information which is passed to a driver
+ module when it is loaded. All the configuration options which are
+ described above may be placed within /etc/conf.modules.
+
+ For example:
+
+ > cat /etc/conf.modules
+ ...
+ alias eth0 cs89x0
+ options cs89x0 io=0x0200 dma=5 use_dma=1
+ ...
+
+ In this example we are telling the module system that the
+ ethernet driver for this machine should use the cs89x0 driver. We
+ are asking 'modprobe' to pass the 'io', 'dma' and 'use_dma'
+ arguments to the driver when it is loaded.
+
+i) Cirrus recommend that the cs89x0 use the ISA DMA channels 5, 6 or
+ 7. You will probably find that other DMA channels will not work.
+
+j) The cs89x0 supports DMA for receiving only. DMA mode is
+ significantly more efficient. Flooding a 400 MHz Celeron machine
+ with large ping packets consumes 82% of its CPU capacity in non-DMA
+ mode. With DMA this is reduced to 45%.
+
+k) If your Linux kernel was compiled with inbuilt plug-and-play
+ support you will be able to find information about the cs89x0 card
+ with the command
+
+ cat /proc/isapnp
+
+l) If during DMA operation you find erratic behavior or network data
+ corruption you should use your PC's BIOS to slow the EISA bus clock.
+
+m) If the cs89x0 driver is compiled directly into the kernel
+ (non-modular) then its I/O address is automatically determined by
+ ISA bus probing. The IRQ number, media options, etc are determined
+ from the card's EEPROM.
+
+n) If the cs89x0 driver is compiled directly into the kernel, DMA
+ mode may be selected by providing the kernel with a boot option
+ 'cs89x0_dma=N' where 'N' is the desired DMA channel number (5, 6 or 7).
+
+ Kernel boot options may be provided on the LILO command line:
+
+ LILO boot: linux cs89x0_dma=5
+
+ or they may be placed in /etc/lilo.conf:
+
+ image=/boot/bzImage-2.3.48
+ append="cs89x0_dma=5"
+ label=linux
+ root=/dev/hda5
+ read-only
+
+ The DMA Rx buffer size is hardwired to 16 kbytes in this mode.
+ (64k mode is not available).
+
+
+4.0 COMPILING THE DRIVER
+===============================================================================
+
+The cs89x0 driver can be compiled directly into the kernel or compiled into
+a loadable device driver module.
+
+
+4.1 COMPILING THE DRIVER AS A LOADABLE MODULE
+
+To compile the driver into a loadable module, use the following command
+(single command line, without quotes):
+
+"gcc -D__KERNEL__ -I/usr/src/linux/include -I/usr/src/linux/net/inet -Wall
+-Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -fomit-frame-pointer -DMODULE -DCONFIG_MODVERSIONS
+-c cs89x0.c"
+
+4.2 COMPILING THE DRIVER TO SUPPORT MEMORY MODE
+
+Support for memory mode was not carried over into the 2.3 series kernels.
+
+4.3 COMPILING THE DRIVER TO SUPPORT Rx DMA
+
+The compile-time optionality for DMA was removed in the 2.3 kernel
+series. DMA support is now unconditionally part of the driver. It is
+enabled by the 'use_dma=1' module option.
+
+4.4 COMPILING THE DRIVER INTO THE KERNEL
+
+If your Linux distribution already has support for the cs89x0 driver
+then simply copy the source file to the /usr/src/linux/drivers/net
+directory to replace the original ones and run the make utility to
+rebuild the kernel. See Step 3 for rebuilding the kernel.
+
+If your Linux does not include the cs89x0 driver, you need to edit three
+configuration files, copy the source file to the /usr/src/linux/drivers/net
+directory, and then run the make utility to rebuild the kernel.
+
+1. Edit the following configuration files by adding the statements as
+indicated. (When possible, try to locate the added text to the section of the
+file containing similar statements).
+
+
+a.) In /usr/src/linux/drivers/net/Config.in, add:
+
+tristate 'CS89x0 support' CONFIG_CS89x0
+
+Example:
+
+ if [ "$CONFIG_EXPERIMENTAL" = "y" ]; then
+ tristate 'ICL EtherTeam 16i/32 support' CONFIG_ETH16I
+ fi
+
+ tristate 'CS89x0 support' CONFIG_CS89x0
+
+ tristate 'NE2000/NE1000 support' CONFIG_NE2000
+ if [ "$CONFIG_EXPERIMENTAL" = "y" ]; then
+ tristate 'NI5210 support' CONFIG_NI52
+
+
+b.) In /usr/src/linux/drivers/net/Makefile, add the following lines:
+
+ifeq ($(CONFIG_CS89x0),y)
+L_OBJS += cs89x0.o
+else
+ ifeq ($(CONFIG_CS89x0),m)
+ M_OBJS += cs89x0.o
+ endif
+endif
+
+
+c.) In /linux/drivers/net/Space.c file, add the line:
+
+extern int cs89x0_probe(struct device *dev);
+
+
+Example:
+
+ extern int ultra_probe(struct device *dev);
+ extern int wd_probe(struct device *dev);
+ extern int el2_probe(struct device *dev);
+
+ extern int cs89x0_probe(struct device *dev);
+
+ extern int ne_probe(struct device *dev);
+ extern int hp_probe(struct device *dev);
+ extern int hp_plus_probe(struct device *dev);
+
+
+Also add:
+
+ #ifdef CONFIG_CS89x0
+ { cs89x0_probe,0 },
+ #endif
+
+
+2.) Copy the driver source files (cs89x0.c and cs89x0.h)
+into the /usr/src/linux/drivers/net directory.
+
+
+3.) Go to /usr/src/linux directory and run 'make config' followed by 'make'
+(or make bzImage) to rebuild the kernel.
+
+4.) Use the DOS 'setup' utility to disable plug and play on the NIC.
+
+
+5.0 TESTING AND TROUBLESHOOTING
+===============================================================================
+
+5.1 KNOWN DEFECTS and LIMITATIONS
+
+Refer to the RELEASE.TXT file distributed as part of this archive for a list of
+known defects, driver limitations, and work arounds.
+
+
+5.2 TESTING THE ADAPTER
+
+Once the adapter has been installed and configured, the diagnostic option of
+the CS8900/20 Setup Utility can be used to test the functionality of the
+adapter and its network connection. Use the diagnostics 'Self Test' option to
+test the functionality of the adapter with the hardware configuration you have
+assigned. You can use the diagnostics 'Network Test' to test the ability of the
+adapter to communicate across the Ethernet with another PC equipped with a
+CS8900/20-based adapter card (it must also be running the CS8900/20 Setup
+Utility).
+
+ NOTE: The Setup Utility's diagnostics are designed to run in a
+ DOS-only operating system environment. DO NOT run the diagnostics
+ from a DOS or command prompt session under Windows 95, Windows NT,
+ OS/2, or other operating system.
+
+To run the diagnostics tests on the CS8900/20 adapter:
+
+ 1.) Boot DOS on the PC and start the CS8900/20 Setup Utility.
+
+ 2.) The adapter's current configuration is displayed. Hit the ENTER key to
+ get to the main menu.
+
+ 4.) Select 'Diagnostics' (ALT-G) from the main menu.
+ * Select 'Self-Test' to test the adapter's basic functionality.
+ * Select 'Network Test' to test the network connection and cabling.
+
+
+5.2.1 DIAGNOSTIC SELF-TEST
+
+The diagnostic self-test checks the adapter's basic functionality as well as
+its ability to communicate across the ISA bus based on the system resources
+assigned during hardware configuration. The following tests are performed:
+
+ * IO Register Read/Write Test
+ The IO Register Read/Write test insures that the CS8900/20 can be
+ accessed in IO mode, and that the IO base address is correct.
+
+ * Shared Memory Test
+ The Shared Memory test insures the CS8900/20 can be accessed in memory
+ mode and that the range of memory addresses assigned does not conflict
+ with other devices in the system.
+
+ * Interrupt Test
+ The Interrupt test insures there are no conflicts with the assigned IRQ
+ signal.
+
+ * EEPROM Test
+ The EEPROM test insures the EEPROM can be read.
+
+ * Chip RAM Test
+ The Chip RAM test insures the 4K of memory internal to the CS8900/20 is
+ working properly.
+
+ * Internal Loop-back Test
+ The Internal Loop Back test insures the adapter's transmitter and
+ receiver are operating properly. If this test fails, make sure the
+ adapter's cable is connected to the network (check for LED activity for
+ example).
+
+ * Boot PROM Test
+ The Boot PROM test insures the Boot PROM is present, and can be read.
+ Failure indicates the Boot PROM was not successfully read due to a
+ hardware problem or due to a conflicts on the Boot PROM address
+ assignment. (Test only applies if the adapter is configured to use the
+ Boot PROM option.)
+
+Failure of a test item indicates a possible system resource conflict with
+another device on the ISA bus. In this case, you should use the Manual Setup
+option to reconfigure the adapter by selecting a different value for the system
+resource that failed.
+
+
+5.2.2 DIAGNOSTIC NETWORK TEST
+
+The Diagnostic Network Test verifies a working network connection by
+transferring data between two CS8900/20 adapters installed in different PCs
+on the same network. (Note: the diagnostic network test should not be run
+between two nodes across a router.)
+
+This test requires that each of the two PCs have a CS8900/20-based adapter
+installed and have the CS8900/20 Setup Utility running. The first PC is
+configured as a Responder and the other PC is configured as an Initiator.
+Once the Initiator is started, it sends data frames to the Responder which
+returns the frames to the Initiator.
+
+The total number of frames received and transmitted are displayed on the
+Initiator's display, along with a count of the number of frames received and
+transmitted OK or in error. The test can be terminated anytime by the user at
+either PC.
+
+To setup the Diagnostic Network Test:
+
+ 1.) Select a PC with a CS8900/20-based adapter and a known working network
+ connection to act as the Responder. Run the CS8900/20 Setup Utility
+ and select 'Diagnostics -> Network Test -> Responder' from the main
+ menu. Hit ENTER to start the Responder.
+
+ 2.) Return to the PC with the CS8900/20-based adapter you want to test and
+ start the CS8900/20 Setup Utility.
+
+ 3.) From the main menu, Select 'Diagnostic -> Network Test -> Initiator'.
+ Hit ENTER to start the test.
+
+You may stop the test on the Initiator at any time while allowing the Responder
+to continue running. In this manner, you can move to additional PCs and test
+them by starting the Initiator on another PC without having to stop/start the
+Responder.
+
+
+
+5.3 USING THE ADAPTER'S LEDs
+
+The 2 and 3-media adapters have two LEDs visible on the back end of the board
+located near the 10Base-T connector.
+
+Link Integrity LED: A "steady" ON of the green LED indicates a valid 10Base-T
+connection. (Only applies to 10Base-T. The green LED has no significance for
+a 10Base-2 or AUI connection.)
+
+TX/RX LED: The yellow LED lights briefly each time the adapter transmits or
+receives data. (The yellow LED will appear to "flicker" on a typical network.)
+
+
+5.4 RESOLVING I/O CONFLICTS
+
+An IO conflict occurs when two or more adapter use the same ISA resource (IO
+address, memory address or IRQ). You can usually detect an IO conflict in one
+of four ways after installing and or configuring the CS8900/20-based adapter:
+
+ 1.) The system does not boot properly (or at all).
+
+ 2.) The driver can not communicate with the adapter, reporting an "Adapter
+ not found" error message.
+
+ 3.) You cannot connect to the network or the driver will not load.
+
+ 4.) If you have configured the adapter to run in memory mode but the driver
+ reports it is using IO mode when loading, this is an indication of a
+ memory address conflict.
+
+If an IO conflict occurs, run the CS8900/20 Setup Utility and perform a
+diagnostic self-test. Normally, the ISA resource in conflict will fail the
+self-test. If so, reconfigure the adapter selecting another choice for the
+resource in conflict. Run the diagnostics again to check for further IO
+conflicts.
+
+In some cases, such as when the PC will not boot, it may be necessary to remove
+the adapter and reconfigure it by installing it in another PC to run the
+CS8900/20 Setup Utility. Once reinstalled in the target system, run the
+diagnostics self-test to ensure the new configuration is free of conflicts
+before loading the driver again.
+
+When manually configuring the adapter, keep in mind the typical ISA system
+resource usage as indicated in the tables below.
+
+I/O Address Device IRQ Device
+----------- -------- --- --------
+ 200-20F Game I/O adapter 3 COM2, Bus Mouse
+ 230-23F Bus Mouse 4 COM1
+ 270-27F LPT3: third parallel port 5 LPT2
+ 2F0-2FF COM2: second serial port 6 Floppy Disk controller
+ 320-32F Fixed disk controller 7 LPT1
+ 8 Real-time Clock
+ 9 EGA/VGA display adapter
+ 12 Mouse (PS/2)
+Memory Address Device 13 Math Coprocessor
+-------------- --------------------- 14 Hard Disk controller
+A000-BFFF EGA Graphics Adpater
+A000-C7FF VGA Graphics Adpater
+B000-BFFF Mono Graphics Adapter
+B800-BFFF Color Graphics Adapter
+E000-FFFF AT BIOS
+
+
+
+
+6.0 TECHNICAL SUPPORT
+===============================================================================
+
+6.1 CONTACTING CIRRUS LOGIC'S TECHNICAL SUPPORT
+
+Cirrus Logic's CS89XX Technical Application Support can be reached at:
+
+Telephone :(800) 888-5016 (from inside U.S. and Canada)
+ :(512) 442-7555 (from outside the U.S. and Canada)
+Fax :(512) 912-3871
+Email :ethernet@crystal.cirrus.com
+WWW :http://www.cirrus.com
+
+
+6.2 INFORMATION REQUIRED BEFORE CONTACTING TECHNICAL SUPPORT
+
+Before contacting Cirrus Logic for technical support, be prepared to provide as
+Much of the following information as possible.
+
+1.) Adapter type (CRD8900, CDB8900, CDB8920, etc.)
+
+2.) Adapter configuration
+
+ * IO Base, Memory Base, IO or memory mode enabled, IRQ, DMA channel
+ * Plug and Play enabled/disabled (CS8920-based adapters only)
+ * Configured for media auto-detect or specific media type (which type).
+
+3.) PC System's Configuration
+
+ * Plug and Play system (yes/no)
+ * BIOS (make and version)
+ * System make and model
+ * CPU (type and speed)
+ * System RAM
+ * SCSI Adapter
+
+4.) Software
+
+ * CS89XX driver and version
+ * Your network operating system and version
+ * Your system's OS version
+ * Version of all protocol support files
+
+5.) Any Error Message displayed.
+
+
+
+6.3 OBTAINING THE LATEST DRIVER VERSION
+
+You can obtain the latest CS89XX drivers and support software from Cirrus Logic's
+Web site. You can also contact Cirrus Logic's Technical Support (email:
+ethernet@crystal.cirrus.com) and request that you be registered for automatic
+software-update notification.
+
+Cirrus Logic maintains a web page at http://www.cirrus.com with the
+the latest drivers and technical publications.
+
+
+6.4 Current maintainer
+
+In February 2000 the maintenance of this driver was assumed by Andrew
+Morton <akpm@zip.com.au>
+
+6.5 Kernel module parameters
+
+For use in embedded environments with no cs89x0 EEPROM, the kernel boot
+parameter `cs89x0_media=' has been implemented. Usage is:
+
+ cs89x0_media=rj45 or
+ cs89x0_media=aui or
+ cs89x0_media=bnc
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/de4x5.txt b/Documentation/networking/de4x5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c8e4ca9b2c3e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/de4x5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,178 @@
+ Originally, this driver was written for the Digital Equipment
+ Corporation series of EtherWORKS Ethernet cards:
+
+ DE425 TP/COAX EISA
+ DE434 TP PCI
+ DE435 TP/COAX/AUI PCI
+ DE450 TP/COAX/AUI PCI
+ DE500 10/100 PCI Fasternet
+
+ but it will now attempt to support all cards which conform to the
+ Digital Semiconductor SROM Specification. The driver currently
+ recognises the following chips:
+
+ DC21040 (no SROM)
+ DC21041[A]
+ DC21140[A]
+ DC21142
+ DC21143
+
+ So far the driver is known to work with the following cards:
+
+ KINGSTON
+ Linksys
+ ZNYX342
+ SMC8432
+ SMC9332 (w/new SROM)
+ ZNYX31[45]
+ ZNYX346 10/100 4 port (can act as a 10/100 bridge!)
+
+ The driver has been tested on a relatively busy network using the DE425,
+ DE434, DE435 and DE500 cards and benchmarked with 'ttcp': it transferred
+ 16M of data to a DECstation 5000/200 as follows:
+
+ TCP UDP
+ TX RX TX RX
+ DE425 1030k 997k 1170k 1128k
+ DE434 1063k 995k 1170k 1125k
+ DE435 1063k 995k 1170k 1125k
+ DE500 1063k 998k 1170k 1125k in 10Mb/s mode
+
+ All values are typical (in kBytes/sec) from a sample of 4 for each
+ measurement. Their error is +/-20k on a quiet (private) network and also
+ depend on what load the CPU has.
+
+ =========================================================================
+
+ The ability to load this driver as a loadable module has been included
+ and used extensively during the driver development (to save those long
+ reboot sequences). Loadable module support under PCI and EISA has been
+ achieved by letting the driver autoprobe as if it were compiled into the
+ kernel. Do make sure you're not sharing interrupts with anything that
+ cannot accommodate interrupt sharing!
+
+ To utilise this ability, you have to do 8 things:
+
+ 0) have a copy of the loadable modules code installed on your system.
+ 1) copy de4x5.c from the /linux/drivers/net directory to your favourite
+ temporary directory.
+ 2) for fixed autoprobes (not recommended), edit the source code near
+ line 5594 to reflect the I/O address you're using, or assign these when
+ loading by:
+
+ insmod de4x5 io=0xghh where g = bus number
+ hh = device number
+
+ NB: autoprobing for modules is now supported by default. You may just
+ use:
+
+ insmod de4x5
+
+ to load all available boards. For a specific board, still use
+ the 'io=?' above.
+ 3) compile de4x5.c, but include -DMODULE in the command line to ensure
+ that the correct bits are compiled (see end of source code).
+ 4) if you are wanting to add a new card, goto 5. Otherwise, recompile a
+ kernel with the de4x5 configuration turned off and reboot.
+ 5) insmod de4x5 [io=0xghh]
+ 6) run the net startup bits for your new eth?? interface(s) manually
+ (usually /etc/rc.inet[12] at boot time).
+ 7) enjoy!
+
+ To unload a module, turn off the associated interface(s)
+ 'ifconfig eth?? down' then 'rmmod de4x5'.
+
+ Automedia detection is included so that in principle you can disconnect
+ from, e.g. TP, reconnect to BNC and things will still work (after a
+ pause whilst the driver figures out where its media went). My tests
+ using ping showed that it appears to work....
+
+ By default, the driver will now autodetect any DECchip based card.
+ Should you have a need to restrict the driver to DIGITAL only cards, you
+ can compile with a DEC_ONLY define, or if loading as a module, use the
+ 'dec_only=1' parameter.
+
+ I've changed the timing routines to use the kernel timer and scheduling
+ functions so that the hangs and other assorted problems that occurred
+ while autosensing the media should be gone. A bonus for the DC21040
+ auto media sense algorithm is that it can now use one that is more in
+ line with the rest (the DC21040 chip doesn't have a hardware timer).
+ The downside is the 1 'jiffies' (10ms) resolution.
+
+ IEEE 802.3u MII interface code has been added in anticipation that some
+ products may use it in the future.
+
+ The SMC9332 card has a non-compliant SROM which needs fixing - I have
+ patched this driver to detect it because the SROM format used complies
+ to a previous DEC-STD format.
+
+ I have removed the buffer copies needed for receive on Intels. I cannot
+ remove them for Alphas since the Tulip hardware only does longword
+ aligned DMA transfers and the Alphas get alignment traps with non
+ longword aligned data copies (which makes them really slow). No comment.
+
+ I have added SROM decoding routines to make this driver work with any
+ card that supports the Digital Semiconductor SROM spec. This will help
+ all cards running the dc2114x series chips in particular. Cards using
+ the dc2104x chips should run correctly with the basic driver. I'm in
+ debt to <mjacob@feral.com> for the testing and feedback that helped get
+ this feature working. So far we have tested KINGSTON, SMC8432, SMC9332
+ (with the latest SROM complying with the SROM spec V3: their first was
+ broken), ZNYX342 and LinkSys. ZNYX314 (dual 21041 MAC) and ZNYX 315
+ (quad 21041 MAC) cards also appear to work despite their incorrectly
+ wired IRQs.
+
+ I have added a temporary fix for interrupt problems when some SCSI cards
+ share the same interrupt as the DECchip based cards. The problem occurs
+ because the SCSI card wants to grab the interrupt as a fast interrupt
+ (runs the service routine with interrupts turned off) vs. this card
+ which really needs to run the service routine with interrupts turned on.
+ This driver will now add the interrupt service routine as a fast
+ interrupt if it is bounced from the slow interrupt. THIS IS NOT A
+ RECOMMENDED WAY TO RUN THE DRIVER and has been done for a limited time
+ until people sort out their compatibility issues and the kernel
+ interrupt service code is fixed. YOU SHOULD SEPARATE OUT THE FAST
+ INTERRUPT CARDS FROM THE SLOW INTERRUPT CARDS to ensure that they do not
+ run on the same interrupt. PCMCIA/CardBus is another can of worms...
+
+ Finally, I think I have really fixed the module loading problem with
+ more than one DECchip based card. As a side effect, I don't mess with
+ the device structure any more which means that if more than 1 card in
+ 2.0.x is installed (4 in 2.1.x), the user will have to edit
+ linux/drivers/net/Space.c to make room for them. Hence, module loading
+ is the preferred way to use this driver, since it doesn't have this
+ limitation.
+
+ Where SROM media detection is used and full duplex is specified in the
+ SROM, the feature is ignored unless lp->params.fdx is set at compile
+ time OR during a module load (insmod de4x5 args='eth??:fdx' [see
+ below]). This is because there is no way to automatically detect full
+ duplex links except through autonegotiation. When I include the
+ autonegotiation feature in the SROM autoconf code, this detection will
+ occur automatically for that case.
+
+ Command line arguments are now allowed, similar to passing arguments
+ through LILO. This will allow a per adapter board set up of full duplex
+ and media. The only lexical constraints are: the board name (dev->name)
+ appears in the list before its parameters. The list of parameters ends
+ either at the end of the parameter list or with another board name. The
+ following parameters are allowed:
+
+ fdx for full duplex
+ autosense to set the media/speed; with the following
+ sub-parameters:
+ TP, TP_NW, BNC, AUI, BNC_AUI, 100Mb, 10Mb, AUTO
+
+ Case sensitivity is important for the sub-parameters. They *must* be
+ upper case. Examples:
+
+ insmod de4x5 args='eth1:fdx autosense=BNC eth0:autosense=100Mb'.
+
+ For a compiled in driver, in linux/drivers/net/CONFIG, place e.g.
+ DE4X5_OPTS = -DDE4X5_PARM='"eth0:fdx autosense=AUI eth2:autosense=TP"'
+
+ Yes, I know full duplex isn't permissible on BNC or AUI; they're just
+ examples. By default, full duplex is turned off and AUTO is the default
+ autosense setting. In reality, I expect only the full duplex option to
+ be used. Note the use of single quotes in the two examples above and the
+ lack of commas to separate items.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/decnet.txt b/Documentation/networking/decnet.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c6bd25f5d61d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/decnet.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,234 @@
+ Linux DECnet Networking Layer Information
+ ===========================================
+
+1) Other documentation....
+
+ o Project Home Pages
+ http://www.chygwyn.com/DECnet/ - Kernel info
+ http://linux-decnet.sourceforge.net/ - Userland tools
+ http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/linux-decnet/ - Status page
+
+2) Configuring the kernel
+
+Be sure to turn on the following options:
+
+ CONFIG_DECNET (obviously)
+ CONFIG_PROC_FS (to see what's going on)
+ CONFIG_SYSCTL (for easy configuration)
+
+if you want to try out router support (not properly debugged yet)
+you'll need the following options as well...
+
+ CONFIG_DECNET_ROUTER (to be able to add/delete routes)
+ CONFIG_NETFILTER (will be required for the DECnet routing daemon)
+
+ CONFIG_DECNET_ROUTE_FWMARK is optional
+
+Don't turn on SIOCGIFCONF support for DECnet unless you are really sure
+that you need it, in general you won't and it can cause ifconfig to
+malfunction.
+
+Run time configuration has changed slightly from the 2.4 system. If you
+want to configure an endnode, then the simplified procedure is as follows:
+
+ o Set the MAC address on your ethernet card before starting _any_ other
+ network protocols.
+
+As soon as your network card is brought into the UP state, DECnet should
+start working. If you need something more complicated or are unsure how
+to set the MAC address, see the next section. Also all configurations which
+worked with 2.4 will work under 2.5 with no change.
+
+3) Command line options
+
+You can set a DECnet address on the kernel command line for compatibility
+with the 2.4 configuration procedure, but in general it's not needed any more.
+If you do st a DECnet address on the command line, it has only one purpose
+which is that its added to the addresses on the loopback device.
+
+With 2.4 kernels, DECnet would only recognise addresses as local if they
+were added to the loopback device. In 2.5, any local interface address
+can be used to loop back to the local machine. Of course this does not
+prevent you adding further addresses to the loopback device if you
+want to.
+
+N.B. Since the address list of an interface determines the addresses for
+which "hello" messages are sent, if you don't set an address on the loopback
+interface then you won't see any entries in /proc/net/neigh for the local
+host until such time as you start a connection. This doesn't affect the
+operation of the local communications in any other way though.
+
+The kernel command line takes options looking like the following:
+
+ decnet=1,2
+
+the two numbers are the node address 1,2 = 1.2 For 2.2.xx kernels
+and early 2.3.xx kernels, you must use a comma when specifying the
+DECnet address like this. For more recent 2.3.xx kernels, you may
+use almost any character except space, although a `.` would be the most
+obvious choice :-)
+
+There used to be a third number specifying the node type. This option
+has gone away in favour of a per interface node type. This is now set
+using /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/<dev>/forwarding. This file can be
+set with a single digit, 0=EndNode, 1=L1 Router and 2=L2 Router.
+
+There are also equivalent options for modules. The node address can
+also be set through the /proc/sys/net/decnet/ files, as can other system
+parameters.
+
+Currently the only supported devices are ethernet and ip_gre. The
+ethernet address of your ethernet card has to be set according to the DECnet
+address of the node in order for it to be autoconfigured (and then appear in
+/proc/net/decnet_dev). There is a utility available at the above
+FTP sites called dn2ethaddr which can compute the correct ethernet
+address to use. The address can be set by ifconfig either before at
+at the time the device is brought up. If you are using RedHat you can
+add the line:
+
+ MACADDR=AA:00:04:00:03:04
+
+or something similar, to /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 or
+wherever your network card's configuration lives. Setting the MAC address
+of your ethernet card to an address starting with "hi-ord" will cause a
+DECnet address which matches to be added to the interface (which you can
+verify with iproute2).
+
+The default device for routing can be set through the /proc filesystem
+by setting /proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device to the
+device you want DECnet to route packets out of when no specific route
+is available. Usually this will be eth0, for example:
+
+ echo -n "eth0" >/proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device
+
+If you don't set the default device, then it will default to the first
+ethernet card which has been autoconfigured as described above. You can
+confirm that by looking in the default_device file of course.
+
+There is a list of what the other files under /proc/sys/net/decnet/ do
+on the kernel patch web site (shown above).
+
+4) Run time kernel configuration
+
+This is either done through the sysctl/proc interface (see the kernel web
+pages for details on what the various options do) or through the iproute2
+package in the same way as IPv4/6 configuration is performed.
+
+Documentation for iproute2 is included with the package, although there is
+as yet no specific section on DECnet, most of the features apply to both
+IP and DECnet, albeit with DECnet addresses instead of IP addresses and
+a reduced functionality.
+
+If you want to configure a DECnet router you'll need the iproute2 package
+since its the _only_ way to add and delete routes currently. Eventually
+there will be a routing daemon to send and receive routing messages for
+each interface and update the kernel routing tables accordingly. The
+routing daemon will use netfilter to listen to routing packets, and
+rtnetlink to update the kernels routing tables.
+
+The DECnet raw socket layer has been removed since it was there purely
+for use by the routing daemon which will now use netfilter (a much cleaner
+and more generic solution) instead.
+
+5) How can I tell if its working ?
+
+Here is a quick guide of what to look for in order to know if your DECnet
+kernel subsystem is working.
+
+ - Is the node address set (see /proc/sys/net/decnet/node_address)
+ - Is the node of the correct type
+ (see /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/<dev>/forwarding)
+ - Is the Ethernet MAC address of each Ethernet card set to match
+ the DECnet address. If in doubt use the dn2ethaddr utility available
+ at the ftp archive.
+ - If the previous two steps are satisfied, and the Ethernet card is up,
+ you should find that it is listed in /proc/net/decnet_dev and also
+ that it appears as a directory in /proc/sys/net/decnet/conf/. The
+ loopback device (lo) should also appear and is required to communicate
+ within a node.
+ - If you have any DECnet routers on your network, they should appear
+ in /proc/net/decnet_neigh, otherwise this file will only contain the
+ entry for the node itself (if it doesn't check to see if lo is up).
+ - If you want to send to any node which is not listed in the
+ /proc/net/decnet_neigh file, you'll need to set the default device
+ to point to an Ethernet card with connection to a router. This is
+ again done with the /proc/sys/net/decnet/default_device file.
+ - Try starting a simple server and client, like the dnping/dnmirror
+ over the loopback interface. With luck they should communicate.
+ For this step and those after, you'll need the DECnet library
+ which can be obtained from the above ftp sites as well as the
+ actual utilities themselves.
+ - If this seems to work, then try talking to a node on your local
+ network, and see if you can obtain the same results.
+ - At this point you are on your own... :-)
+
+6) How to send a bug report
+
+If you've found a bug and want to report it, then there are several things
+you can do to help me work out exactly what it is that is wrong. Useful
+information (_most_ of which _is_ _essential_) includes:
+
+ - What kernel version are you running ?
+ - What version of the patch are you running ?
+ - How far though the above set of tests can you get ?
+ - What is in the /proc/decnet* files and /proc/sys/net/decnet/* files ?
+ - Which services are you running ?
+ - Which client caused the problem ?
+ - How much data was being transferred ?
+ - Was the network congested ?
+ - If there was a kernel panic, please run the output through ksymoops
+ before sending it to me, otherwise its _useless_.
+ - How can the problem be reproduced ?
+ - Can you use tcpdump to get a trace ? (N.B. Most (all?) versions of
+ tcpdump don't understand how to dump DECnet properly, so including
+ the hex listing of the packet contents is _essential_, usually the -x flag.
+ You may also need to increase the length grabbed with the -s flag. The
+ -e flag also provides very useful information (ethernet MAC addresses))
+
+7) MAC FAQ
+
+A quick FAQ on ethernet MAC addresses to explain how Linux and DECnet
+interact and how to get the best performance from your hardware.
+
+Ethernet cards are designed to normally only pass received network frames
+to a host computer when they are addressed to it, or to the broadcast address.
+
+Linux has an interface which allows the setting of extra addresses for
+an ethernet card to listen to. If the ethernet card supports it, the
+filtering operation will be done in hardware, if not the extra unwanted packets
+received will be discarded by the host computer. In the latter case,
+significant processor time and bus bandwidth can be used up on a busy
+network (see the NAPI documentation for a longer explanation of these
+effects).
+
+DECnet makes use of this interface to allow running DECnet on an ethernet
+card which has already been configured using TCP/IP (presumably using the
+built in MAC address of the card, as usual) and/or to allow multiple DECnet
+addresses on each physical interface. If you do this, be aware that if your
+ethernet card doesn't support perfect hashing in its MAC address filter
+then your computer will be doing more work than required. Some cards
+will simply set themselves into promiscuous mode in order to receive
+packets from the DECnet specified addresses. So if you have one of these
+cards its better to set the MAC address of the card as described above
+to gain the best efficiency. Better still is to use a card which supports
+NAPI as well.
+
+
+8) Mailing list
+
+If you are keen to get involved in development, or want to ask questions
+about configuration, or even just report bugs, then there is a mailing
+list that you can join, details are at:
+
+http://sourceforge.net/mail/?group_id=4993
+
+9) Legal Info
+
+The Linux DECnet project team have placed their code under the GPL. The
+software is provided "as is" and without warranty express or implied.
+DECnet is a trademark of Compaq. This software is not a product of
+Compaq. We acknowledge the help of people at Compaq in providing extra
+documentation above and beyond what was previously publicly available.
+
+Steve Whitehouse <SteveW@ACM.org>
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/depca.txt b/Documentation/networking/depca.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..24c6b26e5658
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/depca.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+
+DE10x
+=====
+
+Memory Addresses:
+
+ SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4
+64K on on on on d0000 dbfff
+ off on on on c0000 cbfff
+ off off on on e0000 ebfff
+
+32K on on off on d8000 dbfff
+ off on off on c8000 cbfff
+ off off off on e8000 ebfff
+
+DBR ROM on on dc000 dffff
+ off on cc000 cffff
+ off off ec000 effff
+
+Note that the 2K mode is set by SW3/SW4 on/off or off/off. Address
+assignment is through the RBSA register.
+
+I/O Address:
+ SW5
+0x300 on
+0x200 off
+
+Remote Boot:
+ SW6
+Disable on
+Enable off
+
+Remote Boot Timeout:
+ SW7
+2.5min on
+30s off
+
+IRQ:
+ SW8 SW9 SW10 SW11 SW12
+2 on off off off off
+3 off on off off off
+4 off off on off off
+5 off off off on off
+7 off off off off on
+
+DE20x
+=====
+
+Memory Size:
+
+ SW3 SW4
+64K on on
+32K off on
+2K on off
+2K off off
+
+Start Addresses:
+
+ SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4
+64K on on on on c0000 cffff
+ on off on on d0000 dffff
+ off on on on e0000 effff
+
+32K on on off off c8000 cffff
+ on off off off d8000 dffff
+ off on off off e8000 effff
+
+Illegal off off - - - -
+
+I/O Address:
+ SW5
+0x300 on
+0x200 off
+
+Remote Boot:
+ SW6
+Disable on
+Enable off
+
+Remote Boot Timeout:
+ SW7
+2.5min on
+30s off
+
+IRQ:
+ SW8 SW9 SW10 SW11 SW12
+5 on off off off off
+9 off on off off off
+10 off off on off off
+11 off off off on off
+15 off off off off on
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dgrs.txt b/Documentation/networking/dgrs.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1aa1bb3f94ab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dgrs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+ The Digi International RightSwitch SE-X (dgrs) Device Driver
+
+This is a Linux driver for the Digi International RightSwitch SE-X
+EISA and PCI boards. These are 4 (EISA) or 6 (PCI) port Ethernet
+switches and a NIC combined into a single board. This driver can
+be compiled into the kernel statically or as a loadable module.
+
+There is also a companion management tool, called "xrightswitch".
