path: root/mm/filemap.c
AgeCommit message (Collapse)Author
2013-05-01Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull VFS updates from Al Viro, Misc cleanups all over the place, mainly wrt /proc interfaces (switch create_proc_entry to proc_create(), get rid of the deprecated create_proc_read_entry() in favor of using proc_create_data() and seq_file etc). 7kloc removed. * 'for-linus' of git:// (204 commits) don't bother with deferred freeing of fdtables proc: Move non-public stuff from linux/proc_fs.h to fs/proc/internal.h proc: Make the PROC_I() and PDE() macros internal to procfs proc: Supply a function to remove a proc entry by PDE take cgroup_open() and cpuset_open() to fs/proc/base.c ppc: Clean up scanlog ppc: Clean up rtas_flash driver somewhat hostap: proc: Use remove_proc_subtree() drm: proc: Use remove_proc_subtree() drm: proc: Use minor->index to label things, not PDE->name drm: Constify drm_proc_list[] zoran: Don't print proc_dir_entry data in debug reiserfs: Don't access the proc_dir_entry in r_open(), r_start() r_show() proc: Supply an accessor for getting the data from a PDE's parent airo: Use remove_proc_subtree() rtl8192u: Don't need to save device proc dir PDE rtl8187se: Use a dir under /proc/net/r8180/ proc: Add proc_mkdir_data() proc: Move some bits from linux/proc_fs.h to linux/{of.h,signal.h,tty.h} proc: Move PDE_NET() to fs/proc/proc_net.c ...
2013-04-29fs: fix fsync() error reportingDmitry Monakhov
There are two convenient ways to report errors to userspace 1) retun error to original syscall for example write(2) 2) mark mapping with error flag and return it on later fsync(2) Second one is broken if (mapping->nrpages == 0) This is real-life situation because after error pages are likey to be truncated or invalidated. We have to return an error regardless to number of pages in the mapping. #Original testcase: MOUNT_OPTIONS="-b1024" ./check shared/305 Signed-off-by: Dmitry Monakhov <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Cc: Al Viro <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-04-29mm: trace filemap add and delRobert Jarzmik
Use the events API to trace filemap loading and unloading of file pieces into the page cache. This patch aims at tracing the eviction reload cycle of executable and shared libraries pages in a memory constrained environment. The typical usage is to spot a specific device and inode (for example /lib/ to see the eviction cycles, and find out if frequently used code is rather spread across many pages (bad) or coallesced (good). Signed-off-by: Robert Jarzmik <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Steven Rostedt <> Cc: Frederic Weisbecker <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-04-09lift sb_start_write/sb_end_write out of ->aio_write()Al Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2013-02-26Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull vfs pile (part one) from Al Viro: "Assorted stuff - cleaning namei.c up a bit, fixing ->d_name/->d_parent locking violations, etc. The most visible changes here are death of FS_REVAL_DOT (replaced with "has ->d_weak_revalidate()") and a new helper getting from struct file to inode. Some bits of preparation to xattr method interface changes. Misc patches by various people sent this cycle *and* ocfs2 fixes from several cycles ago that should've been upstream right then. PS: the next vfs pile will be xattr stuff." * 'for-linus' of git:// (46 commits) saner proc_get_inode() calling conventions proc: avoid extra pde_put() in proc_fill_super() fs: change return values from -EACCES to -EPERM fs/exec.c: make bprm_mm_init() static ocfs2/dlm: use GFP_ATOMIC inside a spin_lock ocfs2: fix possible use-after-free with AIO ocfs2: Fix oops in ocfs2_fast_symlink_readpage() code path get_empty_filp()/alloc_file() leave both ->f_pos and ->f_version zero target: writev() on single-element vector is pointless export kernel_write(), convert open-coded instances fs: encode_fh: return FILEID_INVALID if invalid fid_type kill f_vfsmnt vfs: kill FS_REVAL_DOT by adding a d_weak_revalidate dentry op nfsd: handle vfs_getattr errors in acl protocol switch vfs_getattr() to struct path default SET_PERSONALITY() in linux/elf.h ceph: prepopulate inodes only when request is aborted d_hash_and_lookup(): export, switch open-coded instances 9p: switch v9fs_set_create_acl() to inode+fid, do it before d_instantiate() 9p: split dropping the acls from v9fs_set_create_acl() ...
