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+Introduction Notes on Modular Sound Drivers and Soundcore
+This document provides some general notes on the modular
+sound drivers and their configuration, along with the
+support modules sound.o and soundcore.o.
+Note, some of this probably should be added to the Sound-HOWTO!
+Note, soundlow.o was present with 2.2 kernels but is not
+required for 2.4.x kernels. References have been removed
+0.1.0 11/20/1998 First version, draft
+1.0.0 11/1998 Alan Cox changes, incorporation in 2.2.0
+ as Documentation/sound/oss/Introduction
+1.1.0 6/30/1999 Second version, added notes on making the drivers,
+ added info on multiple sound cards of similar types,]
+ added more diagnostics info, added info about esd.
+ added info on OSS and ALSA.
+1.1.1 19991031 Added notes on sound-slot- and sound-service.
+ (Alan Cox)
+1.1.2 20000920 Modified for Kernel 2.4 (Christoph Hellwig)
+1.1.3 20010214 Minor notes and corrections (Wade Hampton)
+ Added examples of sound-slot-0, etc.
+Modular Sound Drivers:
+Thanks to the GREAT work by Alan Cox (email@example.com),
+[And Oleg Drokin, Thomas Sailer, Andrew Veliath and more than a few
+ others - not to mention Hannu's original code being designed well
+ enough to cope with that kind of chopping up](Alan)
+the standard Linux kernels support a modular sound driver. From
+Alan's comments in linux/drivers/sound/README.FIRST:
+ The modular sound driver patches were funded by Red Hat Software
+ (www.redhat.com). The sound driver here is thus a modified version of
+ Hannu's code. Please bear that in mind when considering the appropriate
+ forums for bug reporting.
+The modular sound drivers may be loaded via insmod or modprobe.
+To support all the various sound modules, there are two general
+support modules that must be loaded first:
+ soundcore.o: Top level handler for the sound system, provides
+ a set of functions for registration of devices
+ by type.
+ sound.o: Common sound functions required by all modules.
+For the specific sound modules (e.g., sb.o for the Soundblaster),
+read the documentation on that module to determine what options
+are available, for example IRQ, address, DMA.
+Warning, the options for different cards sometime use different names
+for the same or a similar feature (dma1= versus dma16=). As a last
+resort, inspect the code (search for MODULE_PARM).
+1. There is a new OpenSource sound driver called ALSA which is
+ currently under development: http://www.alsa-project.org/
+ The ALSA drivers support some newer hardware that may not
+ be supported by this sound driver and also provide some
+ additional features.
+2. The commercial OSS driver may be obtained from the site:
+ http://www/opensound.com. This may be used for cards that
+ are unsupported by the kernel driver, or may be used
+ by other operating systems.
+3. The enlightenment sound daemon may be used for playing
+ multiple sounds at the same time via a single card, eliminating
+ some of the requirements for multiple sound card systems. For
+ more information, see: http://www.tux.org/~ricdude/EsounD.html
+ The "esd" program may be used with the real-player and mpeg
+ players like mpg123 and x11amp. The newer real-player
+ and some games even include built-in support for ESD!
+Building the Modules:
+This document does not provide full details on building the
+kernel, etc. The notes below apply only to making the kernel
+sound modules. If this conflicts with the kernel's README,
+the README takes precedence.
+1. To make the kernel sound modules, cd to your /usr/src/linux
+ directory (typically) and type make config, make menuconfig,
+ or make xconfig (to start the command line, dialog, or x-based
+ configuration tool).
+2. Select the Sound option and a dialog will be displayed.
+3. Select M (module) for "Sound card support".
+4. Select your sound driver(s) as a module. For ProAudio, Sound
+ Blaster, etc., select M (module) for OSS sound modules.
+ [thanks to Marvin Stodolsky <firstname.lastname@example.org>]A
+5. Make the kernel (e.g., make bzImage), and install the kernel.
+6. Make the modules and install them (make modules; make modules_install).
+Note, for 2.5.x kernels, make sure you have the newer module-init-tools
+installed or modules will not be loaded properly. 2.5.x requires an
+Plug and Play (PnP:
+If the sound card is an ISA PnP card, isapnp may be used
+to configure the card. See the file isapnp.txt in the
+directory one level up (e.g., /usr/src/linux/Documentation).
+Also the 2.4.x kernels provide PnP capabilities, see the
+file NEWS in this directory.
+PCI sound cards are highly recommended, as they are far
+easier to configure and from what I have read, they use
+less resources and are more CPU efficient.
+If loading via insmod, the common modules must be loaded in the
+order below BEFORE loading the other sound modules. The card-specific
+modules may then be loaded (most require parameters). For example,
+I use the following via a shell script to load my SoundBlaster:
+echo Starting sound
+echo Starting sound blaster....