+The management tool lets you watch the performance graphically,
+as well as set the SNMP agent IP and IPX addresses, IEEE Spanning
+Tree, and Aging time. These can also be set from the command line
+when the driver is loaded. The driver command line options are:
+
+ debug=NNN Debug printing level
+ dma=0/1 Disable/Enable DMA on PCI card
+ spantree=0/1 Disable/Enable IEEE spanning tree
+ hashexpire=NNN Change address aging time (default 300 seconds)
+ ipaddr=A,B,C,D Set SNMP agent IP address i.e. 199,86,8,221
+ iptrap=A,B,C,D Set SNMP agent IP trap address i.e. 199,86,8,221
+ ipxnet=NNN Set SNMP agent IPX network number
+ nicmode=0/1 Disable/Enable multiple NIC mode
+
+There is also a tool for setting up input and output packet filters
+on each port, called "dgrsfilt".
+
+Both the management tool and the filtering tool are available
+separately from the following FTP site:
+
+ ftp://ftp.dgii.com/drivers/rightswitch/linux/
+
+When nicmode=1, the board and driver operate as 4 or 6 individual
+NIC ports (eth0...eth5) instead of as a switch. All switching
+functions are disabled. In the future, the board firmware may include
+a routing cache when in this mode.
+
+Copyright 1995-1996 Digi International Inc.
+
+This software may be used and distributed according to the terms
+of the GNU General Public License, incorporated herein by reference.
+
+For information on purchasing a RightSwitch SE-4 or SE-6
+board, please contact Digi's sales department at 1-612-912-3444
+or 1-800-DIGIBRD. Outside the U.S., please check our Web page at:
+
+ http://www.dgii.com
+
+for sales offices worldwide. Tech support is also available through
+the channels listed on the Web site, although as long as I am
+employed on networking products at Digi I will be happy to provide
+any bug fixes that may be needed.
+
+-Rick Richardson, rick@dgii.com
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt b/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d460492037ef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dl2k.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,281 @@
+
+ D-Link DL2000-based Gigabit Ethernet Adapter Installation
+ for Linux
+ May 23, 2002
+
+Contents
+========
+ - Compatibility List
+ - Quick Install
+ - Compiling the Driver
+ - Installing the Driver
+ - Option parameter
+ - Configuration Script Sample
+ - Troubleshooting
+
+
+Compatibility List
+=================
+Adapter Support:
+
+D-Link DGE-550T Gigabit Ethernet Adapter.
+D-Link DGE-550SX Gigabit Ethernet Adapter.
+D-Link DL2000-based Gigabit Ethernet Adapter.
+
+
+The driver support Linux kernel 2.4.7 later. We had tested it
+on the environments below.
+
+ . Red Hat v6.2 (update kernel to 2.4.7)
+ . Red Hat v7.0 (update kernel to 2.4.7)
+ . Red Hat v7.1 (kernel 2.4.7)
+ . Red Hat v7.2 (kernel 2.4.7-10)
+
+
+Quick Install
+=============
+Install linux driver as following command:
+
+1. make all
+2. insmod dl2k.ko
+3. ifconfig eth0 up 10.xxx.xxx.xxx netmask 255.0.0.0
+ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\ ^^^^^^^^\
+ IP NETMASK
+Now eth0 should active, you can test it by "ping" or get more information by
+"ifconfig". If tested ok, continue the next step.
+
+4. cp dl2k.ko /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net
+5. Add the following line to /etc/modprobe.conf:
+ alias eth0 dl2k
+6. Run "netconfig" or "netconf" to create configuration script ifcfg-eth0
+ located at /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts or create it manually.
+ [see - Configuration Script Sample]
+7. Driver will automatically load and configure at next boot time.
+
+Compiling the Driver
+====================
+ In Linux, NIC drivers are most commonly configured as loadable modules.
+The approach of building a monolithic kernel has become obsolete. The driver
+can be compiled as part of a monolithic kernel, but is strongly discouraged.
+The remainder of this section assumes the driver is built as a loadable module.
+In the Linux environment, it is a good idea to rebuild the driver from the
+source instead of relying on a precompiled version. This approach provides
+better reliability since a precompiled driver might depend on libraries or
+kernel features that are not present in a given Linux installation.
+
+The 3 files necessary to build Linux device driver are dl2k.c, dl2k.h and
+Makefile. To compile, the Linux installation must include the gcc compiler,
+the kernel source, and the kernel headers. The Linux driver supports Linux
+Kernels 2.4.7. Copy the files to a directory and enter the following command
+to compile and link the driver:
+
+CD-ROM drive
+------------
+
+[root@XXX /] mkdir cdrom
+[root@XXX /] mount -r -t iso9660 -o conv=auto /dev/cdrom /cdrom
+[root@XXX /] cd root
+[root@XXX /root] mkdir dl2k
+[root@XXX /root] cd dl2k
+[root@XXX dl2k] cp /cdrom/linux/dl2k.tgz /root/dl2k
+[root@XXX dl2k] tar xfvz dl2k.tgz
+[root@XXX dl2k] make all
+
+Floppy disc drive
+-----------------
+
+[root@XXX /] cd root
+[root@XXX /root] mkdir dl2k
+[root@XXX /root] cd dl2k
+[root@XXX dl2k] mcopy a:/linux/dl2k.tgz /root/dl2k
+[root@XXX dl2k] tar xfvz dl2k.tgz
+[root@XXX dl2k] make all
+
+Installing the Driver
+=====================
+
+ Manual Installation
+ -------------------
+ Once the driver has been compiled, it must be loaded, enabled, and bound
+ to a protocol stack in order to establish network connectivity. To load a
+ module enter the command:
+
+ insmod dl2k.o
+
+ or
+
+ insmod dl2k.o <optional parameter> ; add parameter
+
+ ===============================================================
+ example: insmod dl2k.o media=100mbps_hd
+ or insmod dl2k.o media=3
+ or insmod dl2k.o media=3,2 ; for 2 cards
+ ===============================================================
+
+ Please reference the list of the command line parameters supported by
+ the Linux device driver below.
+
+ The insmod command only loads the driver and gives it a name of the form
+ eth0, eth1, etc. To bring the NIC into an operational state,
+ it is necessary to issue the following command:
+
+ ifconfig eth0 up
+
+ Finally, to bind the driver to the active protocol (e.g., TCP/IP with
+ Linux), enter the following command:
+
+ ifup eth0
+
+ Note that this is meaningful only if the system can find a configuration
+ script that contains the necessary network information. A sample will be
+ given in the next paragraph.
+
+ The commands to unload a driver are as follows:
+
+ ifdown eth0
+ ifconfig eth0 down
+ rmmod dl2k.o
+
+ The following are the commands to list the currently loaded modules and
+ to see the current network configuration.
+
+ lsmod
+ ifconfig
+
+
+ Automated Installation
+ ----------------------
+ This section describes how to install the driver such that it is
+ automatically loaded and configured at boot time. The following description
+ is based on a Red Hat 6.0/7.0 distribution, but it can easily be ported to
+ other distributions as well.
+
+ Red Hat v6.x/v7.x
+ -----------------
+ 1. Copy dl2k.o to the network modules directory, typically
+ /lib/modules/2.x.x-xx/net or /lib/modules/2.x.x/kernel/drivers/net.
+ 2. Locate the boot module configuration file, most commonly modprobe.conf
+ or modules.conf (for 2.4) in the /etc directory. Add the following lines:
+
+ alias ethx dl2k
+ options dl2k <optional parameters>
+
+ where ethx will be eth0 if the NIC is the only ethernet adapter, eth1 if
+ one other ethernet adapter is installed, etc. Refer to the table in the
+ previous section for the list of optional parameters.
+ 3. Locate the network configuration scripts, normally the
+ /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory, and create a configuration
+ script named ifcfg-ethx that contains network information.
+ 4. Note that for most Linux distributions, Red Hat included, a configuration
+ utility with a graphical user interface is provided to perform steps 2
+ and 3 above.
+
+
+Parameter Description
+=====================
+You can install this driver without any addtional parameter. However, if you
+are going to have extensive functions then it is necessary to set extra
+parameter. Below is a list of the command line parameters supported by the
+Linux device
+driver.
+
+mtu=packet_size - Specifies the maximum packet size. default
+ is 1500.
+
+media=media_type - Specifies the media type the NIC operates at.
+ autosense Autosensing active media.
+ 10mbps_hd 10Mbps half duplex.
+ 10mbps_fd 10Mbps full duplex.
+ 100mbps_hd 100Mbps half duplex.
+ 100mbps_fd 100Mbps full duplex.
+ 1000mbps_fd 1000Mbps full duplex.
+ 1000mbps_hd 1000Mbps half duplex.
+ 0 Autosensing active media.
+ 1 10Mbps half duplex.
+ 2 10Mbps full duplex.
+ 3 100Mbps half duplex.
+ 4 100Mbps full duplex.
+ 5 1000Mbps half duplex.
+ 6 1000Mbps full duplex.
+
+ By default, the NIC operates at autosense.
+ 1000mbps_fd and 1000mbps_hd types are only
+ available for fiber adapter.
+
+vlan=n - Specifies the VLAN ID. If vlan=0, the
+ Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) function is
+ disable.
+
+jumbo=[0|1] - Specifies the jumbo frame support. If jumbo=1,
+ the NIC accept jumbo frames. By default, this
+ function is disabled.
+ Jumbo frame usually improve the performance
+ int gigabit.
+ This feature need jumbo frame compatible
+ remote.
+
+rx_coalesce=m - Number of rx frame handled each interrupt.
+rx_timeout=n - Rx DMA wait time for an interrupt.
+ If set rx_coalesce > 0, hardware only assert
+ an interrupt for m frames. Hardware won't
+ assert rx interrupt until m frames received or
+ reach timeout of n * 640 nano seconds.
+ Set proper rx_coalesce and rx_timeout can
+ reduce congestion collapse and overload which
+ has been a bottlenect for high speed network.
+
+ For example, rx_coalesce=10 rx_timeout=800.
+ that is, hardware assert only 1 interrupt
+ for 10 frames received or timeout of 512 us.
+
+tx_coalesce=n - Number of tx frame handled each interrupt.
+ Set n > 1 can reduce the interrupts
+ congestion usually lower performance of
+ high speed network card. Default is 16.
+
+tx_flow=[1|0] - Specifies the Tx flow control. If tx_flow=0,
+ the Tx flow control disable else driver
+ autodetect.
+rx_flow=[1|0] - Specifies the Rx flow control. If rx_flow=0,
+ the Rx flow control enable else driver
+ autodetect.
+
+
+Configuration Script Sample
+===========================
+Here is a sample of a simple configuration script:
+
+DEVICE=eth0
+USERCTL=no
+ONBOOT=yes
+POOTPROTO=none
+BROADCAST=207.200.5.255
+NETWORK=207.200.5.0
+NETMASK=255.255.255.0
+IPADDR=207.200.5.2
+
+
+Troubleshooting
+===============
+Q1. Source files contain ^ M behind every line.
+ Make sure all files are Unix file format (no LF). Try the following
+ shell command to convert files.
+
+ cat dl2k.c | col -b > dl2k.tmp
+ mv dl2k.tmp dl2k.c
+
+ OR
+
+ cat dl2k.c | tr -d "\r" > dl2k.tmp
+ mv dl2k.tmp dl2k.c
+
+Q2: Could not find header files (*.h) ?
+ To compile the driver, you need kernel header files. After
+ installing the kernel source, the header files are usually located in
+ /usr/src/linux/include, which is the default include directory configured
+ in Makefile. For some distributions, there is a copy of header files in
+ /usr/src/include/linux and /usr/src/include/asm, that you can change the
+ INCLUDEDIR in Makefile to /usr/include without installing kernel source.
+ Note that RH 7.0 didn't provide correct header files in /usr/include,
+ including those files will make a wrong version driver.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/dmfe.txt b/Documentation/networking/dmfe.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c0e8398674ef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/dmfe.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+ dmfe.c: Version 1.28 01/18/2000
+
+ A Davicom DM9102(A)/DM9132/DM9801 fast ethernet driver for Linux.
+ Copyright (C) 1997 Sten Wang
+
+ This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+ modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
+ as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
+ of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+
+ A. Compiler command:
+
+ A-1: For normal single or multiple processor kernel
+ "gcc -DMODULE -D__KERNEL__ -I/usr/src/linux/net/inet -Wall
+ -Wstrict-prototypes -O6 -c dmfe.c"
+
+ A-2: For single or multiple processor with kernel module version function
+ "gcc -DMODULE -DMODVERSIONS -D__KERNEL__ -I/usr/src/linux/net/inet
+ -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O6 -c dmfe.c"
+
+
+ B. The following steps teach you how to activate a DM9102 board:
+
+ 1. Used the upper compiler command to compile dmfe.c
+
+ 2. Insert dmfe module into kernel
+ "insmod dmfe" ;;Auto Detection Mode (Suggest)
+ "insmod dmfe mode=0" ;;Force 10M Half Duplex
+ "insmod dmfe mode=1" ;;Force 100M Half Duplex
+ "insmod dmfe mode=4" ;;Force 10M Full Duplex
+ "insmod dmfe mode=5" ;;Force 100M Full Duplex
+
+ 3. Config a dm9102 network interface
+ "ifconfig eth0 172.22.3.18"
+ ^^^^^^^^^^^ Your IP address
+
+ 4. Activate the IP routing table. For some distributions, it is not
+ necessary. You can type "route" to check.
+
+ "route add default eth0"
+
+
+ 5. Well done. Your DM9102 adapter is now activated.
+
+
+ C. Object files description:
+ 1. dmfe_rh61.o: For Redhat 6.1
+
+ If you can make sure your kernel version, you can rename
+ to dmfe.o and directly use it without re-compiling.
+
+
+ Author: Sten Wang, 886-3-5798797-8517, E-mail: sten_wang@davicom.com.tw
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/driver.txt b/Documentation/networking/driver.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..11fd0ef5ff57
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/driver.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,94 @@
+Documents about softnet driver issues in general can be found
+at:
+
+ http://www.firstfloor.org/~andi/softnet/
+
+Transmit path guidelines:
+
+1) The hard_start_xmit method must never return '1' under any
+ normal circumstances. It is considered a hard error unless
+ there is no way your device can tell ahead of time when it's
+ transmit function will become busy.
+
+ Instead it must maintain the queue properly. For example,
+ for a driver implementing scatter-gather this means:
+
+ static int drv_hard_start_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb,
+ struct net_device *dev)
+ {
+ struct drv *dp = dev->priv;
+
+ lock_tx(dp);
+ ...
+ /* This is a hard error log it. */
+ if (TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) <= (skb_shinfo(skb)->nr_frags + 1)) {
+ netif_stop_queue(dev);
+ unlock_tx(dp);
+ printk(KERN_ERR PFX "%s: BUG! Tx Ring full when queue awake!\n",
+ dev->name);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ ... queue packet to card ...
+ ... update tx consumer index ...
+
+ if (TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) <= (MAX_SKB_FRAGS + 1))
+ netif_stop_queue(dev);
+
+ ...
+ unlock_tx(dp);
+ ...
+ }
+
+ And then at the end of your TX reclaimation event handling:
+
+ if (netif_queue_stopped(dp->dev) &&
+ TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) > (MAX_SKB_FRAGS + 1))
+ netif_wake_queue(dp->dev);
+
+ For a non-scatter-gather supporting card, the three tests simply become:
+
+ /* This is a hard error log it. */
+ if (TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) <= 0)
+
+ and:
+
+ if (TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) == 0)
+
+ and:
+
+ if (netif_queue_stopped(dp->dev) &&
+ TX_BUFFS_AVAIL(dp) > 0)
+ netif_wake_queue(dp->dev);
+
+2) Do not forget to update netdev->trans_start to jiffies after
+ each new tx packet is given to the hardware.
+
+3) Do not forget that once you return 0 from your hard_start_xmit
+ method, it is your driver's responsibility to free up the SKB
+ and in some finite amount of time.
+
+ For example, this means that it is not allowed for your TX
+ mitigation scheme to let TX packets "hang out" in the TX
+ ring unreclaimed forever if no new TX packets are sent.
+ This error can deadlock sockets waiting for send buffer room
+ to be freed up.
+
+ If you return 1 from the hard_start_xmit method, you must not keep
+ any reference to that SKB and you must not attempt to free it up.
+
+Probing guidelines:
+
+1) Any hardware layer address you obtain for your device should
+ be verified. For example, for ethernet check it with
+ linux/etherdevice.h:is_valid_ether_addr()
+
+Close/stop guidelines:
+
+1) After the dev->stop routine has been called, the hardware must
+ not receive or transmit any data. All in flight packets must
+ be aborted. If necessary, poll or wait for completion of
+ any reset commands.
+
+2) The dev->stop routine will be called by unregister_netdevice
+ if device is still UP.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/e100.txt b/Documentation/networking/e100.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..4ef9f7cd5dc3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/e100.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,170 @@
+Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/100 Family of Adapters
+==============================================================
+
+November 17, 2004
+
+
+Contents
+========
+
+- In This Release
+- Identifying Your Adapter
+- Driver Configuration Parameters
+- Additional Configurations
+- Support
+
+
+In This Release
+===============
+
+This file describes the Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/100 Family of
+Adapters, version 3.3.x. This driver supports 2.4.x and 2.6.x kernels.
+
+Identifying Your Adapter
+========================
+
+For more information on how to identify your adapter, go to the Adapter &
+Driver ID Guide at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com/support/network/adapter/pro100/21397.htm
+
+For the latest Intel network drivers for Linux, refer to the following
+website. In the search field, enter your adapter name or type, or use the
+networking link on the left to search for your adapter:
+
+ http://downloadfinder.intel.com/scripts-df/support_intel.asp
+
+Driver Configuration Parameters
+===============================
+
+The default value for each parameter is generally the recommended setting,
+unless otherwise noted.
+
+Rx Descriptors: Number of receive descriptors. A receive descriptor is a data
+ structure that describes a receive buffer and its attributes to the network
+ controller. The data in the descriptor is used by the controller to write
+ data from the controller to host memory. In the 3.0.x driver the valid
+ range for this parameter is 64-256. The default value is 64. This parameter
+ can be changed using the command
+
+ ethtool -G eth? rx n, where n is the number of desired rx descriptors.
+
+Tx Descriptors: Number of transmit descriptors. A transmit descriptor is a
+ data structure that describes a transmit buffer and its attributes to the
+ network controller. The data in the descriptor is used by the controller to
+ read data from the host memory to the controller. In the 3.0.x driver the
+ valid range for this parameter is 64-256. The default value is 64. This
+ parameter can be changed using the command
+
+ ethtool -G eth? tx n, where n is the number of desired tx descriptors.
+
+Speed/Duplex: The driver auto-negotiates the link speed and duplex settings by
+ default. Ethtool can be used as follows to force speed/duplex.
+
+ ethtool -s eth? autoneg off speed {10|100} duplex {full|half}
+
+ NOTE: setting the speed/duplex to incorrect values will cause the link to
+ fail.
+
+Event Log Message Level: The driver uses the message level flag to log events
+ to syslog. The message level can be set at driver load time. It can also be
+ set using the command
+
+ ethtool -s eth? msglvl n
+
+Additional Configurations
+=========================
+
+ Configuring the Driver on Different Distributions
+ -------------------------------------------------
+
+ Configuring a network driver to load properly when the system is started is
+ distribution dependent. Typically, the configuration process involves adding
+ an alias line to /etc/modules.conf as well as editing other system startup
+ scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux distributions ship
+ with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the proper way to
+ configure a network device for your system, refer to your distribution
+ documentation. If during this process you are asked for the driver or module
+ name, the name for the Linux Base Driver for the Intel PRO/100 Family of
+ Adapters is e100.
+
+ As an example, if you install the e100 driver for two PRO/100 adapters
+ (eth0 and eth1), add the following to modules.conf:
+
+ alias eth0 e100
+ alias eth1 e100
+
+ Viewing Link Messages
+ ---------------------
+ In order to see link messages and other Intel driver information on your
+ console, you must set the dmesg level up to six. This can be done by
+ entering the following on the command line before loading the e100 driver:
+
+ dmesg -n 8
+
+ If you wish to see all messages issued by the driver, including debug
+ messages, set the dmesg level to eight.
+
+ NOTE: This setting is not saved across reboots.
+
+ Ethtool
+ -------
+
+ The driver utilizes the ethtool interface for driver configuration and
+ diagnostics, as well as displaying statistical information. Ethtool
+ version 1.6 or later is required for this functionality.
+
+ The latest release of ethtool can be found at:
+ http://sf.net/projects/gkernel.
+
+ NOTE: This driver uses mii support from the kernel. As a result, when
+ there is no link, ethtool will report speed/duplex to be 10/half.
+
+ NOTE: Ethtool 1.6 only supports a limited set of ethtool options. Support
+ for a more complete ethtool feature set can be enabled by upgrading
+ ethtool to ethtool-1.8.1.
+
+ Enabling Wake on LAN* (WoL)
+ ---------------------------
+ WoL is provided through the Ethtool* utility. Ethtool is included with Red
+ Hat* 8.0. For other Linux distributions, download and install Ethtool from
+ the following website: http://sourceforge.net/projects/gkernel.
+
+ For instructions on enabling WoL with Ethtool, refer to the Ethtool man
+ page.
+
+ WoL will be enabled on the system during the next shut down or reboot. For
+ this driver version, in order to enable WoL, the e100 driver must be
+ loaded when shutting down or rebooting the system.
+
+ NAPI
+ ----
+
+ NAPI (Rx polling mode) is supported in the e100 driver.
+
+ See www.cyberus.ca/~hadi/usenix-paper.tgz for more information on NAPI.
+
+Support
+=======
+
+For general information, go to the Intel support website at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com
+
+If an issue is identified with the released source code on the supported
+kernel with a supported adapter, email the specific information related to
+the issue to linux.nics@intel.com.
+
+
+License
+=======
+
+This software program is released under the terms of a license agreement
+between you ('Licensee') and Intel. Do not use or load this software or any
+associated materials (collectively, the 'Software') until you have carefully
+read the full terms and conditions of the LICENSE located in this software
+package. By loading or using the Software, you agree to the terms of this
+Agreement. If you do not agree with the terms of this Agreement, do not
+install or use the Software.
+
+* Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/e1000.txt b/Documentation/networking/e1000.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..2ebd4058d46d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/e1000.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,401 @@
+Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/1000 Family of Adapters
+===============================================================
+
+November 17, 2004
+
+
+Contents
+========
+
+- In This Release
+- Identifying Your Adapter
+- Command Line Parameters
+- Speed and Duplex Configuration
+- Additional Configurations
+- Known Issues
+- Support
+
+
+In This Release
+===============
+
+This file describes the Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/1000 Family
+of Adapters, version 5.x.x.
+
+For questions related to hardware requirements, refer to the documentation
+supplied with your Intel PRO/1000 adapter. All hardware requirements listed
+apply to use with Linux.
+
+Native VLANs are now available with supported kernels.
+
+Identifying Your Adapter
+========================
+
+For more information on how to identify your adapter, go to the Adapter &
+Driver ID Guide at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com/support/network/adapter/pro100/21397.htm
+
+For the latest Intel network drivers for Linux, refer to the following
+website. In the search field, enter your adapter name or type, or use the
+networking link on the left to search for your adapter:
+
+ http://downloadfinder.intel.com/scripts-df/support_intel.asp
+
+Command Line Parameters
+=======================
+
+If the driver is built as a module, the following optional parameters are
+used by entering them on the command line with the modprobe or insmod command
+using this syntax:
+
+ modprobe e1000 [<option>=<VAL1>,<VAL2>,...]
+
+ insmod e1000 [<option>=<VAL1>,<VAL2>,...]
+
+For example, with two PRO/1000 PCI adapters, entering:
+
+ insmod e1000 TxDescriptors=80,128
+
+loads the e1000 driver with 80 TX descriptors for the first adapter and 128 TX
+descriptors for the second adapter.
+
+The default value for each parameter is generally the recommended setting,
+unless otherwise noted. Also, if the driver is statically built into the
+kernel, the driver is loaded with the default values for all the parameters.
+Ethtool can be used to change some of the parameters at runtime.
+
+ NOTES: For more information about the AutoNeg, Duplex, and Speed
+ parameters, see the "Speed and Duplex Configuration" section in
+ this document.
+
+ For more information about the InterruptThrottleRate, RxIntDelay,
+ TxIntDelay, RxAbsIntDelay, and TxAbsIntDelay parameters, see the
+ application note at:
+ http://www.intel.com/design/network/applnots/ap450.htm
+
+ A descriptor describes a data buffer and attributes related to the
+ data buffer. This information is accessed by the hardware.
+
+AutoNeg (adapters using copper connections only)
+Valid Range: 0x01-0x0F, 0x20-0x2F
+Default Value: 0x2F
+ This parameter is a bit mask that specifies which speed and duplex
+ settings the board advertises. When this parameter is used, the Speed and
+ Duplex parameters must not be specified.
+ NOTE: Refer to the Speed and Duplex section of this readme for more
+ information on the AutoNeg parameter.
+
+Duplex (adapters using copper connections only)
+Valid Range: 0-2 (0=auto-negotiate, 1=half, 2=full)
+Default Value: 0
+ Defines the direction in which data is allowed to flow. Can be either one
+ or two-directional. If both Duplex and the link partner are set to auto-
+ negotiate, the board auto-detects the correct duplex. If the link partner
+ is forced (either full or half), Duplex defaults to half-duplex.
+
+FlowControl
+Valid Range: 0-3 (0=none, 1=Rx only, 2=Tx only, 3=Rx&Tx)
+Default: Read flow control settings from the EEPROM
+ This parameter controls the automatic generation(Tx) and response(Rx) to
+ Ethernet PAUSE frames.
+
+InterruptThrottleRate
+Valid Range: 100-100000 (0=off, 1=dynamic)
+Default Value: 8000
+ This value represents the maximum number of interrupts per second the
+ controller generates. InterruptThrottleRate is another setting used in
+ interrupt moderation. Dynamic mode uses a heuristic algorithm to adjust
+ InterruptThrottleRate based on the current traffic load.
+Un-supported Adapters: InterruptThrottleRate is NOT supported by 82542, 82543
+ or 82544-based adapters.
+
+ NOTE: InterruptThrottleRate takes precedence over the TxAbsIntDelay and
+ RxAbsIntDelay parameters. In other words, minimizing the receive
+ and/or transmit absolute delays does not force the controller to
+ generate more interrupts than what the Interrupt Throttle Rate
+ allows.
+ CAUTION: If you are using the Intel PRO/1000 CT Network Connection
+ (controller 82547), setting InterruptThrottleRate to a value
+ greater than 75,000, may hang (stop transmitting) adapters under
+ certain network conditions. If this occurs a NETDEV WATCHDOG
+ message is logged in the system event log. In addition, the
+ controller is automatically reset, restoring the network
+ connection. To eliminate the potential for the hang, ensure
+ that InterruptThrottleRate is set no greater than 75,000 and is
+ not set to 0.
+ NOTE: When e1000 is loaded with default settings and multiple adapters are
+ in use simultaneously, the CPU utilization may increase non-linearly.
+ In order to limit the CPU utilization without impacting the overall
+ throughput, we recommend that you load the driver as follows:
+
+ insmod e1000.o InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000
+
+ This sets the InterruptThrottleRate to 3000 interrupts/sec for the
+ first, second, and third instances of the driver. The range of 2000 to
+ 3000 interrupts per second works on a majority of systems and is a
+ good starting point, but the optimal value will be platform-specific.
+ If CPU utilization is not a concern, use RX_POLLING (NAPI) and default
+ driver settings.
+
+RxDescriptors
+Valid Range: 80-256 for 82542 and 82543-based adapters
+ 80-4096 for all other supported adapters
+Default Value: 256
+ This value is the number of receive descriptors allocated by the driver.
+ Increasing this value allows the driver to buffer more incoming packets.
+ Each descriptor is 16 bytes. A receive buffer is allocated for each
+ descriptor and can either be 2048 or 4096 bytes long, depending on the MTU
+
+ setting. An incoming packet can span one or more receive descriptors.
+ The maximum MTU size is 16110.
+
+ NOTE: MTU designates the frame size. It only needs to be set for Jumbo
+ Frames.
+ NOTE: Depending on the available system resources, the request for a
+ higher number of receive descriptors may be denied. In this case,
+ use a lower number.
+
+RxIntDelay
+Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
+Default Value: 0
+ This value delays the generation of receive interrupts in units of 1.024
+ microseconds. Receive interrupt reduction can improve CPU efficiency if
+ properly tuned for specific network traffic. Increasing this value adds
+ extra latency to frame reception and can end up decreasing the throughput
+ of TCP traffic. If the system is reporting dropped receives, this value
+ may be set too high, causing the driver to run out of available receive
+ descriptors.
+
+ CAUTION: When setting RxIntDelay to a value other than 0, adapters may
+ hang (stop transmitting) under certain network conditions. If
+ this occurs a NETDEV WATCHDOG message is logged in the system
+ event log. In addition, the controller is automatically reset,
+ restoring the network connection. To eliminate the potential for
+ the hang ensure that RxIntDelay is set to 0.
+
+RxAbsIntDelay (82540, 82545 and later adapters only)
+Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
+Default Value: 128
+ This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a
+ receive interrupt is generated. Useful only if RxIntDelay is non-zero,
+ this value ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial
+ packet is received within the set amount of time. Proper tuning,
+ along with RxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific network
+ conditions.
+
+Speed (adapters using copper connections only)
+Valid Settings: 0, 10, 100, 1000
+Default Value: 0 (auto-negotiate at all supported speeds)
+ Speed forces the line speed to the specified value in megabits per second
+ (Mbps). If this parameter is not specified or is set to 0 and the link
+ partner is set to auto-negotiate, the board will auto-detect the correct
+ speed. Duplex should also be set when Speed is set to either 10 or 100.
+
+TxDescriptors
+Valid Range: 80-256 for 82542 and 82543-based adapters
+ 80-4096 for all other supported adapters
+Default Value: 256
+ This value is the number of transmit descriptors allocated by the driver.
+ Increasing this value allows the driver to queue more transmits. Each
+ descriptor is 16 bytes.
+
+ NOTE: Depending on the available system resources, the request for a
+ higher number of transmit descriptors may be denied. In this case,
+ use a lower number.
+
+TxIntDelay
+Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
+Default Value: 64
+ This value delays the generation of transmit interrupts in units of
+ 1.024 microseconds. Transmit interrupt reduction can improve CPU
+ efficiency if properly tuned for specific network traffic. If the
+ system is reporting dropped transmits, this value may be set too high
+ causing the driver to run out of available transmit descriptors.
+
+TxAbsIntDelay (82540, 82545 and later adapters only)
+Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
+Default Value: 64
+ This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a
+ transmit interrupt is generated. Useful only if TxIntDelay is non-zero,
+ this value ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial
+ packet is sent on the wire within the set amount of time. Proper tuning,
+ along with TxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific
+ network conditions.
+
+XsumRX (not available on the 82542-based adapter)
+Valid Range: 0-1
+Default Value: 1
+ A value of '1' indicates that the driver should enable IP checksum
+ offload for received packets (both UDP and TCP) to the adapter hardware.
+
+Speed and Duplex Configuration
+==============================
+
+Three keywords are used to control the speed and duplex configuration. These
+keywords are Speed, Duplex, and AutoNeg.
+
+If the board uses a fiber interface, these keywords are ignored, and the
+fiber interface board only links at 1000 Mbps full-duplex.
+
+For copper-based boards, the keywords interact as follows:
+
+ The default operation is auto-negotiate. The board advertises all supported
+ speed and duplex combinations, and it links at the highest common speed and
+ duplex mode IF the link partner is set to auto-negotiate.
+
+ If Speed = 1000, limited auto-negotiation is enabled and only 1000 Mbps is
+ advertised (The 1000BaseT spec requires auto-negotiation.)
+
+ If Speed = 10 or 100, then both Speed and Duplex should be set. Auto-
+ negotiation is disabled, and the AutoNeg parameter is ignored. Partner SHOULD
+ also be forced.
+
+The AutoNeg parameter is used when more control is required over the auto-
+negotiation process. When this parameter is used, Speed and Duplex parameters
+must not be specified. The following table describes supported values for the
+AutoNeg parameter:
+
+Speed (Mbps) 1000 100 100 10 10
+Duplex Full Full Half Full Half
+Value (in base 16) 0x20 0x08 0x04 0x02 0x01
+
+Example: insmod e1000 AutoNeg=0x03, loads e1000 and specifies (10 full duplex,
+10 half duplex) for negotiation with the peer.
+
+Note that setting AutoNeg does not guarantee that the board will link at the
+highest specified speed or duplex mode, but the board will link at the
+highest possible speed/duplex of the link partner IF the link partner is also
+set to auto-negotiate. If the link partner is forced speed/duplex, the
+adapter MUST be forced to the same speed/duplex.
+
+
+Additional Configurations
+=========================
+
+ Configuring the Driver on Different Distributions
+ -------------------------------------------------
+
+ Configuring a network driver to load properly when the system is started is
+ distribution dependent. Typically, the configuration process involves adding
+ an alias line to /etc/modules.conf as well as editing other system startup
+ scripts and/or configuration files. Many popular Linux distributions ship
+ with tools to make these changes for you. To learn the proper way to
+ configure a network device for your system, refer to your distribution
+ documentation. If during this process you are asked for the driver or module
+ name, the name for the Linux Base Driver for the Intel PRO/1000 Family of
+ Adapters is e1000.
+
+ As an example, if you install the e1000 driver for two PRO/1000 adapters
+ (eth0 and eth1) and set the speed and duplex to 10full and 100half, add the
+ following to modules.conf:
+
+ alias eth0 e1000
+ alias eth1 e1000
+ options e1000 Speed=10,100 Duplex=2,1
+
+ Viewing Link Messages
+ ---------------------
+
+ Link messages will not be displayed to the console if the distribution is
+ restricting system messages. In order to see network driver link messages on
+ your console, set dmesg to eight by entering the following:
+
+ dmesg -n 8
+
+ NOTE: This setting is not saved across reboots.
+
+ Jumbo Frames
+ ------------
+
+ The driver supports Jumbo Frames for all adapters except 82542-based
+ adapters. Jumbo Frames support is enabled by changing the MTU to a value
+ larger than the default of 1500. Use the ifconfig command to increase the
+ MTU size. For example:
+
+ ifconfig ethx mtu 9000 up
+
+ The maximum MTU setting for Jumbo Frames is 16110. This value coincides
+ with the maximum Jumbo Frames size of 16128.
+
+ NOTE: Jumbo Frames are supported at 1000 Mbps only. Using Jumbo Frames at
+ 10 or 100 Mbps may result in poor performance or loss of link.
+
+
+ NOTE: MTU designates the frame size. To enable Jumbo Frames, increase the
+ MTU size on the interface beyond 1500.
+
+ Ethtool
+ -------
+
+ The driver utilizes the ethtool interface for driver configuration and
+ diagnostics, as well as displaying statistical information. Ethtool
+ version 1.6 or later is required for this functionality.
+
+ The latest release of ethtool can be found from
+ http://sf.net/projects/gkernel.