2013-02-22new helper: file_inode(file)Al Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2013-02-21mm: only enforce stable page writes if the backing device requires itDarrick J. Wong
Create a helper function to check if a backing device requires stable page writes and, if so, performs the necessary wait. Then, make it so that all points in the memory manager that handle making pages writable use the helper function. This should provide stable page write support to most filesystems, while eliminating unnecessary waiting for devices that don't require the feature. Before this patchset, all filesystems would block, regardless of whether or not it was necessary. ext3 would wait, but still generate occasional checksum errors. The network filesystems were left to do their own thing, so they'd wait too. After this patchset, all the disk filesystems except ext3 and btrfs will wait only if the hardware requires it. ext3 (if necessary) snapshots pages instead of blocking, and btrfs provides its own bdi so the mm will never wait. Network filesystems haven't been touched, so either they provide their own stable page guarantees or they don't block at all. The blocking behavior is back to what it was before 3.0 if you don't have a disk requiring stable page writes. Here's the result of using dbench to test latency on ext2: 3.8.0-rc3: Operation Count AvgLat MaxLat ---------------------------------------- WriteX 109347 0.028 59.817 ReadX 347180 0.004 3.391 Flush 15514 29.828 287.283 Throughput 57.429 MB/sec 4 clients 4 procs max_latency=287.290 ms 3.8.0-rc3 + patches: WriteX 105556 0.029 4.273 ReadX 335004 0.005 4.112 Flush 14982 30.540 298.634 Throughput 55.4496 MB/sec 4 clients 4 procs max_latency=298.650 ms As you can see, the maximum write latency drops considerably with this patch enabled. The other filesystems (ext3/ext4/xfs/btrfs) behave similarly, but see the cover letter for those results. Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <> Acked-by: Steven Whitehouse <> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <> Cc: Adrian Hunter <> Cc: Andy Lutomirski <> Cc: Artem Bityutskiy <> Cc: Joel Becker <> Cc: Mark Fasheh <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Cc: Eric Van Hensbergen <> Cc: Ron Minnich <> Cc: Latchesar Ionkov <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-01-24mm: minor cleanup of iov_iter_single_seg_count()Maxim Patlasov
The function does not modify iov_iter which 'i' points to. Signed-off-by: Maxim Patlasov <> Signed-off-by: Miklos Szeredi <>
2012-10-09readahead: fault retry breaks mmap file read random detectionShaohua Li
.fault now can retry. The retry can break state machine of .fault. In filemap_fault, if page is miss, ra->mmap_miss is increased. In the second try, since the page is in page cache now, ra->mmap_miss is decreased. And these are done in one fault, so we can't detect random mmap file access. Add a new flag to indicate .fault is tried once. In the second try, skip ra->mmap_miss decreasing. The filemap_fault state machine is ok with it. I only tested x86, didn't test other archs, but looks the change for other archs is obvious, but who knows :) Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Wu Fengguang <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: kill vma flag VM_CAN_NONLINEARKonstantin Khlebnikov
Move actual pte filling for non-linear file mappings into the new special vma operation: ->remap_pages(). Filesystems must implement this method to get non-linear mapping support, if it uses filemap_fault() then generic_file_remap_pages() can be used. Now device drivers can implement this method and obtain nonlinear vma support. Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Cc: Alexander Viro <> Cc: Carsten Otte <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> #arch/tile Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <> Cc: Eric Paris <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: James Morris <> Cc: Jason Baron <> Cc: Kentaro Takeda <> Cc: Matt Helsley <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Robert Richter <> Cc: Suresh Siddha <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-08-09block: move down direct IO pluggingFengguang Wu
Move unplugging for direct I/O from around ->direct_IO() down to do_blockdev_direct_IO(). This implicitly adds plugging for direct writes. CC: Li Shaohua <> Acked-by: Jeff Moyer <> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2012-08-09block: remove plugging at buffered write timeFengguang Wu
Buffered write(2) is not directly tied to IO, so it's not suitable to handle plug in generic_file_aio_write(). Note that plugging for O_SYNC writes is also removed. The user may pass arbitrary @size arguments, which may be much larger than the preferable I/O size, or may cross extent/device boundaries. Let the lower layers handle the plugging. The plugging code here actually turns them into no-ops. CC: Li Shaohua <> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <> Signed-off-by: Jens Axboe <>
2012-07-31fs: Protect write paths by sb_start_write - sb_end_writeJan Kara