+/sbin/insmod sb io=$SB_BASE irq=$SB_IRQ dma=$SB_DMA dma16=$SB_DMA2 mpu_io=$SB_MP
+When using sound as a module, I typically put these commands
+in a file such as /root/soundon.sh.
+If loading via modprobe, these common files are automatically loaded
+when requested by modprobe. For example, my /etc/modprobe.conf contains:
+alias sound sb
+options sb io=0x240 irq=9 dma=3 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x300
+All you need to do to load the module is:
+ /sbin/modprobe sb
+The status of sound may be read/checked by:
+ cat (anyfile).au >/dev/audio
+[WWH: This may not work properly for SoundBlaster PCI 128 cards
+such as the es1370/1 (see the es1370/1 files in this directory)
+as they do not automatically support uLaw on /dev/audio.]
+The status of the modules and which modules depend on
+which other modules may be checked by:
+/sbin/lsmod should show something like the following:
+ sb 26280 0
+ uart401 5640 0 [sb]
+ sound 57112 0 [sb uart401]
+ soundcore 1968 8 [sb sound]
+Sound may be removed by using /sbin/rmmod in the reverse order
+in which you load the modules. Note, if a program has a sound device
+open (e.g., xmixer), that module (and the modules on which it
+depends) may not be unloaded.
+For example, I use the following to remove my Soundblaster (rmmod
+in the reverse order in which I loaded the modules):
+When using sound as a module, I typically put these commands
+in a script such as /root/soundoff.sh.
+Removing Sound for use with OSS:
+If you get really stuck or have a card that the kernel modules
+will not support, you can get a commercial sound driver from
+http://www.opensound.com. Before loading the commercial sound
+driver, you should do the following:
+1. remove sound modules (detailed above)
+2. remove the sound modules from /etc/modprobe.conf
+3. move the sound modules from /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc
+ (for example, I make a /lib/modules/<kernel>/misc/tmp
+ directory and copy the sound module files to that
+Multiple Sound Cards:
+The sound drivers will support multiple sound cards and there
+are some great applications like multitrack that support them.
+Typically, you need two sound cards of different types. Note, this
+uses more precious interrupts and DMA channels and sometimes
+can be a configuration nightmare. I have heard reports of 3-4
+sound cards (typically I only use 2). You can sometimes use
+multiple PCI sound cards of the same type.
+On my machine I have two sound cards (cs4232 and Soundblaster Vibra
+16). By loading sound as modules, I can control which is the first
+sound device (/dev/dsp, /dev/audio, /dev/mixer) and which is
+the second. Normally, the cs4232 (Dell sound on the motherboard)
+would be the first sound device, but I prefer the Soundblaster.
+All you have to do is to load the one you want as /dev/dsp
+first (in my case "sb") and then load the other one
+(in my case "cs4232").
+If you have two cards of the same type that are jumpered
+cards or different PnP revisions, you may load the same
+module twice. For example, I have a SoundBlaster vibra 16
+and an older SoundBlaster 16 (jumpers). To load the module
+twice, you need to do the following:
+1. Copy the sound modules to a new name. For example
+ sb.o could be copied (or symlinked) to sb1.o for the
+ second SoundBlaster.
+2. Make a second entry in /etc/modprobe.conf, for example,
+ sound1 or sb1. This second entry should refer to the
+ new module names for example sb1, and should include
+ the I/O, etc. for the second sound card.
+3. Update your soundon.sh script, etc.
+Warning: I have never been able to get two PnP sound cards of the
+same type to load at the same time. I have tried this several times
+with the Soundblaster Vibra 16 cards. OSS has indicated that this
+is a PnP problem.... If anyone has any luck doing this, please
+send me an E-MAIL. PCI sound cards should not have this problem.a
+Since this was originally release, I have received a couple of
+mails from people who have accomplished this!
+NOTE: In Linux 2.4 the Sound Blaster driver (and only this one yet)
+supports multiple cards with one module by default.
+Read the file 'Soundblaster' in this directory for details.
+First RTFM (including the troubleshooting section
+in the Sound-HOWTO).
+1) If you are having problems loading the modules (for
+ example, if you get device conflict errors) try the
+ A) If you have Win95 or NT on the same computer,
+ write down what addresses, IRQ, and DMA channels
+ those were using for the same hardware. You probably
+ can use these addresses, IRQs, and DMA channels.
+ You should really do this BEFORE attempting to get
+ sound working!
+ B) Check (cat) /proc/interrupts, /proc/ioports,
+ and /proc/dma. Are you trying to use an address,
+ IRQ or DMA port that another device is using?
+ C) Check (cat) /proc/isapnp
+ D) Inspect your /var/log/messages file. Often that will
+ indicate what IRQ or IO port could not be obtained.