+
+ NOTE: Ethtool 1.6 only supports a limited set of ethtool options. Support
+ for a more complete ethtool feature set can be enabled by upgrading
+ ethtool to ethtool-1.8.1.
+
+ Enabling Wake on LAN* (WoL)
+ ---------------------------
+
+ WoL is configured through the Ethtool* utility. Ethtool is included with
+ all versions of Red Hat after Red Hat 7.2. For other Linux distributions,
+ download and install Ethtool from the following website:
+ http://sourceforge.net/projects/gkernel.
+
+ For instructions on enabling WoL with Ethtool, refer to the website listed
+ above.
+
+ WoL will be enabled on the system during the next shut down or reboot.
+ For this driver version, in order to enable WoL, the e1000 driver must be
+ loaded when shutting down or rebooting the system.
+
+ NAPI
+ ----
+
+ NAPI (Rx polling mode) is supported in the e1000 driver. NAPI is enabled
+ or disabled based on the configuration of the kernel.
+
+ See www.cyberus.ca/~hadi/usenix-paper.tgz for more information on NAPI.
+
+
+Known Issues
+============
+
+ Jumbo Frames System Requirement
+ -------------------------------
+
+ Memory allocation failures have been observed on Linux systems with 64 MB
+ of RAM or less that are running Jumbo Frames. If you are using Jumbo Frames,
+ your system may require more than the advertised minimum requirement of 64 MB
+ of system memory.
+
+
+Support
+=======
+
+For general information, go to the Intel support website at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com
+
+If an issue is identified with the released source code on the supported
+kernel with a supported adapter, email the specific information related to
+the issue to linux.nics@intel.com.
+
+
+License
+=======
+
+This software program is released under the terms of a license agreement
+between you ('Licensee') and Intel. Do not use or load this software or any
+associated materials (collectively, the 'Software') until you have carefully
+read the full terms and conditions of the LICENSE located in this software
+package. By loading or using the Software, you agree to the terms of this
+Agreement. If you do not agree with the terms of this Agreement, do not
+install or use the Software.
+
+* Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/eql.txt b/Documentation/networking/eql.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..0f1550150f05
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/eql.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,528 @@
+ EQL Driver: Serial IP Load Balancing HOWTO
+ Simon "Guru Aleph-Null" Janes, simon@ncm.com
+ v1.1, February 27, 1995
+
+ This is the manual for the EQL device driver. EQL is a software device
+ that lets you load-balance IP serial links (SLIP or uncompressed PPP)
+ to increase your bandwidth. It will not reduce your latency (i.e. ping
+ times) except in the case where you already have lots of traffic on
+ your link, in which it will help them out. This driver has been tested
+ with the 1.1.75 kernel, and is known to have patched cleanly with
+ 1.1.86. Some testing with 1.1.92 has been done with the v1.1 patch
+ which was only created to patch cleanly in the very latest kernel
+ source trees. (Yes, it worked fine.)
+
+ 1. Introduction
+
+ Which is worse? A huge fee for a 56K leased line or two phone lines?
+ It's probably the former. If you find yourself craving more bandwidth,
+ and have a ISP that is flexible, it is now possible to bind modems
+ together to work as one point-to-point link to increase your
+ bandwidth. All without having to have a special black box on either
+ side.
+
+
+ The eql driver has only been tested with the Livingston PortMaster-2e
+ terminal server. I do not know if other terminal servers support load-
+ balancing, but I do know that the PortMaster does it, and does it
+ almost as well as the eql driver seems to do it (-- Unfortunately, in
+ my testing so far, the Livingston PortMaster 2e's load-balancing is a
+ good 1 to 2 KB/s slower than the test machine working with a 28.8 Kbps
+ and 14.4 Kbps connection. However, I am not sure that it really is
+ the PortMaster, or if it's Linux's TCP drivers. I'm told that Linux's
+ TCP implementation is pretty fast though.--)
+
+
+ I suggest to ISPs out there that it would probably be fair to charge
+ a load-balancing client 75% of the cost of the second line and 50% of
+ the cost of the third line etc...
+
+
+ Hey, we can all dream you know...
+
+
+ 2. Kernel Configuration
+
+ Here I describe the general steps of getting a kernel up and working
+ with the eql driver. From patching, building, to installing.
+
+
+ 2.1. Patching The Kernel
+
+ If you do not have or cannot get a copy of the kernel with the eql
+ driver folded into it, get your copy of the driver from
+ ftp://slaughter.ncm.com/pub/Linux/LOAD_BALANCING/eql-1.1.tar.gz.
+ Unpack this archive someplace obvious like /usr/local/src/. It will
+ create the following files:
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ -rw-r--r-- guru/ncm 198 Jan 19 18:53 1995 eql-1.1/NO-WARRANTY
+ -rw-r--r-- guru/ncm 30620 Feb 27 21:40 1995 eql-1.1/eql-1.1.patch
+ -rwxr-xr-x guru/ncm 16111 Jan 12 22:29 1995 eql-1.1/eql_enslave
+ -rw-r--r-- guru/ncm 2195 Jan 10 21:48 1995 eql-1.1/eql_enslave.c
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+ Unpack a recent kernel (something after 1.1.92) someplace convenient
+ like say /usr/src/linux-1.1.92.eql. Use symbolic links to point
+ /usr/src/linux to this development directory.
+
+
+ Apply the patch by running the commands:
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ cd /usr/src
+ patch </usr/local/src/eql-1.1/eql-1.1.patch
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+
+
+
+ 2.2. Building The Kernel
+
+ After patching the kernel, run make config and configure the kernel
+ for your hardware.
+
+
+ After configuration, make and install according to your habit.
+
+
+ 3. Network Configuration
+
+ So far, I have only used the eql device with the DSLIP SLIP connection
+ manager by Matt Dillon (-- "The man who sold his soul to code so much
+ so quickly."--) . How you configure it for other "connection"
+ managers is up to you. Most other connection managers that I've seen
+ don't do a very good job when it comes to handling more than one
+ connection.
+
+
+ 3.1. /etc/rc.d/rc.inet1
+
+ In rc.inet1, ifconfig the eql device to the IP address you usually use
+ for your machine, and the MTU you prefer for your SLIP lines. One
+ could argue that MTU should be roughly half the usual size for two
+ modems, one-third for three, one-fourth for four, etc... But going
+ too far below 296 is probably overkill. Here is an example ifconfig
+ command that sets up the eql device:
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ ifconfig eql 198.67.33.239 mtu 1006
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+
+
+
+ Once the eql device is up and running, add a static default route to
+ it in the routing table using the cool new route syntax that makes
+ life so much easier:
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ route add default eql
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+ 3.2. Enslaving Devices By Hand
+
+ Enslaving devices by hand requires two utility programs: eql_enslave
+ and eql_emancipate (-- eql_emancipate hasn't been written because when
+ an enslaved device "dies", it is automatically taken out of the queue.
+ I haven't found a good reason to write it yet... other than for
+ completeness, but that isn't a good motivator is it?--)
+
+
+ The syntax for enslaving a device is "eql_enslave <master-name>
+ <slave-name> <estimated-bps>". Here are some example enslavings:
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ eql_enslave eql sl0 28800
+ eql_enslave eql ppp0 14400
+ eql_enslave eql sl1 57600
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+
+
+
+ When you want to free a device from its life of slavery, you can
+ either down the device with ifconfig (eql will automatically bury the
+ dead slave and remove it from its queue) or use eql_emancipate to free
+ it. (-- Or just ifconfig it down, and the eql driver will take it out
+ for you.--)
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ eql_emancipate eql sl0
+ eql_emancipate eql ppp0
+ eql_emancipate eql sl1
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+
+
+
+ 3.3. DSLIP Configuration for the eql Device
+
+ The general idea is to bring up and keep up as many SLIP connections
+ as you need, automatically.
+
+
+ 3.3.1. /etc/slip/runslip.conf
+
+ Here is an example runslip.conf:
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+ name sl-line-1
+ enabled
+ baud 38400
+ mtu 576
+ ducmd -e /etc/slip/dialout/cua2-288.xp -t 9
+ command eql_enslave eql $interface 28800
+ address 198.67.33.239
+ line /dev/cua2
+
+ name sl-line-2
+ enabled
+ baud 38400
+ mtu 576
+ ducmd -e /etc/slip/dialout/cua3-288.xp -t 9
+ command eql_enslave eql $interface 28800
+ address 198.67.33.239
+ line /dev/cua3
+ ______________________________________________________________________
+
+
+
+
+
+ 3.4. Using PPP and the eql Device
+
+ I have not yet done any load-balancing testing for PPP devices, mainly
+ because I don't have a PPP-connection manager like SLIP has with
+ DSLIP. I did find a good tip from LinuxNET:Billy for PPP performance:
+ make sure you have asyncmap set to something so that control
+ characters are not escaped.
+
+
+ I tried to fix up a PPP script/system for redialing lost PPP
+ connections for use with the eql driver the weekend of Feb 25-26 '95
+ (Hereafter known as the 8-hour PPP Hate Festival). Perhaps later this
+ year.
+
+
+ 4. About the Slave Scheduler Algorithm
+
+ The slave scheduler probably could be replaced with a dozen other
+ things and push traffic much faster. The formula in the current set
+ up of the driver was tuned to handle slaves with wildly different
+ bits-per-second "priorities".
+
+
+ All testing I have done was with two 28.8 V.FC modems, one connecting
+ at 28800 bps or slower, and the other connecting at 14400 bps all the
+ time.
+
+
+ One version of the scheduler was able to push 5.3 K/s through the
+ 28800 and 14400 connections, but when the priorities on the links were
+ very wide apart (57600 vs. 14400) the "faster" modem received all
+ traffic and the "slower" modem starved.
+
+
+ 5. Testers' Reports
+
+ Some people have experimented with the eql device with newer
+ kernels (than 1.1.75). I have since updated the driver to patch
+ cleanly in newer kernels because of the removal of the old "slave-
+ balancing" driver config option.
+
+
+ o icee from LinuxNET patched 1.1.86 without any rejects and was able
+ to boot the kernel and enslave a couple of ISDN PPP links.
+
+ 5.1. Randolph Bentson's Test Report
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ From bentson@grieg.seaslug.org Wed Feb 8 19:08:09 1995
+ Date: Tue, 7 Feb 95 22:57 PST
+ From: Randolph Bentson <bentson@grieg.seaslug.org>
+ To: guru@ncm.com
+ Subject: EQL driver tests
+
+
+ I have been checking out your eql driver. (Nice work, that!)
+ Although you may already done this performance testing, here
+ are some data I've discovered.
+
+ Randolph Bentson
+ bentson@grieg.seaslug.org
+
+ ---------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+ A pseudo-device driver, EQL, written by Simon Janes, can be used
+ to bundle multiple SLIP connections into what appears to be a
+ single connection. This allows one to improve dial-up network
+ connectivity gradually, without having to buy expensive DSU/CSU
+ hardware and services.
+
+ I have done some testing of this software, with two goals in
+ mind: first, to ensure it actually works as described and
+ second, as a method of exercising my device driver.
+
+ The following performance measurements were derived from a set
+ of SLIP connections run between two Linux systems (1.1.84) using
+ a 486DX2/66 with a Cyclom-8Ys and a 486SLC/40 with a Cyclom-16Y.
+ (Ports 0,1,2,3 were used. A later configuration will distribute
+ port selection across the different Cirrus chips on the boards.)
+ Once a link was established, I timed a binary ftp transfer of
+ 289284 bytes of data. If there were no overhead (packet headers,
+ inter-character and inter-packet delays, etc.) the transfers
+ would take the following times:
+
+ bits/sec seconds
+ 345600 8.3
+ 234600 12.3
+ 172800 16.7
+ 153600 18.8
+ 76800 37.6
+ 57600 50.2
+ 38400 75.3
+ 28800 100.4
+ 19200 150.6
+ 9600 301.3
+
+ A single line running at the lower speeds and with large packets
+ comes to within 2% of this. Performance is limited for the higher
+ speeds (as predicted by the Cirrus databook) to an aggregate of
+ about 160 kbits/sec. The next round of testing will distribute
+ the load across two or more Cirrus chips.
+
+ The good news is that one gets nearly the full advantage of the
+ second, third, and fourth line's bandwidth. (The bad news is
+ that the connection establishment seemed fragile for the higher
+ speeds. Once established, the connection seemed robust enough.)
+
+ #lines speed mtu seconds theory actual %of
+ kbit/sec duration speed speed max
+ 3 115200 900 _ 345600
+ 3 115200 400 18.1 345600 159825 46
+ 2 115200 900 _ 230400
+ 2 115200 600 18.1 230400 159825 69
+ 2 115200 400 19.3 230400 149888 65
+ 4 57600 900 _ 234600
+ 4 57600 600 _ 234600
+ 4 57600 400 _ 234600
+ 3 57600 600 20.9 172800 138413 80
+ 3 57600 900 21.2 172800 136455 78
+ 3 115200 600 21.7 345600 133311 38
+ 3 57600 400 22.5 172800 128571 74
+ 4 38400 900 25.2 153600 114795 74
+ 4 38400 600 26.4 153600 109577 71
+ 4 38400 400 27.3 153600 105965 68
+ 2 57600 900 29.1 115200 99410.3 86
+ 1 115200 900 30.7 115200 94229.3 81
+ 2 57600 600 30.2 115200 95789.4 83
+ 3 38400 900 30.3 115200 95473.3 82
+ 3 38400 600 31.2 115200 92719.2 80
+ 1 115200 600 31.3 115200 92423 80
+ 2 57600 400 32.3 115200 89561.6 77
+ 1 115200 400 32.8 115200 88196.3 76
+ 3 38400 400 33.5 115200 86353.4 74
+ 2 38400 900 43.7 76800 66197.7 86
+ 2 38400 600 44 76800 65746.4 85
+ 2 38400 400 47.2 76800 61289 79
+ 4 19200 900 50.8 76800 56945.7 74
+ 4 19200 400 53.2 76800 54376.7 70
+ 4 19200 600 53.7 76800 53870.4 70
+ 1 57600 900 54.6 57600 52982.4 91
+ 1 57600 600 56.2 57600 51474 89
+ 3 19200 900 60.5 57600 47815.5 83
+ 1 57600 400 60.2 57600 48053.8 83
+ 3 19200 600 62 57600 46658.7 81
+ 3 19200 400 64.7 57600 44711.6 77
+ 1 38400 900 79.4 38400 36433.8 94
+ 1 38400 600 82.4 38400 35107.3 91
+ 2 19200 900 84.4 38400 34275.4 89
+ 1 38400 400 86.8 38400 33327.6 86
+ 2 19200 600 87.6 38400 33023.3 85
+ 2 19200 400 91.2 38400 31719.7 82
+ 4 9600 900 94.7 38400 30547.4 79
+ 4 9600 400 106 38400 27290.9 71
+ 4 9600 600 110 38400 26298.5 68
+ 3 9600 900 118 28800 24515.6 85
+ 3 9600 600 120 28800 24107 83
+ 3 9600 400 131 28800 22082.7 76
+ 1 19200 900 155 19200 18663.5 97
+ 1 19200 600 161 19200 17968 93
+ 1 19200 400 170 19200 17016.7 88
+ 2 9600 600 176 19200 16436.6 85
+ 2 9600 900 180 19200 16071.3 83
+ 2 9600 400 181 19200 15982.5 83
+ 1 9600 900 305 9600 9484.72 98
+ 1 9600 600 314 9600 9212.87 95
+ 1 9600 400 332 9600 8713.37 90
+
+
+
+
+
+ 5.2. Anthony Healy's Report
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+ Date: Mon, 13 Feb 1995 16:17:29 +1100 (EST)
+ From: Antony Healey <ahealey@st.nepean.uws.edu.au>
+ To: Simon Janes <guru@ncm.com>
+ Subject: Re: Load Balancing
+
+ Hi Simon,
+ I've installed your patch and it works great. I have trialed
+ it over twin SL/IP lines, just over null modems, but I was
+ able to data at over 48Kb/s [ISDN link -Simon]. I managed a
+ transfer of up to 7.5 Kbyte/s on one go, but averaged around
+ 6.4 Kbyte/s, which I think is pretty cool. :)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ewrk3.txt b/Documentation/networking/ewrk3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..90e9e5f16e6b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ewrk3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+The EtherWORKS 3 driver in this distribution is designed to work with all
+kernels > 1.1.33 (approx) and includes tools in the 'ewrk3tools'
+subdirectory to allow set up of the card, similar to the MSDOS
+'NICSETUP.EXE' tools provided on the DOS drivers disk (type 'make' in that
+subdirectory to make the tools).
+
+The supported cards are DE203, DE204 and DE205. All other cards are NOT
+supported - refer to 'depca.c' for running the LANCE based network cards and
+'de4x5.c' for the DIGITAL Semiconductor PCI chip based adapters from
+Digital.
+
+The ability to load this driver as a loadable module has been included and
+used extensively during the driver development (to save those long reboot
+sequences). To utilise this ability, you have to do 8 things:
+
+ 0) have a copy of the loadable modules code installed on your system.
+ 1) copy ewrk3.c from the /linux/drivers/net directory to your favourite
+ temporary directory.
+ 2) edit the source code near line 1898 to reflect the I/O address and
+ IRQ you're using.
+ 3) compile ewrk3.c, but include -DMODULE in the command line to ensure
+ that the correct bits are compiled (see end of source code).
+ 4) if you are wanting to add a new card, goto 5. Otherwise, recompile a
+ kernel with the ewrk3 configuration turned off and reboot.
+ 5) insmod ewrk3.o
+ [Alan Cox: Changed this so you can insmod ewrk3.o irq=x io=y]
+ [Adam Kropelin: Multiple cards now supported by irq=x1,x2 io=y1,y2]
+ 6) run the net startup bits for your new eth?? interface manually
+ (usually /etc/rc.inet[12] at boot time).
+ 7) enjoy!
+
+ Note that autoprobing is not allowed in loadable modules - the system is
+ already up and running and you're messing with interrupts.
+
+ To unload a module, turn off the associated interface
+ 'ifconfig eth?? down' then 'rmmod ewrk3'.
+
+The performance we've achieved so far has been measured through the 'ttcp'
+tool at 975kB/s. This measures the total TCP stack performance which
+includes the card, so don't expect to get much nearer the 1.25MB/s
+theoretical Ethernet rate.
+
+
+Enjoy!
+
+Dave
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/filter.txt b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..bbf2005270b5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/filter.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+filter.txt: Linux Socket Filtering
+Written by: Jay Schulist <jschlst@samba.org>
+
+Introduction
+============
+
+ Linux Socket Filtering is derived from the Berkeley
+Packet Filter. There are some distinct differences between
+the BSD and Linux Kernel Filtering.
+
+Linux Socket Filtering (LSF) allows a user-space program to
+attach a filter onto any socket and allow or disallow certain
+types of data to come through the socket. LSF follows exactly
+the same filter code structure as the BSD Berkeley Packet Filter
+(BPF), so referring to the BSD bpf.4 manpage is very helpful in
+creating filters.
+
+LSF is much simpler than BPF. One does not have to worry about
+devices or anything like that. You simply create your filter
+code, send it to the kernel via the SO_ATTACH_FILTER ioctl and
+if your filter code passes the kernel check on it, you then
+immediately begin filtering data on that socket.
+
+You can also detach filters from your socket via the
+SO_DETACH_FILTER ioctl. This will probably not be used much
+since when you close a socket that has a filter on it the
+filter is automagically removed. The other less common case
+may be adding a different filter on the same socket where you had another
+filter that is still running: the kernel takes care of removing
+the old one and placing your new one in its place, assuming your
+filter has passed the checks, otherwise if it fails the old filter
+will remain on that socket.
+
+Examples
+========
+
+Ioctls-
+setsockopt(sockfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_ATTACH_FILTER, &Filter, sizeof(Filter));
+setsockopt(sockfd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_DETACH_FILTER, &value, sizeof(value));
+
+See the BSD bpf.4 manpage and the BSD Packet Filter paper written by
+Steven McCanne and Van Jacobson of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/fore200e.txt b/Documentation/networking/fore200e.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b1f337f0f4ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/fore200e.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,66 @@
+
+FORE Systems PCA-200E/SBA-200E ATM NIC driver
+---------------------------------------------
+
+This driver adds support for the FORE Systems 200E-series ATM adapters
+to the Linux operating system. It is based on the earlier PCA-200E driver
+written by Uwe Dannowski.
+
+The driver simultaneously supports PCA-200E and SBA-200E adapters on
+i386, alpha (untested), powerpc, sparc and sparc64 archs.
+
+The intent is to enable the use of different models of FORE adapters at the
+same time, by hosts that have several bus interfaces (such as PCI+SBUS,
+PCI+MCA or PCI+EISA).
+
+Only PCI and SBUS devices are currently supported by the driver, but support
+for other bus interfaces such as EISA should not be too hard to add (this may
+be more tricky for the MCA bus, though, as FORE made some MCA-specific
+modifications to the adapter's AALI interface).
+
+
+Firmware Copyright Notice
+-------------------------
+
+Please read the fore200e_firmware_copyright file present
+in the linux/drivers/atm directory for details and restrictions.
+
+
+Firmware Updates
+----------------
+
+The FORE Systems 200E-series driver is shipped with firmware data being
+uploaded to the ATM adapters at system boot time or at module loading time.
+The supplied firmware images should work with all adapters.
+
+However, if you encounter problems (the firmware doesn't start or the driver
+is unable to read the PROM data), you may consider trying another firmware
+version. Alternative binary firmware images can be found somewhere on the
+ForeThought CD-ROM supplied with your adapter by FORE Systems.
+
+You can also get the latest firmware images from FORE Systems at
+http://www.fore.com. Register TACTics Online and go to
+the 'software updates' pages. The firmware binaries are part of
+the various ForeThought software distributions.
+
+Notice that different versions of the PCA-200E firmware exist, depending
+on the endianess of the host architecture. The driver is shipped with
+both little and big endian PCA firmware images.
+
+Name and location of the new firmware images can be set at kernel
+configuration time:
+
+1. Copy the new firmware binary files (with .bin, .bin1 or .bin2 suffix)
+ to some directory, such as linux/drivers/atm.
+
+2. Reconfigure your kernel to set the new firmware name and location.
+ Expected pathnames are absolute or relative to the drivers/atm directory.
+
+3. Rebuild and re-install your kernel or your module.
+
+
+Feedback
+--------
+
+Feedback is welcome. Please send success stories/bug reports/
+patches/improvement/comments/flames to <lizzi@cnam.fr>.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/framerelay.txt b/Documentation/networking/framerelay.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1a0b720440dd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/framerelay.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+Frame Relay (FR) support for linux is built into a two tiered system of device
+drivers. The upper layer implements RFC1490 FR specification, and uses the
+Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) as its hardware address. Usually these
+are assigned by your network supplier, they give you the number/numbers of
+the Virtual Connections (VC) assigned to you.
+
+Each DLCI is a point-to-point link between your machine and a remote one.
+As such, a separate device is needed to accommodate the routing. Within the
+net-tools archives is 'dlcicfg'. This program will communicate with the
+base "DLCI" device, and create new net devices named 'dlci00', 'dlci01'...
+The configuration script will ask you how many DLCIs you need, as well as
+how many DLCIs you want to assign to each Frame Relay Access Device (FRAD).
+
+The DLCI uses a number of function calls to communicate with the FRAD, all
+of which are stored in the FRAD's private data area. assoc/deassoc,
+activate/deactivate and dlci_config. The DLCI supplies a receive function
+to the FRAD to accept incoming packets.
+
+With this initial offering, only 1 FRAD driver is available. With many thanks
+to Sangoma Technologies, David Mandelstam & Gene Kozin, the S502A, S502E &
+S508 are supported. This driver is currently set up for only FR, but as
+Sangoma makes more firmware modules available, it can be updated to provide
+them as well.
+
+Configuration of the FRAD makes use of another net-tools program, 'fradcfg'.
+This program makes use of a configuration file (which dlcicfg can also read)
+to specify the types of boards to be configured as FRADs, as well as perform
+any board specific configuration. The Sangoma module of fradcfg loads the
+FR firmware into the card, sets the irq/port/memory information, and provides
+an initial configuration.
+
+Additional FRAD device drivers can be added as hardware is available.
+
+At this time, the dlcicfg and fradcfg programs have not been incorporated into
+the net-tools distribution. They can be found at ftp.invlogic.com, in
+/pub/linux. Note that with OS/2 FTPD, you end up in /pub by default, so just
+use 'cd linux'. v0.10 is for use on pre-2.0.3 and earlier, v0.15 is for
+pre-2.0.4 and later.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/gen_stats.txt b/Documentation/networking/gen_stats.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c3297f79c137
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/gen_stats.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,117 @@
+Generic networking statistics for netlink users
+======================================================================
+
+Statistic counters are grouped into structs:
+
+Struct TLV type Description
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+gnet_stats_basic TCA_STATS_BASIC Basic statistics
+gnet_stats_rate_est TCA_STATS_RATE_EST Rate estimator
+gnet_stats_queue TCA_STATS_QUEUE Queue statistics
+none TCA_STATS_APP Application specific
+
+
+Collecting:
+-----------
+
+Declare the statistic structs you need:
+struct mystruct {
+ struct gnet_stats_basic bstats;
+ struct gnet_stats_queue qstats;
+ ...
+};
+
+Update statistics:
+mystruct->tstats.packet++;
+mystruct->qstats.backlog += skb->pkt_len;
+
+
+Export to userspace (Dump):
+---------------------------
+
+my_dumping_routine(struct sk_buff *skb, ...)
+{
+ struct gnet_dump dump;
+
+ if (gnet_stats_start_copy(skb, TCA_STATS2, &mystruct->lock, &dump) < 0)
+ goto rtattr_failure;
+
+ if (gnet_stats_copy_basic(&dump, &mystruct->bstats) < 0 ||
+ gnet_stats_copy_queue(&dump, &mystruct->qstats) < 0 ||
+ gnet_stats_copy_app(&dump, &xstats, sizeof(xstats)) < 0)
+ goto rtattr_failure;
+
+ if (gnet_stats_finish_copy(&dump) < 0)
+ goto rtattr_failure;
+ ...
+}
+
+TCA_STATS/TCA_XSTATS backward compatibility:
+--------------------------------------------
+
+Prior users of struct tc_stats and xstats can maintain backward
+compatibility by calling the compat wrappers to keep providing the
+existing TLV types.
+
+my_dumping_routine(struct sk_buff *skb, ...)
+{
+ if (gnet_stats_start_copy_compat(skb, TCA_STATS2, TCA_STATS,
+ TCA_XSTATS, &mystruct->lock, &dump) < 0)
+ goto rtattr_failure;
+ ...
+}
+
+A struct tc_stats will be filled out during gnet_stats_copy_* calls
+and appended to the skb. TCA_XSTATS is provided if gnet_stats_copy_app
+was called.
+
+
+Locking:
+--------
+
+Locks are taken before writing and released once all statistics have
+been written. Locks are always released in case of an error. You
+are responsible for making sure that the lock is initialized.
+
+
+Rate Estimator:
+--------------
+
+0) Prepare an estimator attribute. Most likely this would be in user
+ space. The value of this TLV should contain a tc_estimator structure.
+ As usual, such a TLV nees to be 32 bit aligned and therefore the
+ length needs to be appropriately set etc. The estimator interval
+ and ewma log need to be converted to the appropriate values.
+ tc_estimator.c::tc_setup_estimator() is advisable to be used as the
+ conversion routine. It does a few clever things. It takes a time
+ interval in microsecs, a time constant also in microsecs and a struct
+ tc_estimator to be populated. The returned tc_estimator can be
+ transported to the kernel. Transfer such a structure in a TLV of type
+ TCA_RATE to your code in the kernel.
+
+In the kernel when setting up:
+1) make sure you have basic stats and rate stats setup first.
+2) make sure you have initialized stats lock that is used to setup such
+ stats.
+3) Now initialize a new estimator:
+
+ int ret = gen_new_estimator(my_basicstats,my_rate_est_stats,
+ mystats_lock, attr_with_tcestimator_struct);
+
+ if ret == 0
+ success
+ else
+ failed
+
+From now on, everytime you dump my_rate_est_stats it will contain
+uptodate info.
+
+Once you are done, call gen_kill_estimator(my_basicstats,
+my_rate_est_stats) Make sure that my_basicstats and my_rate_est_stats
+are still valid (i.e still exist) at the time of making this call.
+
+
+Authors:
+--------
+Thomas Graf <tgraf@suug.ch>
+Jamal Hadi Salim <hadi@cyberus.ca>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/generic-hdlc.txt b/Documentation/networking/generic-hdlc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7d1dc6b884f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/generic-hdlc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,131 @@
+Generic HDLC layer
+Krzysztof Halasa <khc@pm.waw.pl>
+January, 2003
+
+
+Generic HDLC layer currently supports:
+- Frame Relay (ANSI, CCITT and no LMI), with ARP support (no InARP).
+ Normal (routed) and Ethernet-bridged (Ethernet device emulation)
+ interfaces can share a single PVC.
+- raw HDLC - either IP (IPv4) interface or Ethernet device emulation.
+- Cisco HDLC,
+- PPP (uses syncppp.c),
+- X.25 (uses X.25 routines).
+
+There are hardware drivers for the following cards:
+- C101 by Moxa Technologies Co., Ltd.
+- RISCom/N2 by SDL Communications Inc.
+- and others, some not in the official kernel.
+
+Ethernet device emulation (using HDLC or Frame-Relay PVC) is compatible
+with IEEE 802.1Q (VLANs) and 802.1D (Ethernet bridging).
+
+
+Make sure the hdlc.o and the hardware driver are loaded. It should
+create a number of "hdlc" (hdlc0 etc) network devices, one for each
+WAN port. You'll need the "sethdlc" utility, get it from:
+ http://hq.pm.waw.pl/hdlc/
+
+Compile sethdlc.c utility:
+ gcc -O2 -Wall -o sethdlc sethdlc.c
+Make sure you're using a correct version of sethdlc for your kernel.
+
+Use sethdlc to set physical interface, clock rate, HDLC mode used,
+and add any required PVCs if using Frame Relay.
+Usually you want something like:
+
+ sethdlc hdlc0 clock int rate 128000
+ sethdlc hdlc0 cisco interval 10 timeout 25
+or
+ sethdlc hdlc0 rs232 clock ext
+ sethdlc hdlc0 fr lmi ansi
+ sethdlc hdlc0 create 99
+ ifconfig hdlc0 up
+ ifconfig pvc0 localIP pointopoint remoteIP
+
+In Frame Relay mode, ifconfig master hdlc device up (without assigning
+any IP address to it) before using pvc devices.
+
+
+Setting interface:
+
+* v35 | rs232 | x21 | t1 | e1 - sets physical interface for a given port
+ if the card has software-selectable interfaces
+ loopback - activate hardware loopback (for testing only)
+* clock ext - external clock (uses DTE RX and TX clock)
+* clock int - internal clock (provides clock signal on DCE clock output)
+* clock txint - TX internal, RX external (provides TX clock on DCE output)
+* clock txfromrx - TX clock derived from RX clock (TX clock on DCE output)
+* rate - sets clock rate in bps (not required for external clock or
+ for txfromrx)
+
+Setting protocol:
+
+* hdlc - sets raw HDLC (IP-only) mode
+ nrz / nrzi / fm-mark / fm-space / manchester - sets transmission code
+ no-parity / crc16 / crc16-pr0 (CRC16 with preset zeros) / crc32-itu
+ crc16-itu (CRC16 with ITU-T polynomial) / crc16-itu-pr0 - sets parity
+
+* hdlc-eth - Ethernet device emulation using HDLC. Parity and encoding
+ as above.
+
+* cisco - sets Cisco HDLC mode (IP, IPv6 and IPX supported)
+ interval - time in seconds between keepalive packets
+ timeout - time in seconds after last received keepalive packet before
+ we assume the link is down
+
+* ppp - sets synchronous PPP mode
+
+* x25 - sets X.25 mode
+
+* fr - Frame Relay mode
+ lmi ansi / ccitt / none - LMI (link management) type
+ dce - Frame Relay DCE (network) side LMI instead of default DTE (user).
+ It has nothing to do with clocks!
+ t391 - link integrity verification polling timer (in seconds) - user
+ t392 - polling verification timer (in seconds) - network
+ n391 - full status polling counter - user
+ n392 - error threshold - both user and network
+ n393 - monitored events count - both user and network
+
+Frame-Relay only:
+* create n | delete n - adds / deletes PVC interface with DLCI #n.
+ Newly created interface will be named pvc0, pvc1 etc.
+
+* create ether n | delete ether n - adds a device for Ethernet-bridged
+ frames. The device will be named pvceth0, pvceth1 etc.
+
+
+
+
+Board-specific issues
+---------------------
+
+n2.o and c101.o need parameters to work:
+
+ insmod n2 hw=io,irq,ram,ports[:io,irq,...]
+example:
+ insmod n2 hw=0x300,10,0xD0000,01
+
+or
+ insmod c101 hw=irq,ram[:irq,...]
+example:
+ insmod c101 hw=9,0xdc000
+
+If built into the kernel, these drivers need kernel (command line) parameters:
+ n2.hw=io,irq,ram,ports:...
+or
+ c101.hw=irq,ram:...
+
+
+
+If you have a problem with N2 or C101 card, you can issue the "private"
+command to see port's packet descriptor rings (in kernel logs):
+
+ sethdlc hdlc0 private
+
+The hardware driver has to be build with CONFIG_HDLC_DEBUG_RINGS.
+Attaching this info to bug reports would be helpful. Anyway, let me know
+if you have problems using this.
+
+For patches and other info look at http://hq.pm.waw.pl/hdlc/
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ifenslave.c b/Documentation/networking/ifenslave.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f315d20d3867
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ifenslave.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1110 @@
+/* Mode: C;
+ * ifenslave.c: Configure network interfaces for parallel routing.
+ *
+ * This program controls the Linux implementation of running multiple
+ * network interfaces in parallel.
+ *
+ * Author: Donald Becker <becker@cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov>
+ * Copyright 1994-1996 Donald Becker
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it
+ * and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
+ * License as published by the Free Software Foundation.
+ *
+ * The author may be reached as becker@CESDIS.gsfc.nasa.gov, or C/O
+ * Center of Excellence in Space Data and Information Sciences
+ * Code 930.5, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771
+ *
+ * Changes :
+ * - 2000/10/02 Willy Tarreau <willy at meta-x.org> :
+ * - few fixes. Master's MAC address is now correctly taken from
+ * the first device when not previously set ;
+ * - detach support : call BOND_RELEASE to detach an enslaved interface.
+ * - give a mini-howto from command-line help : # ifenslave -h
+ *
+ * - 2001/02/16 Chad N. Tindel <ctindel at ieee dot org> :
+ * - Master is now brought down before setting the MAC address. In
+ * the 2.4 kernel you can't change the MAC address while the device is
+ * up because you get EBUSY.
+ *
+ * - 2001/09/13 Takao Indoh <indou dot takao at jp dot fujitsu dot com>
+ * - Added the ability to change the active interface on a mode 1 bond
+ * at runtime.