There are several entry points which dirty pages in a filesystem. mmap (handled by block_page_mkwrite()), buffered write (handled by __generic_file_aio_write()), splice write (generic_file_splice_write), truncate, and fallocate (these can dirty last partial page - handled inside each filesystem separately). Protect these places with sb_start_write() and sb_end_write(). ->page_mkwrite() calls are particularly complex since they are called with mmap_sem held and thus we cannot use standard sb_start_write() due to lock ordering constraints. We solve the problem by using a special freeze protection sb_start_pagefault() which ranks below mmap_sem. BugLink: Tested-by: Kamal Mostafa <> Tested-by: Peter M. Petrakis <> Tested-by: Dann Frazier <> Tested-by: Massimo Morana <> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2012-07-31mm: Make default vm_ops provide ->page_mkwrite handlerJan Kara
Make default vm_ops provide ->page_mkwrite handler. Currently it only updates file's modification times and gets locked page but later it will also handle filesystem freezing. BugLink: Tested-by: Kamal Mostafa <> Tested-by: Peter M. Petrakis <> Tested-by: Dann Frazier <> Tested-by: Massimo Morana <> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2012-06-01Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull vfs changes from Al Viro. "A lot of misc stuff. The obvious groups: * Miklos' atomic_open series; kills the damn abuse of ->d_revalidate() by NFS, which was the major stumbling block for all work in that area. * ripping security_file_mmap() and dealing with deadlocks in the area; sanitizing the neighborhood of vm_mmap()/vm_munmap() in general. * ->encode_fh() switched to saner API; insane fake dentry in mm/cleancache.c gone. * assorted annotations in fs (endianness, __user) * parts of Artem's ->s_dirty work (jff2 and reiserfs parts) * ->update_time() work from Josef. * other bits and pieces all over the place. Normally it would've been in two or three pull requests, but signal.git stuff had eaten a lot of time during this cycle ;-/" Fix up trivial conflicts in Documentation/filesystems/vfs.txt (the 'truncate_range' inode method was removed by the VM changes, the VFS update adds an 'update_time()' method), and in fs/btrfs/ulist.[ch] (due to sparse fix added twice, with other changes nearby). * 'for-linus' of git:// (95 commits) nfs: don't open in ->d_revalidate vfs: retry last component if opening stale dentry vfs: nameidata_to_filp(): don't throw away file on error vfs: nameidata_to_filp(): inline __dentry_open() vfs: do_dentry_open(): don't put filp vfs: split __dentry_open() vfs: do_last() common post lookup vfs: do_last(): add audit_inode before open vfs: do_last(): only return EISDIR for O_CREAT vfs: do_last(): check LOOKUP_DIRECTORY vfs: do_last(): make ENOENT exit RCU safe vfs: make follow_link check RCU safe vfs: do_last(): use inode variable vfs: do_last(): inline walk_component() vfs: do_last(): make exit RCU safe vfs: split do_lookup() Btrfs: move over to use ->update_time fs: introduce inode operation ->update_time reiserfs: get rid of resierfs_sync_super reiserfs: mark the superblock as dirty a bit later ...
2012-06-01fs: introduce inode operation ->update_timeJosef Bacik
Btrfs has to make sure we have space to allocate new blocks in order to modify the inode, so updating time can fail. We've gotten around this by having our own file_update_time but this is kind of a pain, and Christoph has indicated he would like to make xfs do something different with atime updates. So introduce ->update_time, where we will deal with i_version an a/m/c time updates and indicate which changes need to be made. The normal version just does what it has always done, updates the time and marks the inode dirty, and then filesystems can choose to do something different. I've gone through all of the users of file_update_time and made them check for errors with the exception of the fault code since it's complicated and I wasn't quite sure what to do there, also Jan is going to be pushing the file time updates into page_mkwrite for those who have it so that should satisfy btrfs and make it not a big deal to check the file_update_time() return code in the generic fault path. Thanks, Signed-off-by: Josef Bacik <>
2012-05-30fs: move file_remove_suid() to fs/inode.cCong Wang
file_remove_suid() is a generic function operates on struct file, it almost has no relations with file mapping, so move it to fs/inode.c. Cc: Alexander Viro <> Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2012-05-29mm: move readahead syscall to mm/readahead.cCong Wang
It is better to define readahead(2) in mm/readahead.c than in mm/filemap.c. Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <> Cc: Fengguang Wu <> Cc: Al Viro <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-28radix-tree: use iterators in find_get_pages* functionsKonstantin Khlebnikov
Replace radix_tree_gang_lookup_slot() and radix_tree_gang_lookup_tag_slot() in page-cache lookup functions with brand-new radix-tree direct iterating. This avoids the double-scanning and pointer copying. Iterator don't stop after nr_pages page-get fails in a row, it continue lookup till the radix-tree end. Thus we can safely remove these restart conditions. Unfortunately, old implementation didn't forbid nr_pages == 0, this corner case does not fit into new code, so the patch adds an extra check at the beginning. Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Tested-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-22Merge tag 'stable/for-linus-3.4' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull cleancache changes from Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk: "This has some patches for the cleancache API that should have been submitted a _long_ time ago. They are basically cleanups: - rename of flush to invalidate - moving reporting of statistics into debugfs - use __read_mostly as necessary. Oh, and also the MAINTAINERS file change. The files (except the MAINTAINERS file) have been in #linux-next for months now. The late addition of MAINTAINERS file is a brain-fart on my side - didn't realize I needed that just until I was typing this up - and I based that patch on v3.3 - so the tree is on top of v3.3." * tag 'stable/for-linus-3.4' of git:// MAINTAINERS: Adding cleancache API to the list. mm: cleancache: Use __read_mostly as appropiate. mm: cleancache: report statistics via debugfs instead of sysfs. mm: zcache/tmem/cleancache: s/flush/invalidate/ mm: cleancache: s/flush/invalidate/