+ E) Try another port or IRQ. Note this may involve
+ using the PnP tools to move the sound card to
+ another location. Sometimes this is the only way
+ and it is more or less trial and error.
+2) If you get motor-boating (the same sound or part of a
+ sound clip repeated), you probably have either an IRQ
+ or DMA conflict. Move the card to another IRQ or DMA
+ port. This has happened to me when playing long files
+ when I had an IRQ conflict.
+3. If you get dropouts or pauses when playing high sample
+ rate files such as using mpg123 or x11amp/xmms, you may
+ have too slow of a CPU and may have to use the options to
+ play the files at 1/2 speed. For example, you may use
+ the -2 or -4 option on mpg123. You may also get this
+ when trying to play mpeg files stored on a CD-ROM
+ (my Toshiba T8000 PII/366 sometimes has this problem).
+4. If you get "cannot access device" errors, your /dev/dsp
+ files, etc. may be set to owner root, mode 600. You
+ may have to use the command:
+ chmod 666 /dev/dsp /dev/mixer /dev/audio
+5. If you get "device busy" errors, another program has the
+ sound device open. For example, if using the Enlightenment
+ sound daemon "esd", the "esd" program has the sound device.
+ If using "esd", please RTFM the docs on ESD. For example,
+ esddsp <program> may be used to play files via a non-esd
+ aware program.
+6) Ask for help on the sound list or send E-MAIL to the
+ sound driver author/maintainer.
+7) Turn on debug in drivers/sound/sound_config.h (DEB, DDB, MDB).
+8) If the system reports insufficient DMA memory then you may want to
+ load sound with the "dmabufs=1" option. Or in /etc/conf.modules add
+ preinstall sound dmabufs=1
+ This makes the sound system allocate its buffers and hang onto them.
+ You may also set persistent DMA when building a 2.4.x kernel.
+There are several ways of configuring your sound:
+1) On the kernel command line (when using the sound driver(s)
+ compiled in the kernel). Check the driver source and
+ documentation for details.
+2) On the command line when using insmod or in a bash script
+ using command line calls to load sound.
+3) In /etc/modprobe.conf when using modprobe.
+4) Via Red Hat's GPL'd /usr/sbin/sndconfig program (text based).
+5) Via the OSS soundconf program (with the commercial version
+ of the OSS driver.
+6) By just loading the module and let isapnp do everything relevant
+ for you. This works only with a few drivers yet and - of course -
+ only with isapnp hardware.
+And I am sure, several other ways.
+Anyone want to write a linuxconf module for configuring sound?
+When a sound card is first referenced and sound is modular, the sound system
+will ask for the sound devices to be loaded. Initially it requests that
+the driver for the sound system is loaded. It then will ask for
+sound-slot-0, where 0 is the first sound card. (sound-slot-1 the second and
+so on). Thus you can do
+alias sound-slot-0 sb
+To load a soundblaster at this point. If the slot loading does not provide
+the desired device - for example a soundblaster does not directly provide
+a midi synth in all cases then it will request "sound-service-0-n" where n
+ 0 Mixer
+ 2 MIDI
+ 3, 4 DSP audio
+For example, I use the following to load my Soundblaster PCI 128
+(ES 1371) card first, followed by my SoundBlaster Vibra 16 card,
+then by my TV card:
+# Load the Soundblaster PCI 128 as /dev/dsp, /dev/dsp1, /dev/mixer
+alias sound-slot-0 es1371
+# Load the Soundblaster Vibra 16 as /dev/dsp2, /dev/mixer1
+alias sound-slot-1 sb
+options sb io=0x240 irq=5 dma=1 dma16=5 mpu_io=0x330
+# Load the BTTV (TV card) as /dev/mixer2
+alias sound-slot-2 bttv
+alias sound-service-2-0 tvmixer
+pre-install bttv modprobe tuner ; modprobe tvmixer
+pre-install tvmixer modprobe msp3400; modprobe tvaudio
+options tuner debug=0 type=8
+options bttv card=0 radio=0 pll=0
+For More Information (RTFM):
+1) Information on kernel modules: manual pages for insmod and modprobe.
+2) Information on PnP, RTFM manual pages for isapnp.
+3) Sound-HOWTO and Sound-Playing-HOWTO.
+4) OSS's WWW site at http://www.opensound.com.
+5) All the files in Documentation/sound.
+6) The comments and code in linux/drivers/sound.
+7) The sndconfig and rhsound documentation from Red Hat.
+8) The Linux-sound mailing list: email@example.com.
+9) Enlightenment documentation (for info on esd)
+10) ALSA home page: http://www.alsa-project.org/
+Wade Hampton: (firstname.lastname@example.org)