+ *
+ * - 2001/10/23 Chad N. Tindel <ctindel at ieee dot org> :
+ * - No longer set the MAC address of the master. The bond device will
+ * take care of this itself
+ * - Try the SIOC*** versions of the bonding ioctls before using the
+ * old versions
+ * - 2002/02/18 Erik Habbinga <erik_habbinga @ hp dot com> :
+ * - ifr2.ifr_flags was not initialized in the hwaddr_notset case,
+ * SIOCGIFFLAGS now called before hwaddr_notset test
+ *
+ * - 2002/10/31 Tony Cureington <tony.cureington * hp_com> :
+ * - If the master does not have a hardware address when the first slave
+ * is enslaved, the master is assigned the hardware address of that
+ * slave - there is a comment in bonding.c stating "ifenslave takes
+ * care of this now." This corrects the problem of slaves having
+ * different hardware addresses in active-backup mode when
+ * multiple interfaces are specified on a single ifenslave command
+ * (ifenslave bond0 eth0 eth1).
+ *
+ * - 2003/03/18 - Tsippy Mendelson <tsippy.mendelson at intel dot com> and
+ * Shmulik Hen <shmulik.hen at intel dot com>
+ * - Moved setting the slave's mac address and openning it, from
+ * the application to the driver. This enables support of modes
+ * that need to use the unique mac address of each slave.
+ * The driver also takes care of closing the slave and restoring its
+ * original mac address upon release.
+ * In addition, block possibility of enslaving before the master is up.
+ * This prevents putting the system in an undefined state.
+ *
+ * - 2003/05/01 - Amir Noam <amir.noam at intel dot com>
+ * - Added ABI version control to restore compatibility between
+ * new/old ifenslave and new/old bonding.
+ * - Prevent adding an adapter that is already a slave.
+ * Fixes the problem of stalling the transmission and leaving
+ * the slave in a down state.
+ *
+ * - 2003/05/01 - Shmulik Hen <shmulik.hen at intel dot com>
+ * - Prevent enslaving if the bond device is down.
+ * Fixes the problem of leaving the system in unstable state and
+ * halting when trying to remove the module.
+ * - Close socket on all abnormal exists.
+ * - Add versioning scheme that follows that of the bonding driver.
+ * current version is 1.0.0 as a base line.
+ *
+ * - 2003/05/22 - Jay Vosburgh <fubar at us dot ibm dot com>
+ * - ifenslave -c was broken; it's now fixed
+ * - Fixed problem with routes vanishing from master during enslave
+ * processing.
+ *
+ * - 2003/05/27 - Amir Noam <amir.noam at intel dot com>
+ * - Fix backward compatibility issues:
+ * For drivers not using ABI versions, slave was set down while
+ * it should be left up before enslaving.
+ * Also, master was not set down and the default set_mac_address()
+ * would fail and generate an error message in the system log.
+ * - For opt_c: slave should not be set to the master's setting
+ * while it is running. It was already set during enslave. To
+ * simplify things, it is now handeled separately.
+ *
+ * - 2003/12/01 - Shmulik Hen <shmulik.hen at intel dot com>
+ * - Code cleanup and style changes
+ * set version to 1.1.0
+ */
+
+#define APP_VERSION "1.1.0"
+#define APP_RELDATE "December 1, 2003"
+#define APP_NAME "ifenslave"
+
+static char *version =
+APP_NAME ".c:v" APP_VERSION " (" APP_RELDATE ")\n"
+"o Donald Becker (becker@cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov).\n"
+"o Detach support added on 2000/10/02 by Willy Tarreau (willy at meta-x.org).\n"
+"o 2.4 kernel support added on 2001/02/16 by Chad N. Tindel\n"
+" (ctindel at ieee dot org).\n";
+
+static const char *usage_msg =
+"Usage: ifenslave [-f] <master-if> <slave-if> [<slave-if>...]\n"
+" ifenslave -d <master-if> <slave-if> [<slave-if>...]\n"
+" ifenslave -c <master-if> <slave-if>\n"
+" ifenslave --help\n";
+
+static const char *help_msg =
+"\n"
+" To create a bond device, simply follow these three steps :\n"
+" - ensure that the required drivers are properly loaded :\n"
+" # modprobe bonding ; modprobe <3c59x|eepro100|pcnet32|tulip|...>\n"
+" - assign an IP address to the bond device :\n"
+" # ifconfig bond0 <addr> netmask <mask> broadcast <bcast>\n"
+" - attach all the interfaces you need to the bond device :\n"
+" # ifenslave [{-f|--force}] bond0 eth0 [eth1 [eth2]...]\n"
+" If bond0 didn't have a MAC address, it will take eth0's. Then, all\n"
+" interfaces attached AFTER this assignment will get the same MAC addr.\n"
+" (except for ALB/TLB modes)\n"
+"\n"
+" To set the bond device down and automatically release all the slaves :\n"
+" # ifconfig bond0 down\n"
+"\n"
+" To detach a dead interface without setting the bond device down :\n"
+" # ifenslave {-d|--detach} bond0 eth0 [eth1 [eth2]...]\n"
+"\n"
+" To change active slave :\n"
+" # ifenslave {-c|--change-active} bond0 eth0\n"
+"\n"
+" To show master interface info\n"
+" # ifenslave bond0\n"
+"\n"
+" To show all interfaces info\n"
+" # ifenslave {-a|--all-interfaces}\n"
+"\n"
+" To be more verbose\n"
+" # ifenslave {-v|--verbose} ...\n"
+"\n"
+" # ifenslave {-u|--usage} Show usage\n"
+" # ifenslave {-V|--version} Show version\n"
+" # ifenslave {-h|--help} This message\n"
+"\n";
+
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <getopt.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/socket.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <linux/if.h>
+#include <net/if_arp.h>
+#include <linux/if_ether.h>
+#include <linux/if_bonding.h>
+#include <linux/sockios.h>
+
+typedef unsigned long long u64; /* hack, so we may include kernel's ethtool.h */
+typedef __uint32_t u32; /* ditto */
+typedef __uint16_t u16; /* ditto */
+typedef __uint8_t u8; /* ditto */
+#include <linux/ethtool.h>
+
+struct option longopts[] = {
+ /* { name has_arg *flag val } */
+ {"all-interfaces", 0, 0, 'a'}, /* Show all interfaces. */
+ {"change-active", 0, 0, 'c'}, /* Change the active slave. */
+ {"detach", 0, 0, 'd'}, /* Detach a slave interface. */
+ {"force", 0, 0, 'f'}, /* Force the operation. */
+ {"help", 0, 0, 'h'}, /* Give help */
+ {"usage", 0, 0, 'u'}, /* Give usage */
+ {"verbose", 0, 0, 'v'}, /* Report each action taken. */
+ {"version", 0, 0, 'V'}, /* Emit version information. */
+ { 0, 0, 0, 0}
+};
+
+/* Command-line flags. */
+unsigned int
+opt_a = 0, /* Show-all-interfaces flag. */
+opt_c = 0, /* Change-active-slave flag. */
+opt_d = 0, /* Detach a slave interface. */
+opt_f = 0, /* Force the operation. */
+opt_h = 0, /* Help */
+opt_u = 0, /* Usage */
+opt_v = 0, /* Verbose flag. */
+opt_V = 0; /* Version */
+
+int skfd = -1; /* AF_INET socket for ioctl() calls.*/
+int abi_ver = 0; /* userland - kernel ABI version */
+int hwaddr_set = 0; /* Master's hwaddr is set */
+int saved_errno;
+
+struct ifreq master_mtu, master_flags, master_hwaddr;
+struct ifreq slave_mtu, slave_flags, slave_hwaddr;
+
+struct dev_ifr {
+ struct ifreq *req_ifr;
+ char *req_name;
+ int req_type;
+};
+
+struct dev_ifr master_ifra[] = {
+ {&master_mtu, "SIOCGIFMTU", SIOCGIFMTU},
+ {&master_flags, "SIOCGIFFLAGS", SIOCGIFFLAGS},
+ {&master_hwaddr, "SIOCGIFHWADDR", SIOCGIFHWADDR},
+ {NULL, "", 0}
+};
+
+struct dev_ifr slave_ifra[] = {
+ {&slave_mtu, "SIOCGIFMTU", SIOCGIFMTU},
+ {&slave_flags, "SIOCGIFFLAGS", SIOCGIFFLAGS},
+ {&slave_hwaddr, "SIOCGIFHWADDR", SIOCGIFHWADDR},
+ {NULL, "", 0}
+};
+
+static void if_print(char *ifname);
+static int get_drv_info(char *master_ifname);
+static int get_if_settings(char *ifname, struct dev_ifr ifra[]);
+static int get_slave_flags(char *slave_ifname);
+static int set_master_hwaddr(char *master_ifname, struct sockaddr *hwaddr);
+static int set_slave_hwaddr(char *slave_ifname, struct sockaddr *hwaddr);
+static int set_slave_mtu(char *slave_ifname, int mtu);
+static int set_if_flags(char *ifname, short flags);
+static int set_if_up(char *ifname, short flags);
+static int set_if_down(char *ifname, short flags);
+static int clear_if_addr(char *ifname);
+static int set_if_addr(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname);
+static int change_active(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname);
+static int enslave(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname);
+static int release(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname);
+#define v_print(fmt, args...) \
+ if (opt_v) \
+ fprintf(stderr, fmt, ## args )
+
+int main(int argc, char *argv[])
+{
+ char **spp, *master_ifname, *slave_ifname;
+ int c, i, rv;
+ int res = 0;
+ int exclusive = 0;
+
+ while ((c = getopt_long(argc, argv, "acdfhuvV", longopts, 0)) != EOF) {
+ switch (c) {
+ case 'a': opt_a++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'c': opt_c++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'd': opt_d++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'f': opt_f++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'h': opt_h++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'u': opt_u++; exclusive++; break;
+ case 'v': opt_v++; break;
+ case 'V': opt_V++; exclusive++; break;
+
+ case '?':
+ fprintf(stderr, usage_msg);
+ res = 2;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* options check */
+ if (exclusive > 1) {
+ fprintf(stderr, usage_msg);
+ res = 2;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ if (opt_v || opt_V) {
+ printf(version);
+ if (opt_V) {
+ res = 0;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (opt_u) {
+ printf(usage_msg);
+ res = 0;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ if (opt_h) {
+ printf(usage_msg);
+ printf(help_msg);
+ res = 0;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* Open a basic socket */
+ if ((skfd = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0) {
+ perror("socket");
+ res = 1;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ if (opt_a) {
+ if (optind == argc) {
+ /* No remaining args */
+ /* show all interfaces */
+ if_print((char *)NULL);
+ goto out;
+ } else {
+ /* Just show usage */
+ fprintf(stderr, usage_msg);
+ res = 2;
+ goto out;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Copy the interface name */
+ spp = argv + optind;
+ master_ifname = *spp++;
+
+ if (master_ifname == NULL) {
+ fprintf(stderr, usage_msg);
+ res = 2;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* exchange abi version with bonding module */
+ res = get_drv_info(master_ifname);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s': Error: handshake with driver failed. "
+ "Aborting\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ slave_ifname = *spp++;
+
+ if (slave_ifname == NULL) {
+ if (opt_d || opt_c) {
+ fprintf(stderr, usage_msg);
+ res = 2;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* A single arg means show the
+ * configuration for this interface
+ */
+ if_print(master_ifname);
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ res = get_if_settings(master_ifname, master_ifra);
+ if (res) {
+ /* Probably a good reason not to go on */
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s': Error: get settings failed: %s. "
+ "Aborting\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(res));
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* check if master is indeed a master;
+ * if not then fail any operation
+ */
+ if (!(master_flags.ifr_flags & IFF_MASTER)) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation; the specified interface '%s' "
+ "is not a master. Aborting\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ res = 1;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* check if master is up; if not then fail any operation */
+ if (!(master_flags.ifr_flags & IFF_UP)) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation; the specified master interface "
+ "'%s' is not up.\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ res = 1;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* Only for enslaving */
+ if (!opt_c && !opt_d) {
+ sa_family_t master_family = master_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr.sa_family;
+ unsigned char *hwaddr =
+ (unsigned char *)master_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr.sa_data;
+
+ /* The family '1' is ARPHRD_ETHER for ethernet. */
+ if (master_family != 1 && !opt_f) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation: The specified master "
+ "interface '%s' is not ethernet-like.\n "
+ "This program is designed to work with "
+ "ethernet-like network interfaces.\n "
+ "Use the '-f' option to force the "
+ "operation.\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ res = 1;
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ /* Check master's hw addr */
+ for (i = 0; i < 6; i++) {
+ if (hwaddr[i] != 0) {
+ hwaddr_set = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (hwaddr_set) {
+ v_print("current hardware address of master '%s' "
+ "is %2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x, "
+ "type %d\n",
+ master_ifname,
+ hwaddr[0], hwaddr[1],
+ hwaddr[2], hwaddr[3],
+ hwaddr[4], hwaddr[5],
+ master_family);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Accepts only one slave */
+ if (opt_c) {
+ /* change active slave */
+ res = get_slave_flags(slave_ifname);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: get flags failed. "
+ "Aborting\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ goto out;
+ }
+ res = change_active(master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s', Slave '%s': Error: "
+ "Change active failed\n",
+ master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ }
+ } else {
+ /* Accept multiple slaves */
+ do {
+ if (opt_d) {
+ /* detach a slave interface from the master */
+ rv = get_slave_flags(slave_ifname);
+ if (rv) {
+ /* Can't work with this slave. */
+ /* remember the error and skip it*/
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: get flags "
+ "failed. Skipping\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ res = rv;
+ continue;
+ }
+ rv = release(master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ if (rv) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s', Slave '%s': Error: "
+ "Release failed\n",
+ master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ res = rv;
+ }
+ } else {
+ /* attach a slave interface to the master */
+ rv = get_if_settings(slave_ifname, slave_ifra);
+ if (rv) {
+ /* Can't work with this slave. */
+ /* remember the error and skip it*/
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: get "
+ "settings failed: %s. "
+ "Skipping\n",
+ slave_ifname, strerror(rv));
+ res = rv;
+ continue;
+ }
+ rv = enslave(master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ if (rv) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s', Slave '%s': Error: "
+ "Enslave failed\n",
+ master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ res = rv;
+ }
+ }
+ } while ((slave_ifname = *spp++) != NULL);
+ }
+
+out:
+ if (skfd >= 0) {
+ close(skfd);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static short mif_flags;
+
+/* Get the inteface configuration from the kernel. */
+static int if_getconfig(char *ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int metric, mtu; /* Parameters of the master interface. */
+ struct sockaddr dstaddr, broadaddr, netmask;
+ unsigned char *hwaddr;
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFFLAGS, &ifr) < 0)
+ return -1;
+ mif_flags = ifr.ifr_flags;
+ printf("The result of SIOCGIFFLAGS on %s is %x.\n",
+ ifname, ifr.ifr_flags);
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFADDR, &ifr) < 0)
+ return -1;
+ printf("The result of SIOCGIFADDR is %2.2x.%2.2x.%2.2x.%2.2x.\n",
+ ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data[0], ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data[1],
+ ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data[2], ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data[3]);
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFHWADDR, &ifr) < 0)
+ return -1;
+
+ /* Gotta convert from 'char' to unsigned for printf(). */
+ hwaddr = (unsigned char *)ifr.ifr_hwaddr.sa_data;
+ printf("The result of SIOCGIFHWADDR is type %d "
+ "%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x.\n",
+ ifr.ifr_hwaddr.sa_family, hwaddr[0], hwaddr[1],
+ hwaddr[2], hwaddr[3], hwaddr[4], hwaddr[5]);
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFMETRIC, &ifr) < 0) {
+ metric = 0;
+ } else
+ metric = ifr.ifr_metric;
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFMTU, &ifr) < 0)
+ mtu = 0;
+ else
+ mtu = ifr.ifr_mtu;
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFDSTADDR, &ifr) < 0) {
+ memset(&dstaddr, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
+ } else
+ dstaddr = ifr.ifr_dstaddr;
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFBRDADDR, &ifr) < 0) {
+ memset(&broadaddr, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
+ } else
+ broadaddr = ifr.ifr_broadaddr;
+
+ strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname);
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFNETMASK, &ifr) < 0) {
+ memset(&netmask, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
+ } else
+ netmask = ifr.ifr_netmask;
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static void if_print(char *ifname)
+{
+ char buff[1024];
+ struct ifconf ifc;
+ struct ifreq *ifr;
+ int i;
+
+ if (ifname == (char *)NULL) {
+ ifc.ifc_len = sizeof(buff);
+ ifc.ifc_buf = buff;
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFCONF, &ifc) < 0) {
+ perror("SIOCGIFCONF failed");
+ return;
+ }
+
+ ifr = ifc.ifc_req;
+ for (i = ifc.ifc_len / sizeof(struct ifreq); --i >= 0; ifr++) {
+ if (if_getconfig(ifr->ifr_name) < 0) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "%s: unknown interface.\n",
+ ifr->ifr_name);
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ if (((mif_flags & IFF_UP) == 0) && !opt_a) continue;
+ /*ife_print(&ife);*/
+ }
+ } else {
+ if (if_getconfig(ifname) < 0) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "%s: unknown interface.\n", ifname);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+static int get_drv_info(char *master_ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ struct ethtool_drvinfo info;
+ char *endptr;
+
+ memset(&ifr, 0, sizeof(ifr));
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ ifr.ifr_data = (caddr_t)&info;
+
+ info.cmd = ETHTOOL_GDRVINFO;
+ strncpy(info.driver, "ifenslave", 32);
+ snprintf(info.fw_version, 32, "%d", BOND_ABI_VERSION);
+
+ if (ioctl(skfd, SIOCETHTOOL, &ifr) < 0) {
+ if (errno == EOPNOTSUPP) {
+ goto out;
+ }
+
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: get bonding info failed %s\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ abi_ver = strtoul(info.fw_version, &endptr, 0);
+ if (*endptr) {
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: got invalid string as an ABI "
+ "version from the bonding module\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+out:
+ v_print("ABI ver is %d\n", abi_ver);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int change_active(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ if (!(slave_flags.ifr_flags & IFF_SLAVE)) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation: The specified slave interface "
+ "'%s' is not a slave\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_slave, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ if ((ioctl(skfd, SIOCBONDCHANGEACTIVE, &ifr) < 0) &&
+ (ioctl(skfd, BOND_CHANGE_ACTIVE_OLD, &ifr) < 0)) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: SIOCBONDCHANGEACTIVE failed: "
+ "%s\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ res = 1;
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int enslave(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ if (slave_flags.ifr_flags & IFF_SLAVE) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation: The specified slave interface "
+ "'%s' is already a slave\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ res = set_if_down(slave_ifname, slave_flags.ifr_flags);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: bring interface down failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return res;
+ }
+
+ if (abi_ver < 2) {
+ /* Older bonding versions would panic if the slave has no IP
+ * address, so get the IP setting from the master.
+ */
+ res = set_if_addr(master_ifname, slave_ifname);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: set address failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return res;
+ }
+ } else {
+ res = clear_if_addr(slave_ifname);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: clear address failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return res;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (master_mtu.ifr_mtu != slave_mtu.ifr_mtu) {
+ res = set_slave_mtu(slave_ifname, master_mtu.ifr_mtu);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: set MTU failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return res;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (hwaddr_set) {
+ /* Master already has an hwaddr
+ * so set it's hwaddr to the slave
+ */
+ if (abi_ver < 1) {
+ /* The driver is using an old ABI, so
+ * the application sets the slave's
+ * hwaddr
+ */
+ res = set_slave_hwaddr(slave_ifname,
+ &(master_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr));
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: set hw address "
+ "failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ goto undo_mtu;
+ }
+
+ /* For old ABI the application needs to bring the
+ * slave back up
+ */
+ res = set_if_up(slave_ifname, slave_flags.ifr_flags);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: bring interface "
+ "down failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ goto undo_slave_mac;
+ }
+ }
+ /* The driver is using a new ABI,
+ * so the driver takes care of setting
+ * the slave's hwaddr and bringing
+ * it up again
+ */
+ } else {
+ /* No hwaddr for master yet, so
+ * set the slave's hwaddr to it
+ */
+ if (abi_ver < 1) {
+ /* For old ABI, the master needs to be
+ * down before setting it's hwaddr
+ */
+ res = set_if_down(master_ifname, master_flags.ifr_flags);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s': Error: bring interface "
+ "down failed\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ goto undo_mtu;
+ }
+ }
+
+ res = set_master_hwaddr(master_ifname,
+ &(slave_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr));
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s': Error: set hw address "
+ "failed\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ goto undo_mtu;
+ }
+
+ if (abi_ver < 1) {
+ /* For old ABI, bring the master
+ * back up
+ */
+ res = set_if_up(master_ifname, master_flags.ifr_flags);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Master '%s': Error: bring interface "
+ "up failed\n",
+ master_ifname);
+ goto undo_master_mac;
+ }
+ }
+
+ hwaddr_set = 1;
+ }
+
+ /* Do the real thing */
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_slave, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ if ((ioctl(skfd, SIOCBONDENSLAVE, &ifr) < 0) &&
+ (ioctl(skfd, BOND_ENSLAVE_OLD, &ifr) < 0)) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: SIOCBONDENSLAVE failed: %s\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ res = 1;
+ }
+
+ if (res) {
+ goto undo_master_mac;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+
+/* rollback (best effort) */
+undo_master_mac:
+ set_master_hwaddr(master_ifname, &(master_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr));
+ hwaddr_set = 0;
+ goto undo_mtu;
+undo_slave_mac:
+ set_slave_hwaddr(slave_ifname, &(slave_hwaddr.ifr_hwaddr));
+undo_mtu:
+ set_slave_mtu(slave_ifname, slave_mtu.ifr_mtu);
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int release(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ if (!(slave_flags.ifr_flags & IFF_SLAVE)) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Illegal operation: The specified slave interface "
+ "'%s' is not a slave\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_slave, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ if ((ioctl(skfd, SIOCBONDRELEASE, &ifr) < 0) &&
+ (ioctl(skfd, BOND_RELEASE_OLD, &ifr) < 0)) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: SIOCBONDRELEASE failed: %s\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ return 1;
+ } else if (abi_ver < 1) {
+ /* The driver is using an old ABI, so we'll set the interface
+ * down to avoid any conflicts due to same MAC/IP
+ */
+ res = set_if_down(slave_ifname, slave_flags.ifr_flags);
+ if (res) {
+ fprintf(stderr,
+ "Slave '%s': Error: bring interface "
+ "down failed\n",
+ slave_ifname);
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* set to default mtu */
+ set_slave_mtu(slave_ifname, 1500);
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int get_if_settings(char *ifname, struct dev_ifr ifra[])
+{
+ int i;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ for (i = 0; ifra[i].req_ifr; i++) {
+ strncpy(ifra[i].req_ifr->ifr_name, ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ res = ioctl(skfd, ifra[i].req_type, ifra[i].req_ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Interface '%s': Error: %s failed: %s\n",
+ ifname, ifra[i].req_name,
+ strerror(saved_errno));
+
+ return saved_errno;
+ }
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int get_slave_flags(char *slave_ifname)
+{
+ int res = 0;
+
+ strncpy(slave_flags.ifr_name, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCGIFFLAGS, &slave_flags);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Slave '%s': Error: SIOCGIFFLAGS failed: %s\n",
+ slave_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ } else {
+ v_print("Slave %s: flags %04X.\n",
+ slave_ifname, slave_flags.ifr_flags);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_master_hwaddr(char *master_ifname, struct sockaddr *hwaddr)
+{
+ unsigned char *addr = (unsigned char *)hwaddr->sa_data;
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ memcpy(&(ifr.ifr_hwaddr), hwaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCSIFHWADDR, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Master '%s': Error: SIOCSIFHWADDR failed: %s\n",
+ master_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ return res;
+ } else {
+ v_print("Master '%s': hardware address set to "
+ "%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x.\n",
+ master_ifname, addr[0], addr[1], addr[2],
+ addr[3], addr[4], addr[5]);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_slave_hwaddr(char *slave_ifname, struct sockaddr *hwaddr)
+{
+ unsigned char *addr = (unsigned char *)hwaddr->sa_data;
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ memcpy(&(ifr.ifr_hwaddr), hwaddr, sizeof(struct sockaddr));
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCSIFHWADDR, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+
+ v_print("Slave '%s': Error: SIOCSIFHWADDR failed: %s\n",
+ slave_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+
+ if (saved_errno == EBUSY) {
+ v_print(" The device is busy: it must be idle "
+ "before running this command.\n");
+ } else if (saved_errno == EOPNOTSUPP) {
+ v_print(" The device does not support setting "
+ "the MAC address.\n"
+ " Your kernel likely does not support slave "
+ "devices.\n");
+ } else if (saved_errno == EINVAL) {
+ v_print(" The device's address type does not match "
+ "the master's address type.\n");
+ }
+ return res;
+ } else {
+ v_print("Slave '%s': hardware address set to "
+ "%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x:%2.2x.\n",
+ slave_ifname, addr[0], addr[1], addr[2],
+ addr[3], addr[4], addr[5]);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_slave_mtu(char *slave_ifname, int mtu)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ ifr.ifr_mtu = mtu;
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCSIFMTU, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Slave '%s': Error: SIOCSIFMTU failed: %s\n",
+ slave_ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ } else {
+ v_print("Slave '%s': MTU set to %d.\n", slave_ifname, mtu);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_if_flags(char *ifname, short flags)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ ifr.ifr_flags = flags;
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCSIFFLAGS, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Interface '%s': Error: SIOCSIFFLAGS failed: %s\n",
+ ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ } else {
+ v_print("Interface '%s': flags set to %04X.\n", ifname, flags);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_if_up(char *ifname, short flags)
+{
+ return set_if_flags(ifname, flags | IFF_UP);
+}
+
+static int set_if_down(char *ifname, short flags)
+{
+ return set_if_flags(ifname, flags & ~IFF_UP);
+}
+
+static int clear_if_addr(char *ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res = 0;
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ ifr.ifr_addr.sa_family = AF_INET;
+ memset(ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data, 0, sizeof(ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data));
+
+ res = ioctl(skfd, SIOCSIFADDR, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ saved_errno = errno;
+ v_print("Interface '%s': Error: SIOCSIFADDR failed: %s\n",
+ ifname, strerror(saved_errno));
+ } else {
+ v_print("Interface '%s': address cleared\n", ifname);
+ }
+
+ return res;
+}
+
+static int set_if_addr(char *master_ifname, char *slave_ifname)
+{
+ struct ifreq ifr;
+ int res;
+ unsigned char *ipaddr;
+ int i;
+ struct {
+ char *req_name;
+ char *desc;
+ int g_ioctl;
+ int s_ioctl;
+ } ifra[] = {
+ {"IFADDR", "addr", SIOCGIFADDR, SIOCSIFADDR},
+ {"DSTADDR", "destination addr", SIOCGIFDSTADDR, SIOCSIFDSTADDR},
+ {"BRDADDR", "broadcast addr", SIOCGIFBRDADDR, SIOCSIFBRDADDR},
+ {"NETMASK", "netmask", SIOCGIFNETMASK, SIOCSIFNETMASK},
+ {NULL, NULL, 0, 0},
+ };
+
+ for (i = 0; ifra[i].req_name; i++) {
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, master_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ res = ioctl(skfd, ifra[i].g_ioctl, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ int saved_errno = errno;
+
+ v_print("Interface '%s': Error: SIOCG%s failed: %s\n",
+ master_ifname, ifra[i].req_name,
+ strerror(saved_errno));
+
+ ifr.ifr_addr.sa_family = AF_INET;
+ memset(ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data, 0,
+ sizeof(ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data));
+ }
+
+ strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, slave_ifname, IFNAMSIZ);
+ res = ioctl(skfd, ifra[i].s_ioctl, &ifr);
+ if (res < 0) {
+ int saved_errno = errno;
+
+ v_print("Interface '%s': Error: SIOCS%s failed: %s\n",
+ slave_ifname, ifra[i].req_name,
+ strerror(saved_errno));
+
+ return res;
+ }
+
+ ipaddr = ifr.ifr_addr.sa_data;
+ v_print("Interface '%s': set IP %s to %d.%d.%d.%d\n",
+ slave_ifname, ifra[i].desc,
+ ipaddr[0], ipaddr[1], ipaddr[2], ipaddr[3]);
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Local variables:
+ * version-control: t
+ * kept-new-versions: 5
+ * c-indent-level: 4
+ * c-basic-offset: 4
+ * tab-width: 4
+ * compile-command: "gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O -I/usr/src/linux/include ifenslave.c -o ifenslave"
+ * End:
+ */
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt b/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a2c893a7475d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ip-sysctl.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,878 @@
+/proc/sys/net/ipv4/* Variables:
+
+ip_forward - BOOLEAN
+ 0 - disabled (default)
+ not 0 - enabled
+
+ Forward Packets between interfaces.
+
+ This variable is special, its change resets all configuration
+ parameters to their default state (RFC1122 for hosts, RFC1812
+ for routers)
+
+ip_default_ttl - INTEGER
+ default 64
+
+ip_no_pmtu_disc - BOOLEAN
+ Disable Path MTU Discovery.
+ default FALSE
+
+min_pmtu - INTEGER
+ default 562 - minimum discovered Path MTU
+
+mtu_expires - INTEGER
+ Time, in seconds, that cached PMTU information is kept.
+
+min_adv_mss - INTEGER
+ The advertised MSS depends on the first hop route MTU, but will
+ never be lower than this setting.
+
+IP Fragmentation:
+
+ipfrag_high_thresh - INTEGER
+ Maximum memory used to reassemble IP fragments. When
+ ipfrag_high_thresh bytes of memory is allocated for this purpose,
+ the fragment handler will toss packets until ipfrag_low_thresh
+ is reached.
+
+ipfrag_low_thresh - INTEGER
+ See ipfrag_high_thresh
+
+ipfrag_time - INTEGER
+ Time in seconds to keep an IP fragment in memory.
+
+ipfrag_secret_interval - INTEGER
+ Regeneration interval (in seconds) of the hash secret (or lifetime
+ for the hash secret) for IP fragments.
+ Default: 600
+
+INET peer storage:
+
+inet_peer_threshold - INTEGER
+ The approximate size of the storage. Starting from this threshold
+ entries will be thrown aggressively. This threshold also determines
+ entries' time-to-live and time intervals between garbage collection
+ passes. More entries, less time-to-live, less GC interval.
+
+inet_peer_minttl - INTEGER
+ Minimum time-to-live of entries. Should be enough to cover fragment
+ time-to-live on the reassembling side. This minimum time-to-live is
+ guaranteed if the pool size is less than inet_peer_threshold.
+ Measured in jiffies(1).
+
+inet_peer_maxttl - INTEGER
+ Maximum time-to-live of entries. Unused entries will expire after
+ this period of time if there is no memory pressure on the pool (i.e.
+ when the number of entries in the pool is very small).
+ Measured in jiffies(1).
+
+inet_peer_gc_mintime - INTEGER
+ Minimum interval between garbage collection passes. This interval is
+ in effect under high memory pressure on the pool.
+ Measured in jiffies(1).
+
+inet_peer_gc_maxtime - INTEGER
+ Minimum interval between garbage collection passes. This interval is
+ in effect under low (or absent) memory pressure on the pool.
+ Measured in jiffies(1).
+
+TCP variables:
+
+tcp_syn_retries - INTEGER
+ Number of times initial SYNs for an active TCP connection attempt
+ will be retransmitted. Should not be higher than 255. Default value
+ is 5, which corresponds to ~180seconds.
+
+tcp_synack_retries - INTEGER
+ Number of times SYNACKs for a passive TCP connection attempt will
+ be retransmitted. Should not be higher than 255. Default value
+ is 5, which corresponds to ~180seconds.
+
+tcp_keepalive_time - INTEGER
+ How often TCP sends out keepalive messages when keepalive is enabled.
+ Default: 2hours.
+
+tcp_keepalive_probes - INTEGER
+ How many keepalive probes TCP sends out, until it decides that the
+ connection is broken. Default value: 9.
+
+tcp_keepalive_intvl - INTEGER
+ How frequently the probes are send out. Multiplied by
+ tcp_keepalive_probes it is time to kill not responding connection,
+ after probes started. Default value: 75sec i.e. connection
+ will be aborted after ~11 minutes of retries.
+
+tcp_retries1 - INTEGER
+ How many times to retry before deciding that something is wrong
+ and it is necessary to report this suspicion to network layer.
+ Minimal RFC value is 3, it is default, which corresponds
+ to ~3sec-8min depending on RTO.
+
+tcp_retries2 - INTEGER
+ How may times to retry before killing alive TCP connection.
+ RFC1122 says that the limit should be longer than 100 sec.
+ It is too small number. Default value 15 corresponds to ~13-30min
+ depending on RTO.
+
+tcp_orphan_retries - INTEGER
+ How may times to retry before killing TCP connection, closed
+ by our side. Default value 7 corresponds to ~50sec-16min
+ depending on RTO. If you machine is loaded WEB server,
+ you should think about lowering this value, such sockets
+ may consume significant resources. Cf. tcp_max_orphans.
+
+tcp_fin_timeout - INTEGER
+ Time to hold socket in state FIN-WAIT-2, if it was closed
+ by our side. Peer can be broken and never close its side,
+ or even died unexpectedly. Default value is 60sec.
+ Usual value used in 2.2 was 180 seconds, you may restore
+ it, but remember that if your machine is even underloaded WEB server,
+ you risk to overflow memory with kilotons of dead sockets,
+ FIN-WAIT-2 sockets are less dangerous than FIN-WAIT-1,
+ because they eat maximum 1.5K of memory, but they tend
+ to live longer. Cf. tcp_max_orphans.
+
+tcp_max_tw_buckets - INTEGER
+ Maximal number of timewait sockets held by system simultaneously.
+ If this number is exceeded time-wait socket is immediately destroyed
+ and warning is printed. This limit exists only to prevent
+ simple DoS attacks, you _must_ not lower the limit artificially,
+ but rather increase it (probably, after increasing installed memory),
+ if network conditions require more than default value.
+
+tcp_tw_recycle - BOOLEAN
+ Enable fast recycling TIME-WAIT sockets. Default value is 0.
+ It should not be changed without advice/request of technical
+ experts.
+
+tcp_tw_reuse - BOOLEAN
+ Allow to reuse TIME-WAIT sockets for new connections when it is
+ safe from protocol viewpoint. Default value is 0.
+ It should not be changed without advice/request of technical
+ experts.
+
+tcp_max_orphans - INTEGER
+ Maximal number of TCP sockets not attached to any user file handle,
+ held by system. If this number is exceeded orphaned connections are
+ reset immediately and warning is printed. This limit exists
+ only to prevent simple DoS attacks, you _must_ not rely on this
+ or lower the limit artificially, but rather increase it
+ (probably, after increasing installed memory),
+ if network conditions require more than default value,
+ and tune network services to linger and kill such states
+ more aggressively. Let me to remind again: each orphan eats
+ up to ~64K of unswappable memory.
+
+tcp_abort_on_overflow - BOOLEAN
+ If listening service is too slow to accept new connections,
+ reset them. Default state is FALSE. It means that if overflow
+ occurred due to a burst, connection will recover. Enable this
+ option _only_ if you are really sure that listening daemon
+ cannot be tuned to accept connections faster. Enabling this
+ option can harm clients of your server.
+
+tcp_syncookies - BOOLEAN
+ Only valid when the kernel was compiled with CONFIG_SYNCOOKIES
+ Send out syncookies when the syn backlog queue of a socket
+ overflows. This is to prevent against the common 'syn flood attack'
+ Default: FALSE
+
+ Note, that syncookies is fallback facility.
+ It MUST NOT be used to help highly loaded servers to stand
+ against legal connection rate. If you see synflood warnings
+ in your logs, but investigation shows that they occur
+ because of overload with legal connections, you should tune
+ another parameters until this warning disappear.
+ See: tcp_max_syn_backlog, tcp_synack_retries, tcp_abort_on_overflow.
+
+ syncookies seriously violate TCP protocol, do not allow
+ to use TCP extensions, can result in serious degradation
+ of some services (f.e. SMTP relaying), visible not by you,
+ but your clients and relays, contacting you. While you see
+ synflood warnings in logs not being really flooded, your server
+ is seriously misconfigured.
+
+tcp_stdurg - BOOLEAN
+ Use the Host requirements interpretation of the TCP urg pointer field.
+ Most hosts use the older BSD interpretation, so if you turn this on
+ Linux might not communicate correctly with them.
+ Default: FALSE
+
+tcp_max_syn_backlog - INTEGER
+ Maximal number of remembered connection requests, which are
+ still did not receive an acknowledgment from connecting client.
+ Default value is 1024 for systems with more than 128Mb of memory,
+ and 128 for low memory machines. If server suffers of overload,
+ try to increase this number.
+
+tcp_window_scaling - BOOLEAN
+ Enable window scaling as defined in RFC1323.
+
+tcp_timestamps - BOOLEAN
+ Enable timestamps as defined in RFC1323.
+
+tcp_sack - BOOLEAN
+ Enable select acknowledgments (SACKS).
+
+tcp_fack - BOOLEAN
+ Enable FACK congestion avoidance and fast retransmission.
+ The value is not used, if tcp_sack is not enabled.
+
+tcp_dsack - BOOLEAN
+ Allows TCP to send "duplicate" SACKs.
+
+tcp_ecn - BOOLEAN
+ Enable Explicit Congestion Notification in TCP.
+
+tcp_reordering - INTEGER
+ Maximal reordering of packets in a TCP stream.
+ Default: 3
+
+tcp_retrans_collapse - BOOLEAN
+ Bug-to-bug compatibility with some broken printers.
+ On retransmit try to send bigger packets to work around bugs in
+ certain TCP stacks.
+
+tcp_wmem - vector of 3 INTEGERs: min, default, max
+ min: Amount of memory reserved for send buffers for TCP socket.
+ Each TCP socket has rights to use it due to fact of its birth.
+ Default: 4K
+
+ default: Amount of memory allowed for send buffers for TCP socket
+ by default. This value overrides net.core.wmem_default used
+ by other protocols, it is usually lower than net.core.wmem_default.
+ Default: 16K
+
+ max: Maximal amount of memory allowed for automatically selected
+ send buffers for TCP socket. This value does not override
+ net.core.wmem_max, "static" selection via SO_SNDBUF does not use this.
+ Default: 128K
+
+tcp_rmem - vector of 3 INTEGERs: min, default, max
+ min: Minimal size of receive buffer used by TCP sockets.
+ It is guaranteed to each TCP socket, even under moderate memory
+ pressure.
+ Default: 8K
+
+ default: default size of receive buffer used by TCP sockets.
+ This value overrides net.core.rmem_default used by other protocols.
+ Default: 87380 bytes. This value results in window of 65535 with
+ default setting of tcp_adv_win_scale and tcp_app_win:0 and a bit
+ less for default tcp_app_win. See below about these variables.
+
+ max: maximal size of receive buffer allowed for automatically
+ selected receiver buffers for TCP socket. This value does not override
+ net.core.rmem_max, "static" selection via SO_RCVBUF does not use this.
+ Default: 87380*2 bytes.
+
+tcp_mem - vector of 3 INTEGERs: min, pressure, max
+ low: below this number of pages TCP is not bothered about its
+ memory appetite.
+
+ pressure: when amount of memory allocated by TCP exceeds this number
+ of pages, TCP moderates its memory consumption and enters memory
+ pressure mode, which is exited when memory consumption falls
+ under "low".
+
+ high: number of pages allowed for queueing by all TCP sockets.
+
+ Defaults are calculated at boot time from amount of available
+ memory.
+
+tcp_app_win - INTEGER
+ Reserve max(window/2^tcp_app_win, mss) of window for application
+ buffer. Value 0 is special, it means that nothing is reserved.
+ Default: 31
+
+tcp_adv_win_scale - INTEGER
+ Count buffering overhead as bytes/2^tcp_adv_win_scale
+ (if tcp_adv_win_scale > 0) or bytes-bytes/2^(-tcp_adv_win_scale),
+ if it is <= 0.
+ Default: 2
+
+tcp_rfc1337 - BOOLEAN
+ If set, the TCP stack behaves conforming to RFC1337. If unset,
+ we are not conforming to RFC, but prevent TCP TIME_WAIT
+ assassination.
+ Default: 0
+
+tcp_low_latency - BOOLEAN
+ If set, the TCP stack makes decisions that prefer lower
+ latency as opposed to higher throughput. By default, this
+ option is not set meaning that higher throughput is preferred.
+ An example of an application where this default should be
+ changed would be a Beowulf compute cluster.
+ Default: 0
+
+tcp_westwood - BOOLEAN
+ Enable TCP Westwood+ congestion control algorithm.
+ TCP Westwood+ is a sender-side only modification of the TCP Reno
+ protocol stack that optimizes the performance of TCP congestion
+ control. It is based on end-to-end bandwidth estimation to set
+ congestion window and slow start threshold after a congestion
+ episode. Using this estimation, TCP Westwood+ adaptively sets a
+ slow start threshold and a congestion window which takes into
+ account the bandwidth used at the time congestion is experienced.
+ TCP Westwood+ significantly increases fairness wrt TCP Reno in
+ wired networks and throughput over wireless links.
+ Default: 0
+
+tcp_vegas_cong_avoid - BOOLEAN
+ Enable TCP Vegas congestion avoidance algorithm.
+ TCP Vegas is a sender-side only change to TCP that anticipates
+ the onset of congestion by estimating the bandwidth. TCP Vegas
+ adjusts the sending rate by modifying the congestion
+ window. TCP Vegas should provide less packet loss, but it is
+ not as aggressive as TCP Reno.
+ Default:0
+
+tcp_bic - BOOLEAN
+ Enable BIC TCP congestion control algorithm.
+ BIC-TCP is a sender-side only change that ensures a linear RTT
+ fairness under large windows while offering both scalability and
+ bounded TCP-friendliness. The protocol combines two schemes
+ called additive increase and binary search increase. When the
+ congestion window is large, additive increase with a large
+ increment ensures linear RTT fairness as well as good
+ scalability. Under small congestion windows, binary search
+ increase provides TCP friendliness.
+ Default: 0
+
+tcp_bic_low_window - INTEGER
+ Sets the threshold window (in packets) where BIC TCP starts to
+ adjust the congestion window. Below this threshold BIC TCP behaves
+ the same as the default TCP Reno.
+ Default: 14
+
+tcp_bic_fast_convergence - BOOLEAN
+ Forces BIC TCP to more quickly respond to changes in congestion
+ window. Allows two flows sharing the same connection to converge
+ more rapidly.
+ Default: 1
+
+tcp_default_win_scale - INTEGER
+ Sets the minimum window scale TCP will negotiate for on all
+ conections.
+ Default: 7
+
+tcp_tso_win_divisor - INTEGER
+ This allows control over what percentage of the congestion window
+ can be consumed by a single TSO frame.
+ The setting of this parameter is a choice between burstiness and
+ building larger TSO frames.
+ Default: 8
+
+tcp_frto - BOOLEAN
+ Enables F-RTO, an enhanced recovery algorithm for TCP retransmission
+ timeouts. It is particularly beneficial in wireless environments
+ where packet loss is typically due to random radio interference
+ rather than intermediate router congestion.
+
+somaxconn - INTEGER
+ Limit of socket listen() backlog, known in userspace as SOMAXCONN.
+ Defaults to 128. See also tcp_max_syn_backlog for additional tuning
+ for TCP sockets.
+
+IP Variables:
+
+ip_local_port_range - 2 INTEGERS
+ Defines the local port range that is used by TCP and UDP to
+ choose the local port. The first number is the first, the
+ second the last local port number. Default value depends on
+ amount of memory available on the system:
+ > 128Mb 32768-61000
+ < 128Mb 1024-4999 or even less.
+ This number defines number of active connections, which this
+ system can issue simultaneously to systems not supporting
+ TCP extensions (timestamps). With tcp_tw_recycle enabled
+ (i.e. by default) range 1024-4999 is enough to issue up to
+ 2000 connections per second to systems supporting timestamps.
+
+ip_nonlocal_bind - BOOLEAN
+ If set, allows processes to bind() to non-local IP addresses,
+ which can be quite useful - but may break some applications.
+ Default: 0
+
+ip_dynaddr - BOOLEAN
+ If set non-zero, enables support for dynamic addresses.
+ If set to a non-zero value larger than 1, a kernel log
+ message will be printed when dynamic address rewriting
+ occurs.
+ Default: 0
+
+icmp_echo_ignore_all - BOOLEAN
+icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts - BOOLEAN
+ If either is set to true, then the kernel will ignore either all
+ ICMP ECHO requests sent to it or just those to broadcast/multicast
+ addresses, respectively.
+
+icmp_ratelimit - INTEGER
+ Limit the maximal rates for sending ICMP packets whose type matches
+ icmp_ratemask (see below) to specific targets.
+ 0 to disable any limiting, otherwise the maximal rate in jiffies(1)
+ Default: 100
+
+icmp_ratemask - INTEGER
+ Mask made of ICMP types for which rates are being limited.
+ Significant bits: IHGFEDCBA9876543210
+ Default mask: 0000001100000011000 (6168)
+
+ Bit definitions (see include/linux/icmp.h):
+ 0 Echo Reply
+ 3 Destination Unreachable *
+ 4 Source Quench *
+ 5 Redirect
+ 8 Echo Request
+ B Time Exceeded *
+ C Parameter Problem *
+ D Timestamp Request
+ E Timestamp Reply
+ F Info Request
+ G Info Reply
+ H Address Mask Request
+ I Address Mask Reply
+
+ * These are rate limited by default (see default mask above)
+
+icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses - BOOLEAN
+ Some routers violate RFC1122 by sending bogus responses to broadcast
+ frames. Such violations are normally logged via a kernel warning.
+ If this is set to TRUE, the kernel will not give such warnings, which
+ will avoid log file clutter.
+ Default: FALSE
+
+igmp_max_memberships - INTEGER
+ Change the maximum number of multicast groups we can subscribe to.
+ Default: 20
+
+conf/interface/* changes special settings per interface (where "interface" is
+ the name of your network interface)
+conf/all/* is special, changes the settings for all interfaces
+
+
+log_martians - BOOLEAN
+ Log packets with impossible addresses to kernel log.
+ log_martians for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/log_martians is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+
+accept_redirects - BOOLEAN
+ Accept ICMP redirect messages.
+ accept_redirects for the interface will be enabled if:
+ - both conf/{all,interface}/accept_redirects are TRUE in the case forwarding
+ for the interface is enabled
+ or
+ - at least one of conf/{all,interface}/accept_redirects is TRUE in the case
+ forwarding for the interface is disabled
+ accept_redirects for the interface will be disabled otherwise
+ default TRUE (host)
+ FALSE (router)
+
+forwarding - BOOLEAN
+ Enable IP forwarding on this interface.
+
+mc_forwarding - BOOLEAN
+ Do multicast routing. The kernel needs to be compiled with CONFIG_MROUTE
+ and a multicast routing daemon is required.
+ conf/all/mc_forwarding must also be set to TRUE to enable multicast routing
+ for the interface
+
+medium_id - INTEGER
+ Integer value used to differentiate the devices by the medium they
+ are attached to. Two devices can have different id values when
+ the broadcast packets are received only on one of them.
+ The default value 0 means that the device is the only interface
+ to its medium, value of -1 means that medium is not known.
+
+ Currently, it is used to change the proxy_arp behavior:
+ the proxy_arp feature is enabled for packets forwarded between
+ two devices attached to different media.
+
+proxy_arp - BOOLEAN
+ Do proxy arp.
+ proxy_arp for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/proxy_arp is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+
+shared_media - BOOLEAN
+ Send(router) or accept(host) RFC1620 shared media redirects.
+ Overrides ip_secure_redirects.
+ shared_media for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/shared_media is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+ default TRUE
+
+secure_redirects - BOOLEAN
+ Accept ICMP redirect messages only for gateways,
+ listed in default gateway list.
+ secure_redirects for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/secure_redirects is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+ default TRUE
+
+send_redirects - BOOLEAN
+ Send redirects, if router.
+ send_redirects for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/send_redirects is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+ Default: TRUE
+
+bootp_relay - BOOLEAN
+ Accept packets with source address 0.b.c.d destined
+ not to this host as local ones. It is supposed, that
+ BOOTP relay daemon will catch and forward such packets.
+ conf/all/bootp_relay must also be set to TRUE to enable BOOTP relay
+ for the interface
+ default FALSE
+ Not Implemented Yet.
+
+accept_source_route - BOOLEAN
+ Accept packets with SRR option.
+ conf/all/accept_source_route must also be set to TRUE to accept packets
+ with SRR option on the interface
+ default TRUE (router)
+ FALSE (host)
+
+rp_filter - BOOLEAN
+ 1 - do source validation by reversed path, as specified in RFC1812
+ Recommended option for single homed hosts and stub network
+ routers. Could cause troubles for complicated (not loop free)
+ networks running a slow unreliable protocol (sort of RIP),
+ or using static routes.
+
+ 0 - No source validation.
+
+ conf/all/rp_filter must also be set to TRUE to do source validation
+ on the interface
+
+ Default value is 0. Note that some distributions enable it
+ in startup scripts.
+
+arp_filter - BOOLEAN
+ 1 - Allows you to have multiple network interfaces on the same
+ subnet, and have the ARPs for each interface be answered
+ based on whether or not the kernel would route a packet from
+ the ARP'd IP out that interface (therefore you must use source
+ based routing for this to work). In other words it allows control
+ of which cards (usually 1) will respond to an arp request.
+
+ 0 - (default) The kernel can respond to arp requests with addresses
+ from other interfaces. This may seem wrong but it usually makes
+ sense, because it increases the chance of successful communication.
+ IP addresses are owned by the complete host on Linux, not by
+ particular interfaces. Only for more complex setups like load-
+ balancing, does this behaviour cause problems.
+
+ arp_filter for the interface will be enabled if at least one of
+ conf/{all,interface}/arp_filter is set to TRUE,
+ it will be disabled otherwise
+
+arp_announce - INTEGER
+ Define different restriction levels for announcing the local
+ source IP address from IP packets in ARP requests sent on
+ interface:
+ 0 - (default) Use any local address, configured on any interface
+ 1 - Try to avoid local addresses that are not in the target's
+ subnet for this interface. This mode is useful when target
+ hosts reachable via this interface require the source IP
+ address in ARP requests to be part of their logical network
+ configured on the receiving interface. When we generate the
+ request we will check all our subnets that include the
+ target IP and will preserve the source address if it is from
+ such subnet. If there is no such subnet we select source
+ address according to the rules for level 2.
+ 2 - Always use the best local address for this target.
+ In this mode we ignore the source address in the IP packet
+ and try to select local address that we prefer for talks with
+ the target host. Such local address is selected by looking
+ for primary IP addresses on all our subnets on the outgoing
+ interface that include the target IP address. If no suitable
+ local address is found we select the first local address
+ we have on the outgoing interface or on all other interfaces,
+ with the hope we will receive reply for our request and
+ even sometimes no matter the source IP address we announce.
+
+ The max value from conf/{all,interface}/arp_announce is used.
+
+ Increasing the restriction level gives more chance for
+ receiving answer from the resolved target while decreasing
+ the level announces more valid sender's information.
+
+arp_ignore - INTEGER
+ Define different modes for sending replies in response to
+ received ARP requests that resolve local target IP addresses:
+ 0 - (default): reply for any local target IP address, configured
+ on any interface
+ 1 - reply only if the target IP address is local address
+ configured on the incoming interface
+ 2 - reply only if the target IP address is local address
+ configured on the incoming interface and both with the
+ sender's IP address are part from same subnet on this interface
+ 3 - do not reply for local addresses configured with scope host,
+ only resolutions for global and link addresses are replied
+ 4-7 - reserved
+ 8 - do not reply for all local addresses
+
+ The max value from conf/{all,interface}/arp_ignore is used
+ when ARP request is received on the {interface}
+
+app_solicit - INTEGER
+ The maximum number of probes to send to the user space ARP daemon
+ via netlink before dropping back to multicast probes (see
+ mcast_solicit). Defaults to 0.
+
+disable_policy - BOOLEAN
+ Disable IPSEC policy (SPD) for this interface
+
+disable_xfrm - BOOLEAN
+ Disable IPSEC encryption on this interface, whatever the policy
+
+
+
+tag - INTEGER
+ Allows you to write a number, which can be used as required.
+ Default value is 0.
+
+(1) Jiffie: internal timeunit for the kernel. On the i386 1/100s, on the
+Alpha 1/1024s. See the HZ define in /usr/include/asm/param.h for the exact
+value on your system.
+
+Alexey Kuznetsov.
+kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru
+
+Updated by:
+Andi Kleen
+ak@muc.de
+Nicolas Delon
+delon.nicolas@wanadoo.fr
+
+
+
+
+/proc/sys/net/ipv6/* Variables:
+
+IPv6 has no global variables such as tcp_*. tcp_* settings under ipv4/ also
+apply to IPv6 [XXX?].
+
+bindv6only - BOOLEAN
+ Default value for IPV6_V6ONLY socket option,
+ which restricts use of the IPv6 socket to IPv6 communication
+ only.
+ TRUE: disable IPv4-mapped address feature
+ FALSE: enable IPv4-mapped address feature
+
+ Default: FALSE (as specified in RFC2553bis)
+
+IPv6 Fragmentation:
+
+ip6frag_high_thresh - INTEGER
+ Maximum memory used to reassemble IPv6 fragments. When
+ ip6frag_high_thresh bytes of memory is allocated for this purpose,
+ the fragment handler will toss packets until ip6frag_low_thresh
+ is reached.
+
+ip6frag_low_thresh - INTEGER
+ See ip6frag_high_thresh
+
+ip6frag_time - INTEGER
+ Time in seconds to keep an IPv6 fragment in memory.
+
+ip6frag_secret_interval - INTEGER
+ Regeneration interval (in seconds) of the hash secret (or lifetime
+ for the hash secret) for IPv6 fragments.
+ Default: 600
+
+conf/default/*:
+ Change the interface-specific default settings.
+
+
+conf/all/*:
+ Change all the interface-specific settings.
+
+ [XXX: Other special features than forwarding?]
+
+conf/all/forwarding - BOOLEAN
+ Enable global IPv6 forwarding between all interfaces.
+
+ IPv4 and IPv6 work differently here; e.g. netfilter must be used
+ to control which interfaces may forward packets and which not.
+
+ This also sets all interfaces' Host/Router setting
+ 'forwarding' to the specified value. See below for details.
+
+ This referred to as global forwarding.
+
+conf/interface/*:
+ Change special settings per interface.
+
+ The functional behaviour for certain settings is different
+ depending on whether local forwarding is enabled or not.
+
+accept_ra - BOOLEAN
+ Accept Router Advertisements; autoconfigure using them.
+
+ Functional default: enabled if local forwarding is disabled.
+ disabled if local forwarding is enabled.
+
+accept_redirects - BOOLEAN
+ Accept Redirects.
+
+ Functional default: enabled if local forwarding is disabled.
+ disabled if local forwarding is enabled.
+
+autoconf - BOOLEAN
+ Autoconfigure addresses using Prefix Information in Router
+ Advertisements.
+
+ Functional default: enabled if accept_ra is enabled.
+ disabled if accept_ra is disabled.
+
+dad_transmits - INTEGER
+ The amount of Duplicate Address Detection probes to send.
+ Default: 1
+
+forwarding - BOOLEAN
+ Configure interface-specific Host/Router behaviour.
+
+ Note: It is recommended to have the same setting on all
+ interfaces; mixed router/host scenarios are rather uncommon.
+
+ FALSE:
+
+ By default, Host behaviour is assumed. This means:
+
+ 1. IsRouter flag is not set in Neighbour Advertisements.
+ 2. Router Solicitations are being sent when necessary.
+ 3. If accept_ra is TRUE (default), accept Router
+ Advertisements (and do autoconfiguration).
+ 4. If accept_redirects is TRUE (default), accept Redirects.
+
+ TRUE:
+
+ If local forwarding is enabled, Router behaviour is assumed.
+ This means exactly the reverse from the above:
+
+ 1. IsRouter flag is set in Neighbour Advertisements.
+ 2. Router Solicitations are not sent.
+ 3. Router Advertisements are ignored.
+ 4. Redirects are ignored.
+
+ Default: FALSE if global forwarding is disabled (default),
+ otherwise TRUE.
+
+hop_limit - INTEGER
+ Default Hop Limit to set.
+ Default: 64
+
+mtu - INTEGER
+ Default Maximum Transfer Unit
+ Default: 1280 (IPv6 required minimum)
+
+router_solicitation_delay - INTEGER
+ Number of seconds to wait after interface is brought up
+ before sending Router Solicitations.
+ Default: 1
+
+router_solicitation_interval - INTEGER
+ Number of seconds to wait between Router Solicitations.
+ Default: 4
+
+router_solicitations - INTEGER
+ Number of Router Solicitations to send until assuming no
+ routers are present.
+ Default: 3
+
+use_tempaddr - INTEGER
+ Preference for Privacy Extensions (RFC3041).
+ <= 0 : disable Privacy Extensions
+ == 1 : enable Privacy Extensions, but prefer public
+ addresses over temporary addresses.
+ > 1 : enable Privacy Extensions and prefer temporary
+ addresses over public addresses.
+ Default: 0 (for most devices)
+ -1 (for point-to-point devices and loopback devices)
+
+temp_valid_lft - INTEGER
+ valid lifetime (in seconds) for temporary addresses.
+ Default: 604800 (7 days)
+
+temp_prefered_lft - INTEGER
+ Preferred lifetime (in seconds) for temporary addresses.
+ Default: 86400 (1 day)
+
+max_desync_factor - INTEGER
+ Maximum value for DESYNC_FACTOR, which is a random value
+ that ensures that clients don't synchronize with each
+ other and generate new addresses at exactly the same time.
+ value is in seconds.
+ Default: 600
+
+regen_max_retry - INTEGER
+ Number of attempts before give up attempting to generate
+ valid temporary addresses.
+ Default: 5
+
+max_addresses - INTEGER
+ Number of maximum addresses per interface. 0 disables limitation.
+ It is recommended not set too large value (or 0) because it would
+ be too easy way to crash kernel to allow to create too much of
+ autoconfigured addresses.
+ Default: 16
+
+icmp/*:
+ratelimit - INTEGER
+ Limit the maximal rates for sending ICMPv6 packets.
+ 0 to disable any limiting, otherwise the maximal rate in jiffies(1)
+ Default: 100
+
+
+IPv6 Update by:
+Pekka Savola <pekkas@netcore.fi>
+YOSHIFUJI Hideaki / USAGI Project <yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org>
+
+
+/proc/sys/net/bridge/* Variables:
+
+bridge-nf-call-arptables - BOOLEAN
+ 1 : pass bridged ARP traffic to arptables' FORWARD chain.
+ 0 : disable this.
+ Default: 1
+
+bridge-nf-call-iptables - BOOLEAN
+ 1 : pass bridged IPv4 traffic to iptables' chains.
+ 0 : disable this.
+ Default: 1
+
+bridge-nf-call-ip6tables - BOOLEAN
+ 1 : pass bridged IPv6 traffic to ip6tables' chains.
+ 0 : disable this.
+ Default: 1
+
+bridge-nf-filter-vlan-tagged - BOOLEAN
+ 1 : pass bridged vlan-tagged ARP/IP traffic to arptables/iptables.
+ 0 : disable this.
+ Default: 1
+
+
+UNDOCUMENTED:
+
+dev_weight FIXME
+discovery_slots FIXME
+discovery_timeout FIXME
+fast_poll_increase FIXME
+ip6_queue_maxlen FIXME
+lap_keepalive_time FIXME
+lo_cong FIXME
+max_baud_rate FIXME
+max_dgram_qlen FIXME
+max_noreply_time FIXME
+max_tx_data_size FIXME
+max_tx_window FIXME
+min_tx_turn_time FIXME
+mod_cong FIXME
+no_cong FIXME
+no_cong_thresh FIXME
+slot_timeout FIXME
+warn_noreply_time FIXME
+
+$Id: ip-sysctl.txt,v 1.20 2001/12/13 09:00:18 davem Exp $
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ip_dynaddr.txt b/Documentation/networking/ip_dynaddr.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..45f3c1268e86
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ip_dynaddr.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+IP dynamic address hack-port v0.03
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+This stuff allows diald ONESHOT connections to get established by
+dynamically changing packet source address (and socket's if local procs).
+It is implemented for TCP diald-box connections(1) and IP_MASQuerading(2).
+
+If enabled[*] and forwarding interface has changed:
+ 1) Socket (and packet) source address is rewritten ON RETRANSMISSIONS
+ while in SYN_SENT state (diald-box processes).
+ 2) Out-bounded MASQueraded source address changes ON OUTPUT (when
+ internal host does retransmission) until a packet from outside is
+ received by the tunnel.
+
+This is specially helpful for auto dialup links (diald), where the
+``actual'' outgoing address is unknown at the moment the link is
+going up. So, the *same* (local AND masqueraded) connections requests that
+bring the link up will be able to get established.
+
+[*] At boot, by default no address rewriting is attempted.
+ To enable:
+ # echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr
+ To enable verbose mode:
+ # echo 2 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr
+ To disable (default)
+ # echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr
+
+Enjoy!
+
+-- Juanjo <jjciarla@raiz.uncu.edu.ar>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ipddp.txt b/Documentation/networking/ipddp.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..661a5558dd8e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ipddp.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,78 @@
+Text file for ipddp.c:
+ AppleTalk-IP Decapsulation and AppleTalk-IP Encapsulation
+
+This text file is written by Jay Schulist <jschlst@samba.org>
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+AppleTalk-IP (IPDDP) is the method computers connected to AppleTalk
+networks can use to communicate via IP. AppleTalk-IP is simply IP datagrams
+inside AppleTalk packets.
+
+Through this driver you can either allow your Linux box to communicate
+IP over an AppleTalk network or you can provide IP gatewaying functions
+for your AppleTalk users.
+
+You can currently encapsulate or decapsulate AppleTalk-IP on LocalTalk,
+EtherTalk and PPPTalk. The only limit on the protocol is that of what
+kernel AppleTalk layer and drivers are available.
+
+Each mode requires its own user space software.
+
+Compiling AppleTalk-IP Decapsulation/Encapsulation
+=================================================
+
+AppleTalk-IP decapsulation needs to be compiled into your kernel. You
+will need to turn on AppleTalk-IP driver support. Then you will need to
+select ONE of the two options; IP to AppleTalk-IP encapsulation support or
+AppleTalk-IP to IP decapsulation support. If you compile the driver
+statically you will only be able to use the driver for the function you have
+enabled in the kernel. If you compile the driver as a module you can
+select what mode you want it to run in via a module loading param.
+ipddp_mode=1 for AppleTalk-IP encapsulation and ipddp_mode=2 for
+AppleTalk-IP to IP decapsulation.
+
+Basic instructions for user space tools
+=======================================
+
+To enable AppleTalk-IP decapsulation/encapsulation you will need the
+proper tools. You can get the tools for decapsulation from
+http://spacs1.spacs.k12.wi.us/~jschlst/index.html and for encapsulation
+from http://www.maths.unm.edu/~bradford/ltpc.html
+
+I will briefly describe the operation of the tools, but you will
+need to consult the supporting documentation for each set of tools.
+
+Decapsulation - You will need to download a software package called
+MacGate. In this distribution there will be a tool called MacRoute
+which enables you to add routes to the kernel for your Macs by hand.
+Also the tool MacRegGateWay is included to register the
+proper IP Gateway and IP addresses for your machine. Included in this
+distribution is a patch to netatalk-1.4b2+asun2.0a17.2 (available from
+ftp.u.washington.edu/pub/user-supported/asun/) this patch is optional
+but it allows automatic adding and deleting of routes for Macs. (Handy
+for locations with large Mac installations)
+
+Encapsulation - You will need to download a software daemon called ipddpd.
+This software expects there to be an AppleTalk-IP gateway on the network.
+You will also need to add the proper routes to route your Linux box's IP
+traffic out the ipddp interface.
+
+Common Uses of ipddp.c
+----------------------
+Of course AppleTalk-IP decapsulation and encapsulation, but specifically
+decapsulation is being used most for connecting LocalTalk networks to
+IP networks. Although it has been used on EtherTalk networks to allow
+Macs that are only able to tunnel IP over EtherTalk.
+
+Encapsulation has been used to allow a Linux box stuck on a LocalTalk
+network to use IP. It should work equally well if you are stuck on an
+EtherTalk only network.
+
+Further Assistance
+-------------------
+You can contact me (Jay Schulist <jschlst@samba.org>) with any
+questions regarding decapsulation or encapsulation. Bradford W. Johnson
+<johns393@maroon.tc.umn.edu> originally wrote the ipddp.c driver for IP
+encapsulation in AppleTalk.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/iphase.txt b/Documentation/networking/iphase.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..39ccb8595bf1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/iphase.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,158 @@
+
+ READ ME FISRT
+ ATM (i)Chip IA Linux Driver Source
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ Read This Before You Begin!
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Description
+-----------
+
+This is the README file for the Interphase PCI ATM (i)Chip IA Linux driver
+source release.
+
+The features and limitations of this driver are as follows:
+ - A single VPI (VPI value of 0) is supported.
+ - Supports 4K VCs for the server board (with 512K control memory) and 1K
+ VCs for the client board (with 128K control memory).
+ - UBR, ABR and CBR service categories are supported.
+ - Only AAL5 is supported.
+ - Supports setting of PCR on the VCs.
+ - Multiple adapters in a system are supported.
+ - All variants of Interphase ATM PCI (i)Chip adapter cards are supported,
+ including x575 (OC3, control memory 128K , 512K and packet memory 128K,
+ 512K and 1M), x525 (UTP25) and x531 (DS3 and E3). See
+ http://www.iphase.com/products/ClassSheet.cfm?ClassID=ATM
+ for details.
+ - Only x86 platforms are supported.
+ - SMP is supported.
+
+
+Before You Start
+----------------
+
+
+Installation
+------------
+
+1. Installing the adapters in the system
+ To install the ATM adapters in the system, follow the steps below.
+ a. Login as root.
+ b. Shut down the system and power off the system.
+ c. Install one or more ATM adapters in the system.
+ d. Connect each adapter to a port on an ATM switch. The green 'Link'
+ LED on the front panel of the adapter will be on if the adapter is
+ connected to the switch properly when the system is powered up.
+ e. Power on and boot the system.
+
+2. [ Removed ]
+
+3. Rebuild kernel with ABR support
+ [ a. and b. removed ]
+ c. Reconfigure the kernel, choose the Interphase ia driver through "make
+ menuconfig" or "make xconfig".
+ d. Rebuild the kernel, loadable modules and the atm tools.
+ e. Install the new built kernel and modules and reboot.
+
+4. Load the adapter hardware driver (ia driver) if it is built as a module
+ a. Login as root.
+ b. Change directory to /lib/modules/<kernel-version>/atm.
+ c. Run "insmod suni.o;insmod iphase.o"
+ The yellow 'status' LED on the front panel of the adapter will blink
+ while the driver is loaded in the system.
+ d. To verify that the 'ia' driver is loaded successfully, run the
+ following command:
+
+ cat /proc/atm/devices
+
+ If the driver is loaded successfully, the output of the command will
+ be similar to the following lines:
+
+ Itf Type ESI/"MAC"addr AAL(TX,err,RX,err,drop) ...
+ 0 ia xxxxxxxxx 0 ( 0 0 0 0 0 ) 5 ( 0 0 0 0 0 )
+
+ You can also check the system log file /var/log/messages for messages
+ related to the ATM driver.
+
+5. Ia Driver Configuration
+
+5.1 Configuration of adapter buffers
+ The (i)Chip boards have 3 different packet RAM size variants: 128K, 512K and
+ 1M. The RAM size decides the number of buffers and buffer size. The default
+ size and number of buffers are set as following:
+
+ Totol Rx RAM Tx RAM Rx Buf Tx Buf Rx buf Tx buf
+ RAM size size size size size cnt cnt
+ -------- ------ ------ ------ ------ ------ ------
+ 128K 64K 64K 10K 10K 6 6
+ 512K 256K 256K 10K 10K 25 25
+ 1M 512K 512K 10K 10K 51 51
+
+ These setting should work well in most environments, but can be
+ changed by typing the following command:
+
+ insmod <IA_DIR>/ia.o IA_RX_BUF=<RX_CNT> IA_RX_BUF_SZ=<RX_SIZE> \
+ IA_TX_BUF=<TX_CNT> IA_TX_BUF_SZ=<TX_SIZE>
+ Where:
+ RX_CNT = number of receive buffers in the range (1-128)
+ RX_SIZE = size of receive buffers in the range (48-64K)
+ TX_CNT = number of transmit buffers in the range (1-128)
+ TX_SIZE = size of transmit buffers in the range (48-64K)
+
+ 1. Transmit and receive buffer size must be a multiple of 4.
+ 2. Care should be taken so that the memory required for the
+ transmit and receive buffers is less than or equal to the
+ total adapter packet memory.
+
+5.2 Turn on ia debug trace
+
+ When the ia driver is built with the CONFIG_ATM_IA_DEBUG flag, the driver
+ can provide more debug trace if needed. There is a bit mask variable,
+ IADebugFlag, which controls the output of the traces. You can find the bit
+ map of the IADebugFlag in iphase.h.
+ The debug trace can be turn on through the insmod command line option, for
+ example, "insmod iphase.o IADebugFlag=0xffffffff" can turn on all the debug
+ traces together with loading the driver.
+
+6. Ia Driver Test Using ttcp_atm and PVC
+
+ For the PVC setup, the test machines can either be connected back-to-back or
+ through a switch. If connected through the switch, the switch must be
+ configured for the PVC(s).
+
+ a. For UBR test:
+ At the test machine intended to receive data, type:
+ ttcp_atm -r -a -s 0.100
+ At the other test machine, type:
+ ttcp_atm -t -a -s 0.100 -n 10000
+ Run "ttcp_atm -h" to display more options of the ttcp_atm tool.
+ b. For ABR test:
+ It is the same as the UBR testing, but with an extra command option:
+ -Pabr:max_pcr=<xxx>
+ where:
+ xxx = the maximum peak cell rate, from 170 - 353207.
+ This option must be set on both the machines.
+ c. For CBR test:
+ It is the same as the UBR testing, but with an extra command option:
+ -Pcbr:max_pcr=<xxx>
+ where:
+ xxx = the maximum peak cell rate, from 170 - 353207.
+ This option may only be set on the transmit machine.
+
+
+OUTSTANDING ISSUES
+------------------
+
+
+
+Contact Information
+-------------------
+
+ Customer Support:
+ United States: Telephone: (214) 654-5555
+ Fax: (214) 654-5500
+ E-Mail: intouch@iphase.com
+ Europe: Telephone: 33 (0)1 41 15 44 00
+ Fax: 33 (0)1 41 15 12 13
+ World Wide Web: http://www.iphase.com
+ Anonymous FTP: ftp.iphase.com
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/irda.txt b/Documentation/networking/irda.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9e5b8e66d6a5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/irda.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+To use the IrDA protocols within Linux you will need to get a suitable copy
+of the IrDA Utilities. More detailed information about these and associated
+programs can be found on http://irda.sourceforge.net/
+
+For more information about how to use the IrDA protocol stack, see the
+Linux Infared HOWTO (http://www.tuxmobil.org/Infrared-HOWTO/Infrared-HOWTO.html)
+by Werner Heuser <wehe@tuxmobil.org>
+
+There is an active mailing list for discussing Linux-IrDA matters called
+ irda-users@lists.sourceforge.net
+
+
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt b/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7c98277777eb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ixgb.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,212 @@
+Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/10GbE Family of Adapters
+================================================================
+
+November 17, 2004
+
+
+Contents
+========
+
+- In This Release
+- Identifying Your Adapter
+- Command Line Parameters
+- Improving Performance
+- Support
+
+
+In This Release
+===============
+
+This file describes the Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/10GbE Family
+of Adapters, version 1.0.x.
+
+For questions related to hardware requirements, refer to the documentation
+supplied with your Intel PRO/10GbE adapter. All hardware requirements listed
+apply to use with Linux.
+
+Identifying Your Adapter
+========================
+
+To verify your Intel adapter is supported, find the board ID number on the
+adapter. Look for a label that has a barcode and a number in the format
+A12345-001.
+
+Use the above information and the Adapter & Driver ID Guide at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com/support/network/adapter/pro100/21397.htm
+
+For the latest Intel network drivers for Linux, go to:
+
+ http://downloadfinder.intel.com/scripts-df/support_intel.asp
+
+Command Line Parameters
+=======================
+
+If the driver is built as a module, the following optional parameters are
+used by entering them on the command line with the modprobe or insmod command
+using this syntax:
+
+ modprobe ixgb [<option>=<VAL1>,<VAL2>,...]
+
+ insmod ixgb [<option>=<VAL1>,<VAL2>,...]
+
+For example, with two PRO/10GbE PCI adapters, entering:
+
+ insmod ixgb TxDescriptors=80,128
+
+loads the ixgb driver with 80 TX resources for the first adapter and 128 TX
+resources for the second adapter.
+
+The default value for each parameter is generally the recommended setting,
+unless otherwise noted. Also, if the driver is statically built into the
+kernel, the driver is loaded with the default values for all the parameters.
+Ethtool can be used to change some of the parameters at runtime.
+
+FlowControl
+Valid Range: 0-3 (0=none, 1=Rx only, 2=Tx only, 3=Rx&Tx)
+Default: Read from the EEPROM
+ If EEPROM is not detected, default is 3
+ This parameter controls the automatic generation(Tx) and response(Rx) to
+ Ethernet PAUSE frames.
+
+RxDescriptors
+Valid Range: 64-512
+Default Value: 512
+ This value is the number of receive descriptors allocated by the driver.
+ Increasing this value allows the driver to buffer more incoming packets.
+ Each descriptor is 16 bytes. A receive buffer is also allocated for
+ each descriptor and can be either 2048, 4056, 8192, or 16384 bytes,
+ depending on the MTU setting. When the MTU size is 1500 or less, the
+ receive buffer size is 2048 bytes. When the MTU is greater than 1500 the
+ receive buffer size will be either 4056, 8192, or 16384 bytes. The
+ maximum MTU size is 16114.
+
+RxIntDelay
+Valid Range: 0-65535 (0=off)
+Default Value: 6
+ This value delays the generation of receive interrupts in units of
+ 0.8192 microseconds. Receive interrupt reduction can improve CPU
+ efficiency if properly tuned for specific network traffic. Increasing
+ this value adds extra latency to frame reception and can end up
+ decreasing the throughput of TCP traffic. If the system is reporting
+ dropped receives, this value may be set too high, causing the driver to
+ run out of available receive descriptors.
+
+TxDescriptors
+Valid Range: 64-4096
+Default Value: 256
+ This value is the number of transmit descriptors allocated by the driver.
+ Increasing this value allows the driver to queue more transmits. Each
+ descriptor is 16 bytes.
+
+XsumRX
+Valid Range: 0-1
+Default Value: 1
+ A value of '1' indicates that the driver should enable IP checksum
+ offload for received packets (both UDP and TCP) to the adapter hardware.
+
+XsumTX
+Valid Range: 0-1
+Default Value: 1
+ A value of '1' indicates that the driver should enable IP checksum
+ offload for transmitted packets (both UDP and TCP) to the adapter
+ hardware.
+
+Improving Performance
+=====================
+
+With the Intel PRO/10 GbE adapter, the default Linux configuration will very
+likely limit the total available throughput artificially. There is a set of
+things that when applied together increase the ability of Linux to transmit
+and receive data. The following enhancements were originally acquired from
+settings published at http://www.spec.org/web99 for various submitted results
+using Linux.
+
+NOTE: These changes are only suggestions, and serve as a starting point for
+tuning your network performance.
+
+The changes are made in three major ways, listed in order of greatest effect:
+- Use ifconfig to modify the mtu (maximum transmission unit) and the txqueuelen
+ parameter.
+- Use sysctl to modify /proc parameters (essentially kernel tuning)
+- Use setpci to modify the MMRBC field in PCI-X configuration space to increase
+ transmit burst lengths on the bus.
+
+NOTE: setpci modifies the adapter's configuration registers to allow it to read
+up to 4k bytes at a time (for transmits). However, for some systems the
+behavior after modifying this register may be undefined (possibly errors of some
+kind). A power-cycle, hard reset or explicitly setting the e6 register back to
+22 (setpci -d 8086:1048 e6.b=22) may be required to get back to a stable
+configuration.
+
+- COPY these lines and paste them into ixgb_perf.sh:
+#!/bin/bash
+echo "configuring network performance , edit this file to change the interface"
+# set mmrbc to 4k reads, modify only Intel 10GbE device IDs
+setpci -d 8086:1048 e6.b=2e
+# set the MTU (max transmission unit) - it requires your switch and clients to change too!
+# set the txqueuelen
+# your ixgb adapter should be loaded as eth1 for this to work, change if needed
+ifconfig eth1 mtu 9000 txqueuelen 1000 up
+# call the sysctl utility to modify /proc/sys entries
+sysctl -p ./sysctl_ixgb.conf
+- END ixgb_perf.sh
+
+- COPY these lines and paste them into sysctl_ixgb.conf:
+# some of the defaults may be different for your kernel
+# call this file with sysctl -p <this file>
+# these are just suggested values that worked well to increase throughput in
+# several network benchmark tests, your mileage may vary
+
+### IPV4 specific settings
+net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0 # turns TCP timestamp support off, default 1, reduces CPU use
+net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 0 # turn SACK support off, default on
+# on systems with a VERY fast bus -> memory interface this is the big gainer
+net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 10000000 10000000 10000000 # sets min/default/max TCP read buffer, default 4096 87380 174760
+net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 10000000 10000000 10000000 # sets min/pressure/max TCP write buffer, default 4096 16384 131072
+net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 10000000 10000000 10000000 # sets min/pressure/max TCP buffer space, default 31744 32256 32768
+
+### CORE settings (mostly for socket and UDP effect)
+net.core.rmem_max = 524287 # maximum receive socket buffer size, default 131071
+net.core.wmem_max = 524287 # maximum send socket buffer size, default 131071
+net.core.rmem_default = 524287 # default receive socket buffer size, default 65535
+net.core.wmem_default = 524287 # default send socket buffer size, default 65535
+net.core.optmem_max = 524287 # maximum amount of option memory buffers, default 10240
+net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 300000 # number of unprocessed input packets before kernel starts dropping them, default 300
+- END sysctl_ixgb.conf
+
+Edit the ixgb_perf.sh script if necessary to change eth1 to whatever interface
+your ixgb driver is using.
+
+NOTE: Unless these scripts are added to the boot process, these changes will
+only last only until the next system reboot.
+
+
+Resolving Slow UDP Traffic
+--------------------------
+
+If your server does not seem to be able to receive UDP traffic as fast as it
+can receive TCP traffic, it could be because Linux, by default, does not set
+the network stack buffers as large as they need to be to support high UDP
+transfer rates. One way to alleviate this problem is to allow more memory to
+be used by the IP stack to store incoming data.
+
+For instance, use the commands:
+ sysctl -w net.core.rmem_max=262143
+and
+ sysctl -w net.core.rmem_default=262143
+to increase the read buffer memory max and default to 262143 (256k - 1) from
+defaults of max=131071 (128k - 1) and default=65535 (64k - 1). These variables
+will increase the amount of memory used by the network stack for receives, and
+can be increased significantly more if necessary for your application.
+
+Support
+=======
+
+For general information and support, go to the Intel support website at:
+
+ http://support.intel.com
+
+If an issue is identified with the released source code on the supported
+kernel with a supported adapter, email the specific information related to
+the issue to linux.nics@intel.com.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/lapb-module.txt b/Documentation/networking/lapb-module.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d4fc8f221559
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/lapb-module.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,263 @@
+ The Linux LAPB Module Interface 1.3
+
+ Jonathan Naylor 29.12.96
+
+Changed (Henner Eisen, 2000-10-29): int return value for data_indication()
+
+The LAPB module will be a separately compiled module for use by any parts of
+the Linux operating system that require a LAPB service. This document
+defines the interfaces to, and the services provided by this module. The
+term module in this context does not imply that the LAPB module is a
+separately loadable module, although it may be. The term module is used in
+its more standard meaning.
+
+The interface to the LAPB module consists of functions to the module,
+callbacks from the module to indicate important state changes, and
+structures for getting and setting information about the module.
+
+Structures
+----------
+
+Probably the most important structure is the skbuff structure for holding
+received and transmitted data, however it is beyond the scope of this
+document.
+
+The two LAPB specific structures are the LAPB initialisation structure and
+the LAPB parameter structure. These will be defined in a standard header
+file, <linux/lapb.h>. The header file <net/lapb.h> is internal to the LAPB
+module and is not for use.
+
+LAPB Initialisation Structure
+-----------------------------
+
+This structure is used only once, in the call to lapb_register (see below).
+It contains information about the device driver that requires the services
+of the LAPB module.
+
+struct lapb_register_struct {
+ void (*connect_confirmation)(int token, int reason);
+ void (*connect_indication)(int token, int reason);
+ void (*disconnect_confirmation)(int token, int reason);
+ void (*disconnect_indication)(int token, int reason);
+ int (*data_indication)(int token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+ void (*data_transmit)(int token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+};
+
+Each member of this structure corresponds to a function in the device driver
+that is called when a particular event in the LAPB module occurs. These will
+be described in detail below. If a callback is not required (!!) then a NULL
+may be substituted.
+
+
+LAPB Parameter Structure
+------------------------
+
+This structure is used with the lapb_getparms and lapb_setparms functions
+(see below). They are used to allow the device driver to get and set the
+operational parameters of the LAPB implementation for a given connection.
+
+struct lapb_parms_struct {
+ unsigned int t1;
+ unsigned int t1timer;
+ unsigned int t2;
+ unsigned int t2timer;
+ unsigned int n2;
+ unsigned int n2count;
+ unsigned int window;
+ unsigned int state;
+ unsigned int mode;
+};
+
+T1 and T2 are protocol timing parameters and are given in units of 100ms. N2
+is the maximum number of tries on the link before it is declared a failure.
+The window size is the maximum number of outstanding data packets allowed to
+be unacknowledged by the remote end, the value of the window is between 1
+and 7 for a standard LAPB link, and between 1 and 127 for an extended LAPB
+link.
+
+The mode variable is a bit field used for setting (at present) three values.
+The bit fields have the following meanings:
+
+Bit Meaning
+0 LAPB operation (0=LAPB_STANDARD 1=LAPB_EXTENDED).
+1 [SM]LP operation (0=LAPB_SLP 1=LAPB=MLP).
+2 DTE/DCE operation (0=LAPB_DTE 1=LAPB_DCE)
+3-31 Reserved, must be 0.
+
+Extended LAPB operation indicates the use of extended sequence numbers and
+consequently larger window sizes, the default is standard LAPB operation.
+MLP operation is the same as SLP operation except that the addresses used by
+LAPB are different to indicate the mode of operation, the default is Single
+Link Procedure. The difference between DCE and DTE operation is (i) the
+addresses used for commands and responses, and (ii) when the DCE is not
+connected, it sends DM without polls set, every T1. The upper case constant
+names will be defined in the public LAPB header file.
+
+
+Functions
+---------
+
+The LAPB module provides a number of function entry points.
+
+
+int lapb_register(void *token, struct lapb_register_struct);
+
+This must be called before the LAPB module may be used. If the call is
+successful then LAPB_OK is returned. The token must be a unique identifier
+generated by the device driver to allow for the unique identification of the
+instance of the LAPB link. It is returned by the LAPB module in all of the
+callbacks, and is used by the device driver in all calls to the LAPB module.
+For multiple LAPB links in a single device driver, multiple calls to
+lapb_register must be made. The format of the lapb_register_struct is given
+above. The return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB registered successfully.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Token is already registered.
+LAPB_NOMEM Out of memory
+
+
+int lapb_unregister(void *token);
+
+This releases all the resources associated with a LAPB link. Any current
+LAPB link will be abandoned without further messages being passed. After
+this call, the value of token is no longer valid for any calls to the LAPB
+function. The valid return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB unregistered successfully.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+
+
+int lapb_getparms(void *token, struct lapb_parms_struct *parms);
+
+This allows the device driver to get the values of the current LAPB
+variables, the lapb_parms_struct is described above. The valid return values
+are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB getparms was successful.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+
+
+int lapb_setparms(void *token, struct lapb_parms_struct *parms);
+
+This allows the device driver to set the values of the current LAPB
+variables, the lapb_parms_struct is described above. The values of t1timer,
+t2timer and n2count are ignored, likewise changing the mode bits when
+connected will be ignored. An error implies that none of the values have
+been changed. The valid return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB getparms was successful.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+LAPB_INVALUE One of the values was out of its allowable range.
+
+
+int lapb_connect_request(void *token);
+
+Initiate a connect using the current parameter settings. The valid return
+values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB is starting to connect.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+LAPB_CONNECTED LAPB module is already connected.
+
+
+int lapb_disconnect_request(void *token);
+
+Initiate a disconnect. The valid return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB is starting to disconnect.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+LAPB_NOTCONNECTED LAPB module is not connected.
+
+
+int lapb_data_request(void *token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+
+Queue data with the LAPB module for transmitting over the link. If the call
+is successful then the skbuff is owned by the LAPB module and may not be
+used by the device driver again. The valid return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB has accepted the data.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+LAPB_NOTCONNECTED LAPB module is not connected.
+
+
+int lapb_data_received(void *token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+
+Queue data with the LAPB module which has been received from the device. It
+is expected that the data passed to the LAPB module has skb->data pointing
+to the beginning of the LAPB data. If the call is successful then the skbuff
+is owned by the LAPB module and may not be used by the device driver again.
+The valid return values are:
+
+LAPB_OK LAPB has accepted the data.
+LAPB_BADTOKEN Invalid/unknown LAPB token.
+
+
+Callbacks
+---------
+
+These callbacks are functions provided by the device driver for the LAPB
+module to call when an event occurs. They are registered with the LAPB
+module with lapb_register (see above) in the structure lapb_register_struct
+(see above).
+
+
+void (*connect_confirmation)(void *token, int reason);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when a connection is established after
+being requested by a call to lapb_connect_request (see above). The reason is
+always LAPB_OK.
+
+
+void (*connect_indication)(void *token, int reason);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when the link is established by the remote
+system. The value of reason is always LAPB_OK.
+
+
+void (*disconnect_confirmation)(void *token, int reason);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when an event occurs after the device
+driver has called lapb_disconnect_request (see above). The reason indicates
+what has happened. In all cases the LAPB link can be regarded as being
+terminated. The values for reason are:
+
+LAPB_OK The LAPB link was terminated normally.
+LAPB_NOTCONNECTED The remote system was not connected.
+LAPB_TIMEDOUT No response was received in N2 tries from the remote
+ system.
+
+
+void (*disconnect_indication)(void *token, int reason);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when the link is terminated by the remote
+system or another event has occurred to terminate the link. This may be
+returned in response to a lapb_connect_request (see above) if the remote
+system refused the request. The values for reason are:
+
+LAPB_OK The LAPB link was terminated normally by the remote
+ system.
+LAPB_REFUSED The remote system refused the connect request.
+LAPB_NOTCONNECTED The remote system was not connected.
+LAPB_TIMEDOUT No response was received in N2 tries from the remote
+ system.
+
+
+int (*data_indication)(void *token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when data has been received from the
+remote system that should be passed onto the next layer in the protocol
+stack. The skbuff becomes the property of the device driver and the LAPB
+module will not perform any more actions on it. The skb->data pointer will
+be pointing to the first byte of data after the LAPB header.
+
+This method should return NET_RX_DROP (as defined in the header
+file include/linux/netdevice.h) if and only if the frame was dropped
+before it could be delivered to the upper layer.
+
+
+void (*data_transmit)(void *token, struct sk_buff *skb);
+
+This is called by the LAPB module when data is to be transmitted to the
+remote system by the device driver. The skbuff becomes the property of the
+device driver and the LAPB module will not perform any more actions on it.
+The skb->data pointer will be pointing to the first byte of the LAPB header.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt b/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..fe2a9129d959
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ltpc.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,131 @@
+This is the ALPHA version of the ltpc driver.
+
+In order to use it, you will need at least version 1.3.3 of the
+netatalk package, and the Apple or Farallon LocalTalk PC card.
+There are a number of different LocalTalk cards for the PC; this
+driver applies only to the one with the 65c02 processor chip on it.
+
+To include it in the kernel, select the CONFIG_LTPC switch in the
+configuration dialog. You can also compile it as a module.
+
+While the driver will attempt to autoprobe the I/O port address, IRQ
+line, and DMA channel of the card, this does not always work. For
+this reason, you should be prepared to supply these parameters
+yourself. (see "Card Configuration" below for how to determine or
+change the settings on your card)
+
+When the driver is compiled into the kernel, you can add a line such
+as the following to your /etc/lilo.conf:
+
+ append="ltpc=0x240,9,1"
+
+where the parameters (in order) are the port address, IRQ, and DMA
+channel. The second and third values can be omitted, in which case
+the driver will try to determine them itself.
+
+If you load the driver as a module, you can pass the parameters "io=",
+"irq=", and "dma=" on the command line with insmod or modprobe, or add
+them as options in /etc/modprobe.conf:
+
+ alias lt0 ltpc # autoload the module when the interface is configured
+ options ltpc io=0x240 irq=9 dma=1
+
+Before starting up the netatalk demons (perhaps in rc.local), you
+need to add a line such as:
+
+ /sbin/ifconfig lt0 127.0.0.42
+
+The address is unimportant - however, the card needs to be configured
+with ifconfig so that Netatalk can find it.
+
+The appropriate netatalk configuration depends on whether you are
+attached to a network that includes AppleTalk routers or not. If,
+like me, you are simply connecting to your home Macintoshes and
+printers, you need to set up netatalk to "seed". The way I do this
+is to have the lines
+
+ dummy -seed -phase 2 -net 2000 -addr 2000.26 -zone "1033"
+ lt0 -seed -phase 1 -net 1033 -addr 1033.27 -zone "1033"
+
+in my atalkd.conf. What is going on here is that I need to fool
+netatalk into thinking that there are two AppleTalk interfaces
+present; otherwise, it refuses to seed. This is a hack, and a more
+permanent solution would be to alter the netatalk code. Also, make
+sure you have the correct name for the dummy interface - If it's
+compiled as a module, you will need to refer to it as "dummy0" or some
+such.
+
+If you are attached to an extended AppleTalk network, with routers on
+it, then you don't need to fool around with this -- the appropriate
+line in atalkd.conf is
+
+ lt0 -phase 1
+
+--------------------------------------
+
+Card Configuration:
+
+The interrupts and so forth are configured via the dipswitch on the
+board. Set the switches so as not to conflict with other hardware.
+
+ Interrupts -- set at most one. If none are set, the driver uses
+ polled mode. Because the card was developed in the XT era, the
+ original documentation refers to IRQ2. Since you'll be running
+ this on an AT (or later) class machine, that really means IRQ9.
+
+ SW1 IRQ 4
+ SW2 IRQ 3
+ SW3 IRQ 9 (2 in original card documentation only applies to XT)
+
+
+ DMA -- choose DMA 1 or 3, and set both corresponding switches.
+
+ SW4 DMA 3
+ SW5 DMA 1
+ SW6 DMA 3
+ SW7 DMA 1
+
+
+ I/O address -- choose one.
+
+ SW8 220 / 240
+
+--------------------------------------
+
+IP:
+
+Yes, it is possible to do IP over LocalTalk. However, you can't just
+treat the LocalTalk device like an ordinary Ethernet device, even if
+that's what it looks like to Netatalk.
+
+Instead, you follow the same procedure as for doing IP in EtherTalk.
+See Documentation/networking/ipddp.txt for more information about the
+kernel driver and userspace tools needed.
+
+--------------------------------------
+
+BUGS:
+
+IRQ autoprobing often doesn't work on a cold boot. To get around
+this, either compile the driver as a module, or pass the parameters
+for the card to the kernel as described above.
+
+Also, as usual, autoprobing is not recommended when you use the driver
+as a module. (though it usually works at boot time, at least)
+
+Polled mode is *really* slow sometimes, but this seems to depend on
+the configuration of the network.
+
+It may theoretically be possible to use two LTPC cards in the same
+machine, but this is unsupported, so if you really want to do this,
+you'll probably have to hack the initialization code a bit.
+
+______________________________________
+
+THANKS:
+ Thanks to Alan Cox for helpful discussions early on in this
+work, and to Denis Hainsworth for doing the bleeding-edge testing.
+
+-- Bradford Johnson <bradford@math.umn.edu>
+
+-- Updated 11/09/1998 by David Huggins-Daines <dhd@debian.org>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/multicast.txt b/Documentation/networking/multicast.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..5049a64313d1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/multicast.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,64 @@
+Behaviour of Cards Under Multicast
+==================================
+
+This is how they currently behave, not what the hardware can do--for example,
+the Lance driver doesn't use its filter, even though the code for loading
+it is in the DEC Lance-based driver.
+
+The following are requirements for multicasting
+-----------------------------------------------
+AppleTalk Multicast hardware filtering not important but
+ avoid cards only doing promisc
+IP-Multicast Multicast hardware filters really help
+IP-MRoute AllMulti hardware filters are of no help
+
+
+Board Multicast AllMulti Promisc Filter
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+3c501 YES YES YES Software
+3c503 YES YES YES Hardware
+3c505 YES NO YES Hardware
+3c507 NO NO NO N/A
+3c509 YES YES YES Software
+3c59x YES YES YES Software
+ac3200 YES YES YES Hardware
+apricot YES PROMISC YES Hardware
+arcnet NO NO NO N/A
+at1700 PROMISC PROMISC YES Software
+atp PROMISC PROMISC YES Software
+cs89x0 YES YES YES Software
+de4x5 YES YES YES Hardware
+de600 NO NO NO N/A
+de620 PROMISC PROMISC YES Software
+depca YES PROMISC YES Hardware
+dmfe YES YES YES Software(*)
+e2100 YES YES YES Hardware
+eepro YES PROMISC YES Hardware
+eexpress NO NO NO N/A
+ewrk3 YES PROMISC YES Hardware
+hp-plus YES YES YES Hardware
+hp YES YES YES Hardware
+hp100 YES YES YES Hardware
+ibmtr NO NO NO N/A
+ioc3-eth YES YES YES Hardware
+lance YES YES YES Software(#)
+ne YES YES YES Hardware
+ni52 <------------------ Buggy ------------------>
+ni65 YES YES YES Software(#)
+seeq NO NO NO N/A
+sgiseek <------------------ Buggy ------------------>
+sk_g16 NO NO YES N/A
+smc-ultra YES YES YES Hardware
+sunlance YES YES YES Hardware
+tulip YES YES YES Hardware
+wavelan YES PROMISC YES Hardware
+wd YES YES YES Hardware
+xirc2ps_cs YES YES YES Hardware
+znet YES YES YES Software
+
+
+PROMISC = This multicast mode is in fact promiscuous mode. Avoid using
+cards who go PROMISC on any multicast in a multicast kernel.
+
+(#) = Hardware multicast support is not used yet.
+(*) = Hardware support for Davicom 9132 chipset only.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ncsa-telnet b/Documentation/networking/ncsa-telnet
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..d77d28b09093
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ncsa-telnet
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+NCSA telnet doesn't work with path MTU discovery enabled. This is due to a
+bug in NCSA that also stops it working with other modern networking code
+such as Solaris.
+
+The following information is courtesy of
+Marek <marekm@i17linuxb.ists.pwr.wroc.pl>
+
+There is a fixed version somewhere on ftp.upe.ac.za (sorry, I don't
+remember the exact pathname, and this site is very slow from here).
+It may or may not be faster for you to get it from
+ftp://ftp.ists.pwr.wroc.pl/pub/msdos/telnet/ncsa_upe/tel23074.zip
+(source is in v230704s.zip). I have tested it with 1.3.79 (with
+path mtu discovery enabled - ncsa 2.3.08 didn't work) and it seems
+to work. I don't know if anyone is working on this code - this
+version is over a year old. Too bad - it's faster and often more
+stable than these windoze telnets, and runs on almost anything...
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/net-modules.txt b/Documentation/networking/net-modules.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3830a83513d2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/net-modules.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,324 @@
+Wed 2-Aug-95 <matti.aarnio@utu.fi>
+
+ Linux network driver modules
+
+ Do not mistake this for "README.modules" at the top-level
+ directory! That document tells about modules in general, while
+ this one tells only about network device driver modules.
+
+ This is a potpourri of INSMOD-time(*) configuration options
+ (if such exists) and their default values of various modules
+ in the Linux network drivers collection.
+
+ Some modules have also hidden (= non-documented) tunable values.
+ The choice of not documenting them is based on general belief, that
+ the less the user needs to know, the better. (There are things that
+ driver developers can use, others should not confuse themselves.)
+
+ In many cases it is highly preferred that insmod:ing is done
+ ONLY with defining an explicit address for the card, AND BY
+ NOT USING AUTO-PROBING!
+
+ Now most cards have some explicitly defined base address that they
+ are compiled with (to avoid auto-probing, among other things).
+ If that compiled value does not match your actual configuration,
+ do use the "io=0xXXX" -parameter for the insmod, and give there
+ a value matching your environment.
+
+ If you are adventurous, you can ask the driver to autoprobe
+ by using the "io=0" parameter, however it is a potentially dangerous
+ thing to do in a live system. (If you don't know where the
+ card is located, you can try autoprobing, and after possible
+ crash recovery, insmod with proper IO-address..)
+
+ --------------------------
+ (*) "INSMOD-time" means when you load module with
+ /sbin/insmod you can feed it optional parameters.
+ See "man insmod".
+ --------------------------
+
+
+ 8390 based Network Modules (Paul Gortmaker, Nov 12, 1995)
+ --------------------------
+
+(Includes: smc-ultra, ne, wd, 3c503, hp, hp-plus, e2100 and ac3200)
+
+The 8390 series of network drivers now support multiple card systems without
+reloading the same module multiple times (memory efficient!) This is done by
+specifying multiple comma separated values, such as:
+
+ insmod 3c503.o io=0x280,0x300,0x330,0x350 xcvr=0,1,0,1
+
+The above would have the one module controlling four 3c503 cards, with card 2
+and 4 using external transceivers. The "insmod" manual describes the usage
+of comma separated value lists.
+
+It is *STRONGLY RECOMMENDED* that you supply "io=" instead of autoprobing.
+If an "io=" argument is not supplied, then the ISA drivers will complain
+about autoprobing being not recommended, and begrudgingly autoprobe for
+a *SINGLE CARD ONLY* -- if you want to use multiple cards you *have* to
+supply an "io=0xNNN,0xQQQ,..." argument.
+
+The ne module is an exception to the above. A NE2000 is essentially an
+8390 chip, some bus glue and some RAM. Because of this, the ne probe is
+more invasive than the rest, and so at boot we make sure the ne probe is
+done last of all the 8390 cards (so that it won't trip over other 8390 based
+cards) With modules we can't ensure that all other non-ne 8390 cards have
+already been found. Because of this, the ne module REQUIRES an "io=0xNNN"
+argument passed in via insmod. It will refuse to autoprobe.
+
+It is also worth noting that auto-IRQ probably isn't as reliable during
+the flurry of interrupt activity on a running machine. Cards such as the
+ne2000 that can't get the IRQ setting from an EEPROM or configuration
+register are probably best supplied with an "irq=M" argument as well.
+
+
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+Card/Module List - Configurable Parameters and Default Values
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+3c501.c:
+ io = 0x280 IO base address
+ irq = 5 IRQ
+ (Probes ports: 0x280, 0x300)
+
+3c503.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ software selected by driver using autoIRQ)
+ xcvr = 0 (Use xcvr=1 to select external transceiver.)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x310, 0x330, 0x350, 0x250, 0x280, 0x2A0, 0x2E0)
+
+3c505.c:
+ io = 0
+ irq = 0
+ dma = 6 (not autoprobed)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x280, 0x310)
+
+3c507.c:
+ io = 0x300
+ irq = 0
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x280)
+
+3c509.c:
+ io = 0
+ irq = 0
+ ( Module load-time probing Works reliably only on EISA, ISA ID-PROBE
+ IS NOT RELIABLE! Compile this driver statically into kernel for
+ now, if you need it auto-probing on an ISA-bus machine. )
+
+8390.c:
+ (No public options, several other modules need this one)
+
+a2065.c:
+ Since this is a Zorro board, it supports full autoprobing, even for
+ multiple boards. (m68k/Amiga)
+
+ac3200.c:
+ io = 0 (Checks 0x1000 to 0x8fff in 0x1000 intervals)
+ irq = 0 (Read from config register)
+ (EISA probing..)
+
+apricot.c:
+ io = 0x300 (Can't be altered!)
+ irq = 10
+
+arcnet.c:
+ io = 0
+ irqnum = 0
+ shmem = 0
+ num = 0
+ DO SET THESE MANUALLY AT INSMOD!
+ (When probing, looks at the following possible addresses:
+ Suggested ones:
+ 0x300, 0x2E0, 0x2F0, 0x2D0
+ Other ones:
+ 0x200, 0x210, 0x220, 0x230, 0x240, 0x250, 0x260, 0x270,
+ 0x280, 0x290, 0x2A0, 0x2B0, 0x2C0,
+ 0x310, 0x320, 0x330, 0x340, 0x350, 0x360, 0x370,
+ 0x380, 0x390, 0x3A0, 0x3E0, 0x3F0 )
+
+ariadne.c:
+ Since this is a Zorro board, it supports full autoprobing, even for
+ multiple boards. (m68k/Amiga)
+
+at1700.c:
+ io = 0x260
+ irq = 0
+ (Probes ports: 0x260, 0x280, 0x2A0, 0x240, 0x340, 0x320, 0x380, 0x300)
+
+atari_bionet.c:
+ Supports full autoprobing. (m68k/Atari)
+
+atari_pamsnet.c:
+ Supports full autoprobing. (m68k/Atari)
+
+atarilance.c:
+ Supports full autoprobing. (m68k/Atari)
+
+atp.c: *Not modularized*
+ (Probes ports: 0x378, 0x278, 0x3BC;
+ fixed IRQs: 5 and 7 )
+
+cops.c:
+ io = 0x240
+ irq = 5
+ nodeid = 0 (AutoSelect = 0, NodeID 1-254 is hand selected.)
+ (Probes ports: 0x240, 0x340, 0x200, 0x210, 0x220, 0x230, 0x260,
+ 0x2A0, 0x300, 0x310, 0x320, 0x330, 0x350, 0x360)
+
+de4x5.c:
+ io = 0x000b
+ irq = 10
+ is_not_dec = 0 -- For non-DEC card using DEC 21040/21041/21140 chip, set this to 1
+ (EISA, and PCI probing)
+
+de600.c:
+ de600_debug = 0
+ (On port 0x378, irq 7 -- lpt1; compile time configurable)
+
+de620.c:
+ bnc = 0, utp = 0 <-- Force media by setting either.
+ io = 0x378 (also compile-time configurable)
+ irq = 7
+
+depca.c:
+ io = 0x200
+ irq = 7
+ (Probes ports: ISA: 0x300, 0x200;
+ EISA: 0x0c00 )
+
+dummy.c:
+ No options
+
+e2100.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ software selected by driver)
+ mem = 0 (Override default shared memory start of 0xd0000)
+ xcvr = 0 (Use xcvr=1 to select external transceiver.)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x280, 0x380, 0x220)
+
+eepro.c:
+ io = 0x200
+ irq = 0
+ (Probes ports: 0x200, 0x240, 0x280, 0x2C0, 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360)
+
+eexpress.c:
+ io = 0x300
+ irq = 0 (IRQ value read from EEPROM)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x270, 0x320, 0x340)
+
+eql.c:
+ (No parameters)
+
+ewrk3.c:
+ io = 0x300
+ irq = 5
+ (With module no autoprobing!
+ On EISA-bus does EISA probing.
+ Static linkage probes ports on ISA bus:
+ 0x100, 0x120, 0x140, 0x160, 0x180, 0x1A0, 0x1C0,
+ 0x200, 0x220, 0x240, 0x260, 0x280, 0x2A0, 0x2C0, 0x2E0,
+ 0x300, 0x340, 0x360, 0x380, 0x3A0, 0x3C0)
+
+hp-plus.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ read from configuration register)
+ (Probes ports: 0x200, 0x240, 0x280, 0x2C0, 0x300, 0x320, 0x340)
+
+hp.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ software selected by driver using autoIRQ)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x280, 0x2C0, 0x200, 0x240)
+
+hp100.c:
+ hp100_port = 0 (IO-base address)
+ (Does EISA-probing, if on EISA-slot;
+ On ISA-bus probes all ports from 0x100 thru to 0x3E0
+ in increments of 0x020)
+
+hydra.c:
+ Since this is a Zorro board, it supports full autoprobing, even for
+ multiple boards. (m68k/Amiga)
+
+ibmtr.c:
+ io = 0xa20, 0xa24 (autoprobed by default)
+ irq = 0 (driver cannot select irq - read from hardware)
+ mem = 0 (shared memory base set at 0xd0000 and not yet
+ able to override thru mem= parameter.)
+
+lance.c: *Not modularized*
+ (PCI, and ISA probing; "CONFIG_PCI" needed for PCI support)
+ (Probes ISA ports: 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360)
+
+loopback.c: *Static kernel component*
+
+ne.c:
+ io = 0 (Explicitly *requires* an "io=0xNNN" value)
+ irq = 0 (Tries to determine configured IRQ via autoIRQ)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x280, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360)
+
+net_init.c: *Static kernel component*
+
+ni52.c: *Not modularized*
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x280, 0x360, 0x320, 0x340
+ mems: 0xD0000, 0xD2000, 0xC8000, 0xCA000,
+ 0xD4000, 0xD6000, 0xD8000 )
+
+ni65.c: *Not modularized* **16MB MEMORY BARRIER BUG**
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360)
+
+pi2.c: *Not modularized* (well, NON-STANDARD modularization!)
+ Only one card supported at this time.
+ (Probes ports: 0x380, 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360, 0x3A0)
+
+plip.c:
+ io = 0
+ irq = 0 (by default, uses IRQ 5 for port at 0x3bc, IRQ 7
+ for port at 0x378, and IRQ 2 for port at 0x278)
+ (Probes ports: 0x278, 0x378, 0x3bc)
+
+ppp.c:
+ No options (ppp-2.2+ has some, this is based on non-dynamic
+ version from ppp-2.1.2d)
+
+seeq8005.c: *Not modularized*
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x320, 0x340, 0x360)
+
+sk_g16.c: *Not modularized*
+ (Probes ports: 0x100, 0x180, 0x208, 0x220m 0x288, 0x320, 0x328, 0x390)
+
+skeleton.c: *Skeleton*
+
+slhc.c:
+ No configuration parameters
+
+slip.c:
+ slip_maxdev = 256 (default value from SL_NRUNIT on slip.h)
+
+
+smc-ultra.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ val. read from EEPROM)
+ (Probes ports: 0x200, 0x220, 0x240, 0x280, 0x300, 0x340, 0x380)
+
+tulip.c: *Partial modularization*
+ (init-time memory allocation makes problems..)
+
+tunnel.c:
+ No insmod parameters
+
+wavelan.c:
+ io = 0x390 (Settable, but change not recommended)
+ irq = 0 (Not honoured, if changed..)
+
+wd.c:
+ io = 0 (It will complain if you don't supply an "io=0xNNN")
+ irq = 0 (IRQ val. read from EEPROM, ancient cards use autoIRQ)
+ mem = 0 (Force shared-memory on address 0xC8000, or whatever..)
+ mem_end = 0 (Force non-std. mem. size via supplying mem_end val.)
+ (eg. for 32k WD8003EBT, use mem=0xd0000 mem_end=0xd8000)
+ (Probes ports: 0x300, 0x280, 0x380, 0x240)
+
+znet.c: *Not modularized*
+ (Only one device on Zenith Z-Note (notebook?) systems,
+ configuration information from (EE)PROM)
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt b/Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..53618fb1a717
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/netconsole.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,57 @@
+
+started by Ingo Molnar <mingo@redhat.com>, 2001.09.17
+2.6 port and netpoll api by Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>, Sep 9 2003
+
+Please send bug reports to Matt Mackall <mpm@selenic.com>
+
+This module logs kernel printk messages over UDP allowing debugging of
+problem where disk logging fails and serial consoles are impractical.
+
+It can be used either built-in or as a module. As a built-in,
+netconsole initializes immediately after NIC cards and will bring up
+the specified interface as soon as possible. While this doesn't allow
+capture of early kernel panics, it does capture most of the boot
+process.
+
+It takes a string configuration parameter "netconsole" in the
+following format:
+
+ netconsole=[src-port]@[src-ip]/[<dev>],[tgt-port]@<tgt-ip>/[tgt-macaddr]
+
+ where
+ src-port source for UDP packets (defaults to 6665)
+ src-ip source IP to use (interface address)
+ dev network interface (eth0)
+ tgt-port port for logging agent (6666)
+ tgt-ip IP address for logging agent
+ tgt-macaddr ethernet MAC address for logging agent (broadcast)
+
+Examples:
+
+ linux netconsole=4444@10.0.0.1/eth1,9353@10.0.0.2/12:34:56:78:9a:bc
+
+ or
+
+ insmod netconsole netconsole=@/,@10.0.0.2/
+
+Built-in netconsole starts immediately after the TCP stack is
+initialized and attempts to bring up the supplied dev at the supplied
+address.
+
+The remote host can run either 'netcat -u -l -p <port>' or syslogd.
+
+WARNING: the default target ethernet setting uses the broadcast
+ethernet address to send packets, which can cause increased load on
+other systems on the same ethernet segment.
+
+NOTE: the network device (eth1 in the above case) can run any kind
+of other network traffic, netconsole is not intrusive. Netconsole
+might cause slight delays in other traffic if the volume of kernel
+messages is high, but should have no other impact.
+
+Netconsole was designed to be as instantaneous as possible, to
+enable the logging of even the most critical kernel bugs. It works
+from IRQ contexts as well, and does not enable interrupts while
+sending packets. Due to these unique needs, configuration can not
+be more automatic, and some fundamental limitations will remain:
+only IP networks, UDP packets and ethernet devices are supported.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt b/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1509f3aff968
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+
+Network Devices, the Kernel, and You!
+
+
+Introduction
+============
+The following is a random collection of documentation regarding
+network devices.
+
+struct net_device allocation rules
+==================================
+Network device structures need to persist even after module is unloaded and
+must be allocated with kmalloc. If device has registered successfully,
+it will be freed on last use by free_netdev. This is required to handle the
+pathologic case cleanly (example: rmmod mydriver </sys/class/net/myeth/mtu )
+
+There are routines in net_init.c to handle the common cases of
+alloc_etherdev, alloc_netdev. These reserve extra space for driver
+private data which gets freed when the network device is freed. If
+separately allocated data is attached to the network device
+(dev->priv) then it is up to the module exit handler to free that.
+
+
+struct net_device synchronization rules
+=======================================
+dev->open:
+ Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
+ Context: process
+
+dev->stop:
+ Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
+ Context: process
+ Note1: netif_running() is guaranteed false
+ Note2: dev->poll() is guaranteed to be stopped
+
+dev->do_ioctl:
+ Synchronization: rtnl_lock() semaphore.
+ Context: process
+
+dev->get_stats:
+ Synchronization: dev_base_lock rwlock.
+ Context: nominally process, but don't sleep inside an rwlock
+
+dev->hard_start_xmit:
+ Synchronization: dev->xmit_lock spinlock.
+ When the driver sets NETIF_F_LLTX in dev->features this will be
+ called without holding xmit_lock. In this case the driver
+ has to lock by itself when needed. It is recommended to use a try lock
+ for this and return -1 when the spin lock fails.
+ The locking there should also properly protect against
+ set_multicast_list
+ Context: BHs disabled
+ Notes: netif_queue_stopped() is guaranteed false
+ Return codes:
+ o NETDEV_TX_OK everything ok.
+ o NETDEV_TX_BUSY Cannot transmit packet, try later
+ Usually a bug, means queue start/stop flow control is broken in
+ the driver. Note: the driver must NOT put the skb in its DMA ring.
+ o NETDEV_TX_LOCKED Locking failed, please retry quickly.
+ Only valid when NETIF_F_LLTX is set.
+
+dev->tx_timeout:
+ Synchronization: dev->xmit_lock spinlock.
+ Context: BHs disabled
+ Notes: netif_queue_stopped() is guaranteed true
+
+dev->set_multicast_list:
+ Synchronization: dev->xmit_lock spinlock.
+ Context: BHs disabled
+
+dev->poll:
+ Synchronization: __LINK_STATE_RX_SCHED bit in dev->state. See
+ dev_close code and comments in net/core/dev.c for more info.
+ Context: softirq
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/netif-msg.txt b/Documentation/networking/netif-msg.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..18ad4cea6259
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/netif-msg.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,79 @@
+
+________________
+NETIF Msg Level
+
+The design of the network interface message level setting.
+
+History
+
+ The design of the debugging message interface was guided and
+ constrained by backwards compatibility previous practice. It is useful
+ to understand the history and evolution in order to understand current
+ practice and relate it to older driver source code.
+
+ From the beginning of Linux, each network device driver has had a local
+ integer variable that controls the debug message level. The message
+ level ranged from 0 to 7, and monotonically increased in verbosity.
+
+ The message level was not precisely defined past level 3, but were
+ always implemented within +-1 of the specified level. Drivers tended
+ to shed the more verbose level messages as they matured.
+ 0 Minimal messages, only essential information on fatal errors.
+ 1 Standard messages, initialization status. No run-time messages
+ 2 Special media selection messages, generally timer-driver.
+ 3 Interface starts and stops, including normal status messages
+ 4 Tx and Rx frame error messages, and abnormal driver operation
+ 5 Tx packet queue information, interrupt events.
+ 6 Status on each completed Tx packet and received Rx packets
+ 7 Initial contents of Tx and Rx packets
+
+ Initially this message level variable was uniquely named in each driver
+ e.g. "lance_debug", so that a kernel symbolic debugger could locate and
+ modify the setting. When kernel modules became common, the variables
+ were consistently renamed to "debug" and allowed to be set as a module
+ parameter.
+
+ This approach worked well. However there is always a demand for
+ additional features. Over the years the following emerged as
+ reasonable and easily implemented enhancements
+ Using an ioctl() call to modify the level.
+ Per-interface rather than per-driver message level setting.
+ More selective control over the type of messages emitted.
+
+ The netif_msg recommandation adds these features with only a minor
+ complexity and code size increase.
+
+ The recommendation is the following points
+ Retaining the per-driver integer variable "debug" as a module
+ parameter with a default level of '1'.
+
+ Adding a per-interface private variable named "msg_enable". The
+ variable is a bit map rather than a level, and is initialized as
+ 1 << debug
+ Or more precisely
+ debug < 0 ? 0 : 1 << min(sizeof(int)-1, debug)
+
+ Messages should changes from
+ if (debug > 1)
+ printk(MSG_DEBUG "%s: ...
+ to
+ if (np->msg_enable & NETIF_MSG_LINK)
+ printk(MSG_DEBUG "%s: ...
+
+
+The set of message levels is named
+ Old level Name Bit position
+ 0 NETIF_MSG_DRV 0x0001
+ 1 NETIF_MSG_PROBE 0x0002
+ 2 NETIF_MSG_LINK 0x0004
+ 2 NETIF_MSG_TIMER 0x0004
+ 3 NETIF_MSG_IFDOWN 0x0008
+ 3 NETIF_MSG_IFUP 0x0008
+ 4 NETIF_MSG_RX_ERR 0x0010
+ 4 NETIF_MSG_TX_ERR 0x0010
+ 5 NETIF_MSG_TX_QUEUED 0x0020
+ 5 NETIF_MSG_INTR 0x0020
+ 6 NETIF_MSG_TX_DONE 0x0040
+ 6 NETIF_MSG_RX_STATUS 0x0040
+ 7 NETIF_MSG_PKTDATA 0x0080
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/olympic.txt b/Documentation/networking/olympic.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c65a94010ea8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/olympic.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,79 @@
+
+IBM PCI Pit/Pit-Phy/Olympic CHIPSET BASED TOKEN RING CARDS README
+
+Release 0.2.0 - Release
+ June 8th 1999 Peter De Schrijver & Mike Phillips
+Release 0.9.C - Release
+ April 18th 2001 Mike Phillips
+
+Thanks:
+Erik De Cock, Adrian Bridgett and Frank Fiene for their
+patience and testing.
+Donald Champion for the cardbus support
+Kyle Lucke for the dma api changes.
+Jonathon Bitner for hardware support.
+Everybody on linux-tr for their continued support.
+
+Options:
+
+The driver accepts four options: ringspeed, pkt_buf_sz,
+message_level and network_monitor.
+
+These options can be specified differently for each card found.
+
+ringspeed: Has one of three settings 0 (default), 4 or 16. 0 will
+make the card autosense the ringspeed and join at the appropriate speed,
+this will be the default option for most people. 4 or 16 allow you to
+explicitly force the card to operate at a certain speed. The card will fail
+if you try to insert it at the wrong speed. (Although some hubs will allow
+this so be *very* careful). The main purpose for explicitly setting the ring
+speed is for when the card is first on the ring. In autosense mode, if the card
+cannot detect any active monitors on the ring it will not open, so you must
+re-init the card at the appropriate speed. Unfortunately at present the only
+way of doing this is rmmod and insmod which is a bit tough if it is compiled
+in the kernel.
+
+pkt_buf_sz: This is this initial receive buffer allocation size. This will
+default to 4096 if no value is entered. You may increase performance of the
+driver by setting this to a value larger than the network packet size, although
+the driver now re-sizes buffers based on MTU settings as well.
+
+message_level: Controls level of messages created by the driver. Defaults to 0:
+which only displays start-up and critical messages. Presently any non-zero
+value will display all soft messages as well. NB This does not turn
+debugging messages on, that must be done by modified the source code.
+
+network_monitor: Any non-zero value will provide a quasi network monitoring
+mode. All unexpected MAC frames (beaconing etc.) will be received
+by the driver and the source and destination addresses printed.
+Also an entry will be added in /proc/net called olympic_tr%d, where tr%d
+is the registered device name, i.e tr0, tr1, etc. This displays low
+level information about the configuration of the ring and the adapter.
+This feature has been designed for network administrators to assist in
+the diagnosis of network / ring problems. (This used to OLYMPIC_NETWORK_MONITOR,
+but has now changed to allow each adapter to be configured differently and
+to alleviate the necessity to re-compile olympic to turn the option on).
+
+Multi-card:
+
+The driver will detect multiple cards and will work with shared interrupts,
+each card is assigned the next token ring device, i.e. tr0 , tr1, tr2. The
+driver should also happily reside in the system with other drivers. It has
+been tested with ibmtr.c running, and I personally have had one Olicom PCI
+card and two IBM olympic cards (all on the same interrupt), all running
+together.
+
+Variable MTU size:
+
+The driver can handle a MTU size upto either 4500 or 18000 depending upon
+ring speed. The driver also changes the size of the receive buffers as part
+of the mtu re-sizing, so if you set mtu = 18000, you will need to be able
+to allocate 16 * (sk_buff with 18000 buffer size) call it 18500 bytes per ring
+position = 296,000 bytes of memory space, plus of course anything
+necessary for the tx sk_buff's. Remember this is per card, so if you are
+building routers, gateway's etc, you could start to use a lot of memory
+real fast.
+
+
+6/8/99 Peter De Schrijver and Mike Phillips
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt b/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8d4cf78258e4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/packet_mmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,399 @@
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ ABSTRACT
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This file documents the CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP option available with the PACKET
+socket interface on 2.4 and 2.6 kernels. This type of sockets is used for
+capture network traffic with utilities like tcpdump or any other that uses
+the libpcap library.
+
+You can find the latest version of this document at
+
+ http://pusa.uv.es/~ulisses/packet_mmap/
+
+Please send me your comments to
+
+ Ulisses Alonso Camaró <uaca@i.hate.spam.alumni.uv.es>
+
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ Why use PACKET_MMAP
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+In Linux 2.4/2.6 if PACKET_MMAP is not enabled, the capture process is very
+inefficient. It uses very limited buffers and requires one system call
+to capture each packet, it requires two if you want to get packet's
+timestamp (like libpcap always does).
+
+In the other hand PACKET_MMAP is very efficient. PACKET_MMAP provides a size
+configurable circular buffer mapped in user space. This way reading packets just
+needs to wait for them, most of the time there is no need to issue a single
+system call. By using a shared buffer between the kernel and the user
+also has the benefit of minimizing packet copies.
+
+It's fine to use PACKET_MMAP to improve the performance of the capture process,
+but it isn't everything. At least, if you are capturing at high speeds (this
+is relative to the cpu speed), you should check if the device driver of your
+network interface card supports some sort of interrupt load mitigation or
+(even better) if it supports NAPI, also make sure it is enabled.
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+From the user standpoint, you should use the higher level libpcap library, wich
+is a de facto standard, portable across nearly all operating systems
+including Win32.
+
+Said that, at time of this writing, official libpcap 0.8.1 is out and doesn't include
+support for PACKET_MMAP, and also probably the libpcap included in your distribution.
+
+I'm aware of two implementations of PACKET_MMAP in libpcap:
+
+ http://pusa.uv.es/~ulisses/packet_mmap/ (by Simon Patarin, based on libpcap 0.6.2)
+ http://public.lanl.gov/cpw/ (by Phil Wood, based on lastest libpcap)
+
+The rest of this document is intended for people who want to understand
+the low level details or want to improve libpcap by including PACKET_MMAP
+support.
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ How to use CONFIG_PACKET_MMAP directly
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+From the system calls stand point, the use of PACKET_MMAP involves
+the following process:
+
+
+[setup] socket() -------> creation of the capture socket
+ setsockopt() ---> allocation of the circular buffer (ring)
+ mmap() ---------> maping of the allocated buffer to the
+ user process
+
+[capture] poll() ---------> to wait for incoming packets
+
+[shutdown] close() --------> destruction of the capture socket and
+ deallocation of all associated
+ resources.
+
+
+socket creation and destruction is straight forward, and is done
+the same way with or without PACKET_MMAP:
+
+int fd;
+
+fd= socket(PF_PACKET, mode, htons(ETH_P_ALL))
+
+where mode is SOCK_RAW for the raw interface were link level
+information can be captured or SOCK_DGRAM for the cooked
+interface where link level information capture is not
+supported and a link level pseudo-header is provided
+by the kernel.
+
+The destruction of the socket and all associated resources
+is done by a simple call to close(fd).
+
+Next I will describe PACKET_MMAP settings and it's constraints,
+also the maping of the circular buffer in the user process and
+the use of this buffer.
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ PACKET_MMAP settings
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+To setup PACKET_MMAP from user level code is done with a call like
+
+ setsockopt(fd, SOL_PACKET, PACKET_RX_RING, (void *) &req, sizeof(req))
+
+The most significant argument in the previous call is the req parameter,
+this parameter must to have the following structure:
+
+ struct tpacket_req
+ {
+ unsigned int tp_block_size; /* Minimal size of contiguous block */
+ unsigned int tp_block_nr; /* Number of blocks */
+ unsigned int tp_frame_size; /* Size of frame */
+ unsigned int tp_frame_nr; /* Total number of frames */
+ };
+
+This structure is defined in /usr/include/linux/if_packet.h and establishes a
+circular buffer (ring) of unswappable memory mapped in the capture process.
+Being mapped in the capture process allows reading the captured frames and
+related meta-information like timestamps without requiring a system call.
+
+Captured frames are grouped in blocks. Each block is a physically contiguous
+region of memory and holds tp_block_size/tp_frame_size frames. The total number
+of blocks is tp_block_nr. Note that tp_frame_nr is a redundant parameter because
+
+ frames_per_block = tp_block_size/tp_frame_size
+
+indeed, packet_set_ring checks that the following condition is true
+
+ frames_per_block * tp_block_nr == tp_frame_nr
+
+
+Lets see an example, with the following values:
+
+ tp_block_size= 4096
+ tp_frame_size= 2048
+ tp_block_nr = 4
+ tp_frame_nr = 8
+
+we will get the following buffer structure:
+
+ block #1 block #2
++---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
+| frame 1 | frame 2 | | frame 3 | frame 4 |
++---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
+
+ block #3 block #4
++---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
+| frame 5 | frame 6 | | frame 7 | frame 8 |
++---------+---------+ +---------+---------+
+
+A frame can be of any size with the only condition it can fit in a block. A block
+can only hold an integer number of frames, or in other words, a frame cannot
+be spawn accross two blocks so there are some datails you have to take into
+account when choosing the frame_size. See "Maping and use of the circular
+buffer (ring)".
+
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ PACKET_MMAP setting constraints
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+In kernel versions prior to 2.4.26 (for the 2.4 branch) and 2.6.5 (2.6 branch),
+the PACKET_MMAP buffer could hold only 32768 frames in a 32 bit architecture or
+16384 in a 64 bit architecture. For information on these kernel versions
+see http://pusa.uv.es/~ulisses/packet_mmap/packet_mmap.pre-2.4.26_2.6.5.txt
+
+ Block size limit
+------------------
+
+As stated earlier, each block is a contiguous physical region of memory. These
+memory regions are allocated with calls to the __get_free_pages() function. As
+the name indicates, this function allocates pages of memory, and the second
+argument is "order" or a power of two number of pages, that is
+(for PAGE_SIZE == 4096) order=0 ==> 4096 bytes, order=1 ==> 8192 bytes,
+order=2 ==> 16384 bytes, etc. The maximum size of a
+region allocated by __get_free_pages is determined by the MAX_ORDER macro. More
+precisely the limit can be calculated as:
+
+ PAGE_SIZE << MAX_ORDER
+
+ In a i386 architecture PAGE_SIZE is 4096 bytes
+ In a 2.4/i386 kernel MAX_ORDER is 10
+ In a 2.6/i386 kernel MAX_ORDER is 11
+
+So get_free_pages can allocate as much as 4MB or 8MB in a 2.4/2.6 kernel
+respectively, with an i386 architecture.
+
+User space programs can include /usr/include/sys/user.h and
+/usr/include/linux/mmzone.h to get PAGE_SIZE MAX_ORDER declarations.
+
+The pagesize can also be determined dynamically with the getpagesize (2)
+system call.
+
+
+ Block number limit
+--------------------
+
+To understand the constraints of PACKET_MMAP, we have to see the structure
+used to hold the pointers to each block.
+
+Currently, this structure is a dynamically allocated vector with kmalloc
+called pg_vec, its size limits the number of blocks that can be allocated.
+
+ +---+---+---+---+
+ | x | x | x | x |
+ +---+---+---+---+
+ | | | |
+ | | | v
+ | | v block #4
+ | v block #3
+ v block #2
+ block #1
+
+
+kmalloc allocates any number of bytes of phisically contiguous memory from
+a pool of pre-determined sizes. This pool of memory is mantained by the slab
+allocator wich is at the end the responsible for doing the allocation and
+hence wich imposes the maximum memory that kmalloc can allocate.
+
+In a 2.4/2.6 kernel and the i386 architecture, the limit is 131072 bytes. The
+predetermined sizes that kmalloc uses can be checked in the "size-<bytes>"
+entries of /proc/slabinfo
+
+In a 32 bit architecture, pointers are 4 bytes long, so the total number of
+pointers to blocks is
+
+ 131072/4 = 32768 blocks
+
+
+ PACKET_MMAP buffer size calculator
+------------------------------------
+
+Definitions:
+
+<size-max> : is the maximum size of allocable with kmalloc (see /proc/slabinfo)
+<pointer size>: depends on the architecture -- sizeof(void *)
+<page size> : depends on the architecture -- PAGE_SIZE or getpagesize (2)
+<max-order> : is the value defined with MAX_ORDER
+<frame size> : it's an upper bound of frame's capture size (more on this later)
+
+from these definitions we will derive
+
+ <block number> = <size-max>/<pointer size>
+ <block size> = <pagesize> << <max-order>
+
+so, the max buffer size is
+
+ <block number> * <block size>
+
+and, the number of frames be
+
+ <block number> * <block size> / <frame size>
+
+Suposse the following parameters, wich apply for 2.6 kernel and an
+i386 architecture:
+
+ <size-max> = 131072 bytes
+ <pointer size> = 4 bytes
+ <pagesize> = 4096 bytes
+ <max-order> = 11
+
+and a value for <frame size> of 2048 byteas. These parameters will yield
+
+ <block number> = 131072/4 = 32768 blocks
+ <block size> = 4096 << 11 = 8 MiB.
+
+and hence the buffer will have a 262144 MiB size. So it can hold
+262144 MiB / 2048 bytes = 134217728 frames
+
+
+Actually, this buffer size is not possible with an i386 architecture.
+Remember that the memory is allocated in kernel space, in the case of
+an i386 kernel's memory size is limited to 1GiB.
+
+All memory allocations are not freed until the socket is closed. The memory
+allocations are done with GFP_KERNEL priority, this basically means that
+the allocation can wait and swap other process' memory in order to allocate
+the nececessary memory, so normally limits can be reached.
+
+ Other constraints
+-------------------
+
+If you check the source code you will see that what I draw here as a frame
+is not only the link level frame. At the begining of each frame there is a
+header called struct tpacket_hdr used in PACKET_MMAP to hold link level's frame
+meta information like timestamp. So what we draw here a frame it's really
+the following (from include/linux/if_packet.h):
+
+/*
+ Frame structure:
+
+ - Start. Frame must be aligned to TPACKET_ALIGNMENT=16
+ - struct tpacket_hdr
+ - pad to TPACKET_ALIGNMENT=16
+ - struct sockaddr_ll
+ - Gap, chosen so that packet data (Start+tp_net) alignes to
+ TPACKET_ALIGNMENT=16
+ - Start+tp_mac: [ Optional MAC header ]
+ - Start+tp_net: Packet data, aligned to TPACKET_ALIGNMENT=16.
+ - Pad to align to TPACKET_ALIGNMENT=16
+ */
+
+
+ The following are conditions that are checked in packet_set_ring
+
+ tp_block_size must be a multiple of PAGE_SIZE (1)
+ tp_frame_size must be greater than TPACKET_HDRLEN (obvious)
+ tp_frame_size must be a multiple of TPACKET_ALIGNMENT
+ tp_frame_nr must be exactly frames_per_block*tp_block_nr
+
+Note that tp_block_size should be choosed to be a power of two or there will
+be a waste of memory.
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ Maping and use of the circular buffer (ring)
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+The maping of the buffer in the user process is done with the conventional
+mmap function. Even the circular buffer is compound of several physically
+discontiguous blocks of memory, they are contiguous to the user space, hence
+just one call to mmap is needed:
+
+ mmap(0, size, PROT_READ|PROT_WRITE, MAP_SHARED, fd, 0);
+
+If tp_frame_size is a divisor of tp_block_size frames will be
+contiguosly spaced by tp_frame_size bytes. If not, each
+tp_block_size/tp_frame_size frames there will be a gap between
+the frames. This is because a frame cannot be spawn across two
+blocks.
+
+At the beginning of each frame there is an status field (see
+struct tpacket_hdr). If this field is 0 means that the frame is ready
+to be used for the kernel, If not, there is a frame the user can read
+and the following flags apply:
+
+ from include/linux/if_packet.h
+
+ #define TP_STATUS_COPY 2
+ #define TP_STATUS_LOSING 4
+ #define TP_STATUS_CSUMNOTREADY 8
+
+
+TP_STATUS_COPY : This flag indicates that the frame (and associated
+ meta information) has been truncated because it's
+ larger than tp_frame_size. This packet can be
+ read entirely with recvfrom().
+
+ In order to make this work it must to be
+ enabled previously with setsockopt() and
+ the PACKET_COPY_THRESH option.
+
+ The number of frames than can be buffered to
+ be read with recvfrom is limited like a normal socket.
+ See the SO_RCVBUF option in the socket (7) man page.
+
+TP_STATUS_LOSING : indicates there were packet drops from last time
+ statistics where checked with getsockopt() and
+ the PACKET_STATISTICS option.
+
+TP_STATUS_CSUMNOTREADY: currently it's used for outgoing IP packets wich
+ it's checksum will be done in hardware. So while
+ reading the packet we should not try to check the
+ checksum.
+
+for convenience there are also the following defines:
+
+ #define TP_STATUS_KERNEL 0
+ #define TP_STATUS_USER 1
+
+The kernel initializes all frames to TP_STATUS_KERNEL, when the kernel
+receives a packet it puts in the buffer and updates the status with
+at least the TP_STATUS_USER flag. Then the user can read the packet,
+once the packet is read the user must zero the status field, so the kernel
+can use again that frame buffer.
+
+The user can use poll (any other variant should apply too) to check if new
+packets are in the ring:
+
+ struct pollfd pfd;
+
+ pfd.fd = fd;
+ pfd.revents = 0;
+ pfd.events = POLLIN|POLLRDNORM|POLLERR;
+
+ if (status == TP_STATUS_KERNEL)
+ retval = poll(&pfd, 1, timeout);
+
+It doesn't incur in a race condition to first check the status value and
+then poll for frames.
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++ THANKS
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+ Jesse Brandeburg, for fixing my grammathical/spelling errors
+
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/pktgen.txt b/Documentation/networking/pktgen.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cc4b4d04129c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/pktgen.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,214 @@
+
+
+ HOWTO for the linux packet generator
+ ------------------------------------
+
+Date: 041221
+
+Enable CONFIG_NET_PKTGEN to compile and build pktgen.o either in kernel
+or as module. Module is preferred. insmod pktgen if needed. Once running
+pktgen creates a thread on each CPU where each thread has affinty it's CPU.
+Monitoring and controlling is done via /proc. Easiest to select a suitable
+a sample script and configure.
+
+On a dual CPU:
+
+ps aux | grep pkt
+root 129 0.3 0.0 0 0 ? SW 2003 523:20 [pktgen/0]
+root 130 0.3 0.0 0 0 ? SW 2003 509:50 [pktgen/1]
+
+
+For montoring and control pktgen creates:
+ /proc/net/pktgen/pgctrl
+ /proc/net/pktgen/kpktgend_X
+ /proc/net/pktgen/ethX
+
+
+Viewing threads
+===============
+/proc/net/pktgen/kpktgend_0
+Name: kpktgend_0 max_before_softirq: 10000
+Running:
+Stopped: eth1
+Result: OK: max_before_softirq=10000
+
+Most important the devices assigend to thread. Note! A device can only belong
+to one thread.
+
+
+Viewing devices
+===============
+
+Parm section holds configured info. Current hold running stats.
+Result is printed after run or after interruption. Example:
+
+/proc/net/pktgen/eth1
+
+Params: count 10000000 min_pkt_size: 60 max_pkt_size: 60
+ frags: 0 delay: 0 clone_skb: 1000000 ifname: eth1
+ flows: 0 flowlen: 0
+ dst_min: 10.10.11.2 dst_max:
+ src_min: src_max:
+ src_mac: 00:00:00:00:00:00 dst_mac: 00:04:23:AC:FD:82
+ udp_src_min: 9 udp_src_max: 9 udp_dst_min: 9 udp_dst_max: 9
+ src_mac_count: 0 dst_mac_count: 0
+ Flags:
+Current:
+ pkts-sofar: 10000000 errors: 39664
+ started: 1103053986245187us stopped: 1103053999346329us idle: 880401us
+ seq_num: 10000011 cur_dst_mac_offset: 0 cur_src_mac_offset: 0
+ cur_saddr: 0x10a0a0a cur_daddr: 0x20b0a0a
+ cur_udp_dst: 9 cur_udp_src: 9
+ flows: 0
+Result: OK: 13101142(c12220741+d880401) usec, 10000000 (60byte,0frags)
+ 763292pps 390Mb/sec (390805504bps) errors: 39664
+
+Confguring threads and devices
+==============================
+This is done via the /proc interface easiest done via pgset in the scripts
+
+Examples:
+
+ pgset "clone_skb 1" sets the number of copies of the same packet
+ pgset "clone_skb 0" use single SKB for all transmits
+ pgset "pkt_size 9014" sets packet size to 9014
+ pgset "frags 5" packet will consist of 5 fragments
+ pgset "count 200000" sets number of packets to send, set to zero
+ for continious sends untill explicitl stopped.
+
+ pgset "delay 5000" adds delay to hard_start_xmit(). nanoseconds
+
+ pgset "dst 10.0.0.1" sets IP destination address
+ (BEWARE! This generator is very aggressive!)
+
+ pgset "dst_min 10.0.0.1" Same as dst
+ pgset "dst_max 10.0.0.254" Set the maximum destination IP.
+ pgset "src_min 10.0.0.1" Set the minimum (or only) source IP.
+ pgset "src_max 10.0.0.254" Set the maximum source IP.
+ pgset "dst6 fec0::1" IPV6 destination address
+ pgset "src6 fec0::2" IPV6 source address
+ pgset "dstmac 00:00:00:00:00:00" sets MAC destination address
+ pgset "srcmac 00:00:00:00:00:00" sets MAC source address
+
+ pgset "src_mac_count 1" Sets the number of MACs we'll range through.
+ The 'minimum' MAC is what you set with srcmac.
+
+ pgset "dst_mac_count 1" Sets the number of MACs we'll range through.
+ The 'minimum' MAC is what you set with dstmac.
+
+ pgset "flag [name]" Set a flag to determine behaviour. Current flags
+ are: IPSRC_RND #IP Source is random (between min/max),
+ IPDST_RND, UDPSRC_RND,
+ UDPDST_RND, MACSRC_RND, MACDST_RND
+
+ pgset "udp_src_min 9" set UDP source port min, If < udp_src_max, then
+ cycle through the port range.
+
+ pgset "udp_src_max 9" set UDP source port max.
+ pgset "udp_dst_min 9" set UDP destination port min, If < udp_dst_max, then
+ cycle through the port range.
+ pgset "udp_dst_max 9" set UDP destination port max.
+
+ pgset stop aborts injection. Also, ^C aborts generator.
+
+
+Example scripts
+===============
+
+A collection of small tutorial scripts for pktgen is in expamples dir.
+
+pktgen.conf-1-1 # 1 CPU 1 dev
+pktgen.conf-1-2 # 1 CPU 2 dev
+pktgen.conf-2-1 # 2 CPU's 1 dev
+pktgen.conf-2-2 # 2 CPU's 2 dev
+pktgen.conf-1-1-rdos # 1 CPU 1 dev w. route DoS
+pktgen.conf-1-1-ip6 # 1 CPU 1 dev ipv6
+pktgen.conf-1-1-ip6-rdos # 1 CPU 1 dev ipv6 w. route DoS
+pktgen.conf-1-1-flows # 1 CPU 1 dev multiple flows.
+
+Run in shell: ./pktgen.conf-X-Y It does all the setup including sending.
+
+
+Interrupt affinity
+===================
+Note when adding devices to a specific CPU there good idea to also assign
+/proc/irq/XX/smp_affinity so the TX-interrupts gets bound to the same CPU.
+as this reduces cache bouncing when freeing skb's.
+
+
+Current commands and configuration options
+==========================================
+
+** Pgcontrol commands:
+
+start
+stop
+
+** Thread commands:
+
+add_device
+rem_device_all
+max_before_softirq
+
+
+** Device commands:
+
+count
+clone_skb
+debug
+
+frags
+delay
+
+src_mac_count
+dst_mac_count
+
+pkt_size
+min_pkt_size
+max_pkt_size
+
+udp_src_min
+udp_src_max
+
+udp_dst_min
+udp_dst_max
+
+flag
+ IPSRC_RND
+ TXSIZE_RND
+ IPDST_RND
+ UDPSRC_RND
+ UDPDST_RND
+ MACSRC_RND
+ MACDST_RND
+
+dst_min
+dst_max
+
+src_min
+src_max
+
+dst_mac
+src_mac
+
+clear_counters
+
+dst6
+src6
+
+flows
+flowlen
+
+References:
+ftp://robur.slu.se/pub/Linux/net-development/pktgen-testing/
+ftp://robur.slu.se/pub/Linux/net-development/pktgen-testing/examples/
+
+Paper from Linux-Kongress in Erlangen 2004.
+ftp://robur.slu.se/pub/Linux/net-development/pktgen-testing/pktgen_paper.pdf
+
+Thanks to:
+Grant Grundler for testing on IA-64 and parisc, Harald Welte, Lennert Buytenhek
+Stephen Hemminger, Andi Kleen, Dave Miller and many others.
+
+
+Good luck with the linux net-development. \ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/policy-routing.txt b/Documentation/networking/policy-routing.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..36f6936d7f21
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/policy-routing.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+Classes
+-------
+
+ "Class" is a complete routing table in common sense.
+ I.e. it is tree of nodes (destination prefix, tos, metric)
+ with attached information: gateway, device etc.
+ This tree is looked up as specified in RFC1812 5.2.4.3
+ 1. Basic match
+ 2. Longest match
+ 3. Weak TOS.
+ 4. Metric. (should not be in kernel space, but they are)
+ 5. Additional pruning rules. (not in kernel space).
+
+ We have two special type of nodes:
+ REJECT - abort route lookup and return an error value.
+ THROW - abort route lookup in this class.
+
+
+ Currently the number of classes is limited to 255
+ (0 is reserved for "not specified class")
+
+ Three classes are builtin:
+
+ RT_CLASS_LOCAL=255 - local interface addresses,
+ broadcasts, nat addresses.
+
+ RT_CLASS_MAIN=254 - all normal routes are put there
+ by default.
+
+ RT_CLASS_DEFAULT=253 - if ip_fib_model==1, then
+ normal default routes are put there, if ip_fib_model==2
+ all gateway routes are put there.
+
+
+Rules
+-----
+ Rule is a record of (src prefix, src interface, tos, dst prefix)
+ with attached information.
+
+ Rule types:
+ RTP_ROUTE - lookup in attached class
+ RTP_NAT - lookup in attached class and if a match is found,
+ translate packet source address.
+ RTP_MASQUERADE - lookup in attached class and if a match is found,
+ masquerade packet as sourced by us.
+ RTP_DROP - silently drop the packet.
+ RTP_REJECT - drop the packet and send ICMP NET UNREACHABLE.
+ RTP_PROHIBIT - drop the packet and send ICMP COMM. ADM. PROHIBITED.
+
+ Rule flags:
+ RTRF_LOG - log route creations.
+ RTRF_VALVE - One way route (used with masquerading)
+
+Default setup:
+
+root@amber:/pub/ip-routing # iproute -r
+Kernel routing policy rules
+Pref Source Destination TOS Iface Cl
+ 0 default default 00 * 255
+ 254 default default 00 * 254
+ 255 default default 00 * 253
+
+
+Lookup algorithm
+----------------
+
+ We scan rules list, and if a rule is matched, apply it.
+ If a route is found, return it.
+ If it is not found or a THROW node was matched, continue
+ to scan rules.
+
+Applications
+------------
+
+1. Just ignore classes. All the routes are put into MAIN class
+ (and/or into DEFAULT class).
+
+ HOWTO: iproute add PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ gw GW ] [ dev DEV ]
+ [ metric METRIC ] [ reject ] ... (look at iproute utility)
+
+ or use route utility from current net-tools.
+
+2. Opposite case. Just forget all that you know about routing
+ tables. Every rule is supplied with its own gateway, device
+ info. record. This approach is not appropriate for automated
+ route maintenance, but it is ideal for manual configuration.
+
+ HOWTO: iproute addrule [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ]
+ [ dev INPUTDEV] [ pref PREFERENCE ] route [ gw GATEWAY ]
+ [ dev OUTDEV ] .....
+
+ Warning: As of now the size of the routing table in this
+ approach is limited to 256. If someone likes this model, I'll
+ relax this limitation.
+
+3. OSPF classes (see RFC1583, RFC1812 E.3.3)
+ Very clean, stable and robust algorithm for OSPF routing
+ domains. Unfortunately, it is not widely used in the Internet.
+
+ Proposed setup:
+ 255 local addresses
+ 254 interface routes
+ 253 ASE routes with external metric
+ 252 ASE routes with internal metric
+ 251 inter-area routes
+ 250 intra-area routes for 1st area
+ 249 intra-area routes for 2nd area
+ etc.
+
+ Rules:
+ iproute addrule class 253
+ iproute addrule class 252
+ iproute addrule class 251
+ iproute addrule to a-prefix-for-1st-area class 250
+ iproute addrule to another-prefix-for-1st-area class 250
+ ...
+ iproute addrule to a-prefix-for-2nd-area class 249
+ ...
+
+ Area classes must be terminated with reject record.
+ iproute add default reject class 250
+ iproute add default reject class 249
+ ...
+
+4. The Variant Router Requirements Algorithm (RFC1812 E.3.2)
+ Create 16 classes for different TOS values.
+ It is a funny, but pretty useless algorithm.
+ I listed it just to show the power of new routing code.
+
+5. All the variety of combinations......
+
+
+GATED
+-----
+
+ Gated does not understand classes, but it will work
+ happily in MAIN+DEFAULT. All policy routes can be set
+ and maintained manually.
+
+IMPORTANT NOTE
+--------------
+ route.c has a compilation time switch CONFIG_IP_LOCAL_RT_POLICY.
+ If it is set, locally originated packets are routed
+ using all the policy list. This is not very convenient and
+ pretty ambiguous when used with NAT and masquerading.
+ I set it to FALSE by default.
+
+
+Alexey Kuznetov
+kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ppp_generic.txt b/Documentation/networking/ppp_generic.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..15b5172fbb98
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ppp_generic.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,432 @@
+ PPP Generic Driver and Channel Interface
+ ----------------------------------------
+
+ Paul Mackerras
+ paulus@samba.org
+ 7 Feb 2002
+
+The generic PPP driver in linux-2.4 provides an implementation of the
+functionality which is of use in any PPP implementation, including:
+
+* the network interface unit (ppp0 etc.)
+* the interface to the networking code
+* PPP multilink: splitting datagrams between multiple links, and
+ ordering and combining received fragments
+* the interface to pppd, via a /dev/ppp character device
+* packet compression and decompression
+* TCP/IP header compression and decompression
+* detecting network traffic for demand dialling and for idle timeouts
+* simple packet filtering
+
+For sending and receiving PPP frames, the generic PPP driver calls on
+the services of PPP `channels'. A PPP channel encapsulates a
+mechanism for transporting PPP frames from one machine to another. A
+PPP channel implementation can be arbitrarily complex internally but
+has a very simple interface with the generic PPP code: it merely has
+to be able to send PPP frames, receive PPP frames, and optionally
+handle ioctl requests. Currently there are PPP channel
+implementations for asynchronous serial ports, synchronous serial
+ports, and for PPP over ethernet.
+
+This architecture makes it possible to implement PPP multilink in a
+natural and straightforward way, by allowing more than one channel to
+be linked to each ppp network interface unit. The generic layer is
+responsible for splitting datagrams on transmit and recombining them
+on receive.
+
+
+PPP channel API
+---------------
+
+See include/linux/ppp_channel.h for the declaration of the types and
+functions used to communicate between the generic PPP layer and PPP
+channels.
+
+Each channel has to provide two functions to the generic PPP layer,
+via the ppp_channel.ops pointer:
+
+* start_xmit() is called by the generic layer when it has a frame to
+ send. The channel has the option of rejecting the frame for
+ flow-control reasons. In this case, start_xmit() should return 0
+ and the channel should call the ppp_output_wakeup() function at a
+ later time when it can accept frames again, and the generic layer
+ will then attempt to retransmit the rejected frame(s). If the frame
+ is accepted, the start_xmit() function should return 1.
+
+* ioctl() provides an interface which can be used by a user-space
+ program to control aspects of the channel's behaviour. This
+ procedure will be called when a user-space program does an ioctl
+ system call on an instance of /dev/ppp which is bound to the
+ channel. (Usually it would only be pppd which would do this.)
+
+The generic PPP layer provides seven functions to channels:
+
+* ppp_register_channel() is called when a channel has been created, to
+ notify the PPP generic layer of its presence. For example, setting
+ a serial port to the PPPDISC line discipline causes the ppp_async
+ channel code to call this function.
+
+* ppp_unregister_channel() is called when a channel is to be
+ destroyed. For example, the ppp_async channel code calls this when
+ a hangup is detected on the serial port.
+
+* ppp_output_wakeup() is called by a channel when it has previously
+ rejected a call to its start_xmit function, and can now accept more
+ packets.
+
+* ppp_input() is called by a channel when it has received a complete
+ PPP frame.
+
+* ppp_input_error() is called by a channel when it has detected that a
+ frame has been lost or dropped (for example, because of a FCS (frame
+ check sequence) error).
+
+* ppp_channel_index() returns the channel index assigned by the PPP
+ generic layer to this channel. The channel should provide some way
+ (e.g. an ioctl) to transmit this back to user-space, as user-space
+ will need it to attach an instance of /dev/ppp to this channel.
+
+* ppp_unit_number() returns the unit number of the ppp network
+ interface to which this channel is connected, or -1 if the channel
+ is not connected.
+
+Connecting a channel to the ppp generic layer is initiated from the
+channel code, rather than from the generic layer. The channel is
+expected to have some way for a user-level process to control it
+independently of the ppp generic layer. For example, with the
+ppp_async channel, this is provided by the file descriptor to the
+serial port.
+
+Generally a user-level process will initialize the underlying
+communications medium and prepare it to do PPP. For example, with an
+async tty, this can involve setting the tty speed and modes, issuing
+modem commands, and then going through some sort of dialog with the
+remote system to invoke PPP service there. We refer to this process
+as `discovery'. Then the user-level process tells the medium to
+become a PPP channel and register itself with the generic PPP layer.
+The channel then has to report the channel number assigned to it back
+to the user-level process. From that point, the PPP negotiation code
+in the PPP daemon (pppd) can take over and perform the PPP
+negotiation, accessing the channel through the /dev/ppp interface.
+
+At the interface to the PPP generic layer, PPP frames are stored in
+skbuff structures and start with the two-byte PPP protocol number.
+The frame does *not* include the 0xff `address' byte or the 0x03
+`control' byte that are optionally used in async PPP. Nor is there
+any escaping of control characters, nor are there any FCS or framing
+characters included. That is all the responsibility of the channel
+code, if it is needed for the particular medium. That is, the skbuffs
+presented to the start_xmit() function contain only the 2-byte
+protocol number and the data, and the skbuffs presented to ppp_input()
+must be in the same format.
+
+The channel must provide an instance of a ppp_channel struct to
+represent the channel. The channel is free to use the `private' field
+however it wishes. The channel should initialize the `mtu' and
+`hdrlen' fields before calling ppp_register_channel() and not change
+them until after ppp_unregister_channel() returns. The `mtu' field
+represents the maximum size of the data part of the PPP frames, that
+is, it does not include the 2-byte protocol number.
+
+If the channel needs some headroom in the skbuffs presented to it for
+transmission (i.e., some space free in the skbuff data area before the
+start of the PPP frame), it should set the `hdrlen' field of the
+ppp_channel struct to the amount of headroom required. The generic
+PPP layer will attempt to provide that much headroom but the channel
+should still check if there is sufficient headroom and copy the skbuff
+if there isn't.
+
+On the input side, channels should ideally provide at least 2 bytes of
+headroom in the skbuffs presented to ppp_input(). The generic PPP
+code does not require this but will be more efficient if this is done.
+
+
+Buffering and flow control
+--------------------------
+
+The generic PPP layer has been designed to minimize the amount of data
+that it buffers in the transmit direction. It maintains a queue of
+transmit packets for the PPP unit (network interface device) plus a
+queue of transmit packets for each attached channel. Normally the
+transmit queue for the unit will contain at most one packet; the
+exceptions are when pppd sends packets by writing to /dev/ppp, and
+when the core networking code calls the generic layer's start_xmit()
+function with the queue stopped, i.e. when the generic layer has
+called netif_stop_queue(), which only happens on a transmit timeout.
+The start_xmit function always accepts and queues the packet which it
+is asked to transmit.
+
+Transmit packets are dequeued from the PPP unit transmit queue and
+then subjected to TCP/IP header compression and packet compression
+(Deflate or BSD-Compress compression), as appropriate. After this
+point the packets can no longer be reordered, as the decompression
+algorithms rely on receiving compressed packets in the same order that
+they were generated.
+
+If multilink is not in use, this packet is then passed to the attached
+channel's start_xmit() function. If the channel refuses to take
+the packet, the generic layer saves it for later transmission. The
+generic layer will call the channel's start_xmit() function again
+when the channel calls ppp_output_wakeup() or when the core
+networking code calls the generic layer's start_xmit() function
+again. The generic layer contains no timeout and retransmission
+logic; it relies on the core networking code for that.
+
+If multilink is in use, the generic layer divides the packet into one
+or more fragments and puts a multilink header on each fragment. It
+decides how many fragments to use based on the length of the packet
+and the number of channels which are potentially able to accept a
+fragment at the moment. A channel is potentially able to accept a
+fragment if it doesn't have any fragments currently queued up for it
+to transmit. The channel may still refuse a fragment; in this case
+the fragment is queued up for the channel to transmit later. This
+scheme has the effect that more fragments are given to higher-
+bandwidth channels. It also means that under light load, the generic
+layer will tend to fragment large packets across all the channels,
+thus reducing latency, while under heavy load, packets will tend to be
+transmitted as single fragments, thus reducing the overhead of
+fragmentation.
+
+
+SMP safety
+----------
+
+The PPP generic layer has been designed to be SMP-safe. Locks are
+used around accesses to the internal data structures where necessary
+to ensure their integrity. As part of this, the generic layer
+requires that the channels adhere to certain requirements and in turn
+provides certain guarantees to the channels. Essentially the channels
+are required to provide the appropriate locking on the ppp_channel
+structures that form the basis of the communication between the
+channel and the generic layer. This is because the channel provides
+the storage for the ppp_channel structure, and so the channel is
+required to provide the guarantee that this storage exists and is
+valid at the appropriate times.
+
+The generic layer requires these guarantees from the channel:
+
+* The ppp_channel object must exist from the time that
+ ppp_register_channel() is called until after the call to
+ ppp_unregister_channel() returns.
+
+* No thread may be in a call to any of ppp_input(), ppp_input_error(),
+ ppp_output_wakeup(), ppp_channel_index() or ppp_unit_number() for a
+ channel at the time that ppp_unregister_channel() is called for that
+ channel.
+
+* ppp_register_channel() and ppp_unregister_channel() must be called
+ from process context, not interrupt or softirq/BH context.
+
+* The remaining generic layer functions may be called at softirq/BH
+ level but must not be called from a hardware interrupt handler.
+
+* The generic layer may call the channel start_xmit() function at
+ softirq/BH level but will not call it at interrupt level. Thus the
+ start_xmit() function may not block.
+
+* The generic layer will only call the channel ioctl() function in
+ process context.
+
+The generic layer provides these guarantees to the channels:
+
+* The generic layer will not call the start_xmit() function for a
+ channel while any thread is already executing in that function for
+ that channel.
+
+* The generic layer will not call the ioctl() function for a channel
+ while any thread is already executing in that function for that
+ channel.
+
+* By the time a call to ppp_unregister_channel() returns, no thread
+ will be executing in a call from the generic layer to that channel's
+ start_xmit() or ioctl() function, and the generic layer will not
+ call either of those functions subsequently.
+
+
+Interface to pppd
+-----------------
+
+The PPP generic layer exports a character device interface called
+/dev/ppp. This is used by pppd to control PPP interface units and
+channels. Although there is only one /dev/ppp, each open instance of
+/dev/ppp acts independently and can be attached either to a PPP unit
+or a PPP channel. This is achieved using the file->private_data field
+to point to a separate object for each open instance of /dev/ppp. In
+this way an effect similar to Solaris' clone open is obtained,
+allowing us to control an arbitrary number of PPP interfaces and
+channels without having to fill up /dev with hundreds of device names.
+
+When /dev/ppp is opened, a new instance is created which is initially
+unattached. Using an ioctl call, it can then be attached to an
+existing unit, attached to a newly-created unit, or attached to an
+existing channel. An instance attached to a unit can be used to send
+and receive PPP control frames, using the read() and write() system
+calls, along with poll() if necessary. Similarly, an instance
+attached to a channel can be used to send and receive PPP frames on
+that channel.
+
+In multilink terms, the unit represents the bundle, while the channels
+represent the individual physical links. Thus, a PPP frame sent by a
+write to the unit (i.e., to an instance of /dev/ppp attached to the
+unit) will be subject to bundle-level compression and to fragmentation
+across the individual links (if multilink is in use). In contrast, a
+PPP frame sent by a write to the channel will be sent as-is on that
+channel, without any multilink header.
+
+A channel is not initially attached to any unit. In this state it can
+be used for PPP negotiation but not for the transfer of data packets.
+It can then be connected to a PPP unit with an ioctl call, which
+makes it available to send and receive data packets for that unit.
+
+The ioctl calls which are available on an instance of /dev/ppp depend
+on whether it is unattached, attached to a PPP interface, or attached
+to a PPP channel. The ioctl calls which are available on an
+unattached instance are:
+
+* PPPIOCNEWUNIT creates a new PPP interface and makes this /dev/ppp
+ instance the "owner" of the interface. The argument should point to
+ an int which is the desired unit number if >= 0, or -1 to assign the
+ lowest unused unit number. Being the owner of the interface means
+ that the interface will be shut down if this instance of /dev/ppp is
+ closed.
+
+* PPPIOCATTACH attaches this instance to an existing PPP interface.
+ The argument should point to an int containing the unit number.
+ This does not make this instance the owner of the PPP interface.
+
+* PPPIOCATTCHAN attaches this instance to an existing PPP channel.
+ The argument should point to an int containing the channel number.
+
+The ioctl calls available on an instance of /dev/ppp attached to a
+channel are:
+
+* PPPIOCDETACH detaches the instance from the channel. This ioctl is
+ deprecated since the same effect can be achieved by closing the
+ instance. In order to prevent possible races this ioctl will fail
+ with an EINVAL error if more than one file descriptor refers to this
+ instance (i.e. as a result of dup(), dup2() or fork()).
+
+* PPPIOCCONNECT connects this channel to a PPP interface. The
+ argument should point to an int containing the interface unit
+ number. It will return an EINVAL error if the channel is already
+ connected to an interface, or ENXIO if the requested interface does
+ not exist.
+
+* PPPIOCDISCONN disconnects this channel from the PPP interface that
+ it is connected to. It will return an EINVAL error if the channel
+ is not connected to an interface.
+
+* All other ioctl commands are passed to the channel ioctl() function.
+
+The ioctl calls that are available on an instance that is attached to
+an interface unit are:
+
+* PPPIOCSMRU sets the MRU (maximum receive unit) for the interface.
+ The argument should point to an int containing the new MRU value.
+
+* PPPIOCSFLAGS sets flags which control the operation of the
+ interface. The argument should be a pointer to an int containing
+ the new flags value. The bits in the flags value that can be set
+ are:
+ SC_COMP_TCP enable transmit TCP header compression
+ SC_NO_TCP_CCID disable connection-id compression for
+ TCP header compression
+ SC_REJ_COMP_TCP disable receive TCP header decompression
+ SC_CCP_OPEN Compression Control Protocol (CCP) is
+ open, so inspect CCP packets
+ SC_CCP_UP CCP is up, may (de)compress packets
+ SC_LOOP_TRAFFIC send IP traffic to pppd
+ SC_MULTILINK enable PPP multilink fragmentation on
+ transmitted packets
+ SC_MP_SHORTSEQ expect short multilink sequence
+ numbers on received multilink fragments
+ SC_MP_XSHORTSEQ transmit short multilink sequence nos.
+
+ The values of these flags are defined in <linux/if_ppp.h>. Note
+ that the values of the SC_MULTILINK, SC_MP_SHORTSEQ and
+ SC_MP_XSHORTSEQ bits are ignored if the CONFIG_PPP_MULTILINK option
+ is not selected.
+
+* PPPIOCGFLAGS returns the value of the status/control flags for the
+ interface unit. The argument should point to an int where the ioctl
+ will store the flags value. As well as the values listed above for
+ PPPIOCSFLAGS, the following bits may be set in the returned value:
+ SC_COMP_RUN CCP compressor is running
+ SC_DECOMP_RUN CCP decompressor is running
+ SC_DC_ERROR CCP decompressor detected non-fatal error
+ SC_DC_FERROR CCP decompressor detected fatal error
+
+* PPPIOCSCOMPRESS sets the parameters for packet compression or
+ decompression. The argument should point to a ppp_option_data
+ structure (defined in <linux/if_ppp.h>), which contains a
+ pointer/length pair which should describe a block of memory
+ containing a CCP option specifying a compression method and its
+ parameters. The ppp_option_data struct also contains a `transmit'
+ field. If this is 0, the ioctl will affect the receive path,
+ otherwise the transmit path.
+
+* PPPIOCGUNIT returns, in the int pointed to by the argument, the unit
+ number of this interface unit.
+
+* PPPIOCSDEBUG sets the debug flags for the interface to the value in
+ the int pointed to by the argument. Only the least significant bit
+ is used; if this is 1 the generic layer will print some debug
+ messages during its operation. This is only intended for debugging
+ the generic PPP layer code; it is generally not helpful for working
+ out why a PPP connection is failing.
+
+* PPPIOCGDEBUG returns the debug flags for the interface in the int
+ pointed to by the argument.
+
+* PPPIOCGIDLE returns the time, in seconds, since the last data
+ packets were sent and received. The argument should point to a
+ ppp_idle structure (defined in <linux/ppp_defs.h>). If the
+ CONFIG_PPP_FILTER option is enabled, the set of packets which reset
+ the transmit and receive idle timers is restricted to those which
+ pass the `active' packet filter.
+
+* PPPIOCSMAXCID sets the maximum connection-ID parameter (and thus the
+ number of connection slots) for the TCP header compressor and
+ decompressor. The lower 16 bits of the int pointed to by the
+ argument specify the maximum connection-ID for the compressor. If
+ the upper 16 bits of that int are non-zero, they specify the maximum
+ connection-ID for the decompressor, otherwise the decompressor's
+ maximum connection-ID is set to 15.
+
+* PPPIOCSNPMODE sets the network-protocol mode for a given network
+ protocol. The argument should point to an npioctl struct (defined
+ in <linux/if_ppp.h>). The `protocol' field gives the PPP protocol
+ number for the protocol to be affected, and the `mode' field
+ specifies what to do with packets for that protocol:
+
+ NPMODE_PASS normal operation, transmit and receive packets
+ NPMODE_DROP silently drop packets for this protocol
+ NPMODE_ERROR drop packets and return an error on transmit
+ NPMODE_QUEUE queue up packets for transmit, drop received
+ packets
+
+ At present NPMODE_ERROR and NPMODE_QUEUE have the same effect as
+ NPMODE_DROP.
+
+* PPPIOCGNPMODE returns the network-protocol mode for a given
+ protocol. The argument should point to an npioctl struct with the
+ `protocol' field set to the PPP protocol number for the protocol of
+ interest. On return the `mode' field will be set to the network-
+ protocol mode for that protocol.
+
+* PPPIOCSPASS and PPPIOCSACTIVE set the `pass' and `active' packet
+ filters. These ioctls are only available if the CONFIG_PPP_FILTER
+ option is selected. The argument should point to a sock_fprog
+ structure (defined in <linux/filter.h>) containing the compiled BPF
+ instructions for the filter. Packets are dropped if they fail the
+ `pass' filter; otherwise, if they fail the `active' filter they are
+ passed but they do not reset the transmit or receive idle timer.
+
+* PPPIOCSMRRU enables or disables multilink processing for received
+ packets and sets the multilink MRRU (maximum reconstructed receive
+ unit). The argument should point to an int containing the new MRRU
+ value. If the MRRU value is 0, processing of received multilink
+ fragments is disabled. This ioctl is only available if the
+ CONFIG_PPP_MULTILINK option is selected.
+
+Last modified: 7-feb-2002
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/proc_net_tcp.txt b/Documentation/networking/proc_net_tcp.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..59cb915c3713
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/proc_net_tcp.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+This document describes the interfaces /proc/net/tcp and /proc/net/tcp6.
+
+These /proc interfaces provide information about currently active TCP
+connections, and are implemented by tcp_get_info() in net/ipv4/tcp_ipv4.c and
+tcp6_get_info() in net/ipv6/tcp_ipv6.c, respectively.
+
+It will first list all listening TCP sockets, and next list all established
+TCP connections. A typical entry of /proc/net/tcp would look like this (split
+up into 3 parts because of the length of the line):
+
+ 46: 010310AC:9C4C 030310AC:1770 01
+ | | | | | |--> connection state
+ | | | | |------> remote TCP port number
+ | | | |-------------> remote IPv4 address
+ | | |--------------------> local TCP port number
+ | |---------------------------> local IPv4 address
+ |----------------------------------> number of entry
+
+ 00000150:00000000 01:00000019 00000000
+ | | | | |--> number of unrecovered RTO timeouts
+ | | | |----------> number of jiffies until timer expires
+ | | |----------------> timer_active (see below)
+ | |----------------------> receive-queue
+ |-------------------------------> transmit-queue
+
+ 1000 0 54165785 4 cd1e6040 25 4 27 3 -1
+ | | | | | | | | | |--> slow start size threshold,
+ | | | | | | | | | or -1 if the treshold
+ | | | | | | | | | is >= 0xFFFF
+ | | | | | | | | |----> sending congestion window
+ | | | | | | | |-------> (ack.quick<<1)|ack.pingpong
+ | | | | | | |---------> Predicted tick of soft clock
+ | | | | | | (delayed ACK control data)
+ | | | | | |------------> retransmit timeout
+ | | | | |------------------> location of socket in memory
+ | | | |-----------------------> socket reference count
+ | | |-----------------------------> inode
+ | |----------------------------------> unanswered 0-window probes
+ |---------------------------------------------> uid
+
+timer_active:
+ 0 no timer is pending
+ 1 retransmit-timer is pending
+ 2 another timer (e.g. delayed ack or keepalive) is pending
+ 3 this is a socket in TIME_WAIT state. Not all fields will contain
+ data (or even exist)
+ 4 zero window probe timer is pending
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/pt.txt b/Documentation/networking/pt.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..72e888c1d988
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/pt.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+This is the README for the Gracilis Packetwin device driver, version 0.5
+ALPHA for Linux 1.3.43.
+
+These files will allow you to talk to the PackeTwin (now know as PT) and
+connect through it just like a pair of TNCs. To do this you will also
+require the AX.25 code in the kernel enabled.
+
+There are four files in this archive; this readme, a patch file, a .c file
+and finally a .h file. The two program files need to be put into the
+drivers/net directory in the Linux source tree, for me this is the
+directory /usr/src/linux/drivers/net. The patch file needs to be patched in
+at the top of the Linux source tree (/usr/src/linux in my case).
+
+You will most probably have to edit the pt.c file to suit your own setup,
+this should just involve changing some of the defines at the top of the file.
+Please note that if you run an external modem you must specify a speed of 0.
+
+The program is currently setup to run a 4800 baud external modem on port A
+and a Kantronics DE-9600 daughter board on port B so if you have this (or
+something similar) then you're right.
+
+To compile in the driver, put the files in the correct place and patch in
+the diff. You will have to re-configure the kernel again before you
+recompile it.
+
+The driver is not real good at the moment for finding the card. You can
+'help' it by changing the order of the potential addresses in the structure
+found in the pt_init() function so the address of where the card is is put
+first.
+
+After compiling, you have to get them going, they are pretty well like any
+other net device and just need ifconfig to get them going.
+As an example, here is my /etc/rc.net
+--------------------------
+
+#
+# Configure the PackeTwin, port A.
+/sbin/ifconfig pt0a 44.136.8.87 hw ax25 vk2xlz mtu 512
+/sbin/ifconfig pt0a 44.136.8.87 broadcast 44.136.8.255 netmask 255.255.255.0
+/sbin/route add -net 44.136.8.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev pt0a
+/sbin/route add -net 44.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 gw 44.136.8.68 dev pt0a
+/sbin/route add -net 138.25.16.0 netmask 255.255.240.0 dev pt0a
+/sbin/route add -host 44.136.8.255 dev pt0a
+#
+# Configure the PackeTwin, port B.
+/sbin/ifconfig pt0b 44.136.8.87 hw ax25 vk2xlz-1 mtu 512
+/sbin/ifconfig pt0b 44.136.8.87 broadcast 44.255.255.255 netmask 255.0.0.0
+/sbin/route add -host 44.136.8.216 dev pt0b
+/sbin/route add -host 44.136.8.95 dev pt0b
+/sbin/route add -host 44.255.255.255 dev pt0b
+
+This version of the driver comes under the GNU GPL. If you have one of my
+previous (non-GPL) versions of the driver, please update to this one.
+
+I hope that this all works well for you. I would be pleased to hear how
+many people use the driver and if it does its job.
+
+ - Craig vk2xlz <csmall@small.dropbear.id.au>
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/ray_cs.txt b/Documentation/networking/ray_cs.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b1def00bc4a3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/ray_cs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,151 @@
+September 21, 1999
+
+Copyright (c) 1998 Corey Thomas (corey@world.std.com)
+
+This file is the documentation for the Raylink Wireless LAN card driver for
+Linux. The Raylink wireless LAN card is a PCMCIA card which provides IEEE
+802.11 compatible wireless network connectivity at 1 and 2 megabits/second.
+See http://www.raytheon.com/micro/raylink/ for more information on the Raylink
+card. This driver is in early development and does have bugs. See the known
+bugs and limitations at the end of this document for more information.
+This driver also works with WebGear's Aviator 2.4 and Aviator Pro
+wireless LAN cards.
+
+As of kernel 2.3.18, the ray_cs driver is part of the Linux kernel
+source. My web page for the development of ray_cs is at
+http://world.std.com/~corey/raylink.html and I can be emailed at
+corey@world.std.com
+
+The kernel driver is based on ray_cs-1.62.tgz
+
+The driver at my web page is intended to be used as an add on to
+David Hinds pcmcia package. All the command line parameters are
+available when compiled as a module. When built into the kernel, only
+the essid= string parameter is available via the kernel command line.
+This will change after the method of sorting out parameters for all
+the PCMCIA drivers is agreed upon. If you must have a built in driver
+with nondefault parameters, they can be edited in
+/usr/src/linux/drivers/net/pcmcia/ray_cs.c. Searching for MODULE_PARM
+will find them all.
+
+Information on card services is available at:
+ ftp://hyper.stanford.edu/pub/pcmcia/doc
+ http://hyper.stanford.edu/HyperNews/get/pcmcia/home.html
+
+
+Card services user programs are still required for PCMCIA devices.
+pcmcia-cs-3.1.1 or greater is required for the kernel version of
+the driver.
+
+Currently, ray_cs is not part of David Hinds card services package,
+so the following magic is required.
+
+At the end of the /etc/pcmcia/config.opts file, add the line:
+source ./ray_cs.opts
+This will make card services read the ray_cs.opts file
+when starting. Create the file /etc/pcmcia/ray_cs.opts containing the
+following:
+
+#### start of /etc/pcmcia/ray_cs.opts ###################
+# Configuration options for Raylink Wireless LAN PCMCIA card
+device "ray_cs"
+ class "network" module "misc/ray_cs"
+
+card "RayLink PC Card WLAN Adapter"
+ manfid 0x01a6, 0x0000
+ bind "ray_cs"
+
+module "misc/ray_cs" opts ""
+#### end of /etc/pcmcia/ray_cs.opts #####################
+
+
+To join an existing network with
+different parameters, contact the network administrator for the
+configuration information, and edit /etc/pcmcia/ray_cs.opts.
+Add the parameters below between the empty quotes.
+
+Parameters for ray_cs driver which may be specified in ray_cs.opts:
+
+bc integer 0 = normal mode (802.11 timing)
+ 1 = slow down inter frame timing to allow
+ operation with older breezecom access
+ points.
+
+beacon_period integer beacon period in Kilo-microseconds
+ legal values = must be integer multiple
+ of hop dwell
+ default = 256
+
+country integer 1 = USA (default)
+ 2 = Europe
+ 3 = Japan
+ 4 = Korea
+ 5 = Spain
+ 6 = France
+ 7 = Israel
+ 8 = Australia
+
+essid string ESS ID - network name to join
+ string with maximum length of 32 chars
+ default value = "ADHOC_ESSID"
+
+hop_dwell integer hop dwell time in Kilo-microseconds
+ legal values = 16,32,64,128(default),256
+
+irq_mask integer linux standard 16 bit value 1bit/IRQ
+ lsb is IRQ 0, bit 1 is IRQ 1 etc.
+ Used to restrict choice of IRQ's to use.
+ Recommended method for controlling
+ interrupts is in /etc/pcmcia/config.opts
+
+net_type integer 0 (default) = adhoc network,
+ 1 = infrastructure
+
+phy_addr string string containing new MAC address in
+ hex, must start with x eg
+ x00008f123456
+
+psm integer 0 = continuously active
+ 1 = power save mode (not useful yet)
+
+pc_debug integer (0-5) larger values for more verbose
+ logging. Replaces ray_debug.
+
+ray_debug integer Replaced with pc_debug
+
+ray_mem_speed integer defaults to 500
+
+sniffer integer 0 = not sniffer (default)
+ 1 = sniffer which can be used to record all
+ network traffic using tcpdump or similar,
+ but no normal network use is allowed.
+
+translate integer 0 = no translation (encapsulate frames)
+ 1 = translation (RFC1042/802.1)
+
+
+More on sniffer mode:
+
+tcpdump does not understand 802.11 headers, so it can't
+interpret the contents, but it can record to a file. This is only
+useful for debugging 802.11 lowlevel protocols that are not visible to
+linux. If you want to watch ftp xfers, or do similar things, you
+don't need to use sniffer mode. Also, some packet types are never
+sent up by the card, so you will never see them (ack, rts, cts, probe
+etc.) There is a simple program (showcap) included in the ray_cs
+package which parses the 802.11 headers.
+
+Known Problems and missing features
+
+ Does not work with non x86
+
+ Does not work with SMP
+
+ Support for defragmenting frames is not yet debugged, and in
+ fact is known to not work. I have never encountered a net set
+ up to fragment, but still, it should be fixed.
+
+ The ioctl support is incomplete. The hardware address cannot be set
+ using ifconfig yet. If a different hardware address is needed, it may
+ be set using the phy_addr parameter in ray_cs.opts. This requires
+ a card insertion to take effect.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/routing.txt b/Documentation/networking/routing.txt
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a26838b930f2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/networking/routing.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+The directory ftp.inr.ac.ru:/ip-routing contains:
+
+- iproute.c - "professional" routing table maintenance utility.
+
+- rdisc.tar.gz - rdisc daemon, ported from Sun.
+ STRONGLY RECOMMENDED FOR ALL HOSTS.
+
+- routing.tgz - original Mike McLagan's route by source patch.
+ Currently it is obsolete.
+
+- gated.dif-ss<NEWEST>.gz - gated-R3_6Alpha_2 fixes.
+ Look at README.gated
+
+- mrouted-3.8.dif.gz - mrouted-3.8 fixes.
+
+- rtmon.c - trivial debugging utility: reads and stores netlink.
+