2012-03-21cpuset: mm: reduce large amounts of memory barrier related damage v3Mel Gorman
Commit c0ff7453bb5c ("cpuset,mm: fix no node to alloc memory when changing cpuset's mems") wins a super prize for the largest number of memory barriers entered into fast paths for one commit. [get|put]_mems_allowed is incredibly heavy with pairs of full memory barriers inserted into a number of hot paths. This was detected while investigating at large page allocator slowdown introduced some time after 2.6.32. The largest portion of this overhead was shown by oprofile to be at an mfence introduced by this commit into the page allocator hot path. For extra style points, the commit introduced the use of yield() in an implementation of what looks like a spinning mutex. This patch replaces the full memory barriers on both read and write sides with a sequence counter with just read barriers on the fast path side. This is much cheaper on some architectures, including x86. The main bulk of the patch is the retry logic if the nodemask changes in a manner that can cause a false failure. While updating the nodemask, a check is made to see if a false failure is a risk. If it is, the sequence number gets bumped and parallel allocators will briefly stall while the nodemask update takes place. In a page fault test microbenchmark, oprofile samples from __alloc_pages_nodemask went from 4.53% of all samples to 1.15%. The actual results were 3.3.0-rc3 3.3.0-rc3 rc3-vanilla nobarrier-v2r1 Clients 1 UserTime 0.07 ( 0.00%) 0.08 (-14.19%) Clients 2 UserTime 0.07 ( 0.00%) 0.07 ( 2.72%) Clients 4 UserTime 0.08 ( 0.00%) 0.07 ( 3.29%) Clients 1 SysTime 0.70 ( 0.00%) 0.65 ( 6.65%) Clients 2 SysTime 0.85 ( 0.00%) 0.82 ( 3.65%) Clients 4 SysTime 1.41 ( 0.00%) 1.41 ( 0.32%) Clients 1 WallTime 0.77 ( 0.00%) 0.74 ( 4.19%) Clients 2 WallTime 0.47 ( 0.00%) 0.45 ( 3.73%) Clients 4 WallTime 0.38 ( 0.00%) 0.37 ( 1.58%) Clients 1 Flt/sec/cpu 497620.28 ( 0.00%) 520294.53 ( 4.56%) Clients 2 Flt/sec/cpu 414639.05 ( 0.00%) 429882.01 ( 3.68%) Clients 4 Flt/sec/cpu 257959.16 ( 0.00%) 258761.48 ( 0.31%) Clients 1 Flt/sec 495161.39 ( 0.00%) 517292.87 ( 4.47%) Clients 2 Flt/sec 820325.95 ( 0.00%) 850289.77 ( 3.65%) Clients 4 Flt/sec 1020068.93 ( 0.00%) 1022674.06 ( 0.26%) MMTests Statistics: duration Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 135.68 132.17 User+Sys Time Running Test (seconds) 164.2 160.13 Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 123.46 120.87 The overall improvement is small but the System CPU time is much improved and roughly in correlation to what oprofile reported (these performance figures are without profiling so skew is expected). The actual number of page faults is noticeably improved. For benchmarks like kernel builds, the overall benefit is marginal but the system CPU time is slightly reduced. To test the actual bug the commit fixed I opened two terminals. The first ran within a cpuset and continually ran a small program that faulted 100M of anonymous data. In a second window, the nodemask of the cpuset was continually randomised in a loop. Without the commit, the program would fail every so often (usually within 10 seconds) and obviously with the commit everything worked fine. With this patch applied, it also worked fine so the fix should be functionally equivalent. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Miao Xie <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Christoph Lameter <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-21mm: update stale lock ordering comment for memory-failure.cAndi Kleen
When i_mmap_lock changed to a mutex the locking order in memory failure was changed to take the sleeping lock first. But the big fat mm lock ordering comment (BFMLO) wasn't updated. Do this here. Pointed out by Andrew. Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-21mm: don't set __GFP_WRITE on ramfs/sysfs writesFengguang Wu
There is not much point in skipping zones during allocation based on the dirty usage which they'll never contribute to. And we'd like to avoid page reclaim waits when writing to ramfs/sysfs etc. Signed-off-by: Fengguang Wu <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Greg Thelen <> Cc: Ying Han <> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: Minchan Kim <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-03-20mm: remove the second argument of k[un]map_atomic()Cong Wang
Signed-off-by: Cong Wang <>
2012-03-19Merge branch 'stable/cleancache.v13' into linux-nextKonrad Rzeszutek Wilk
* stable/cleancache.v13: mm: cleancache: Use __read_mostly as appropiate. mm: cleancache: report statistics via debugfs instead of sysfs. mm: zcache/tmem/cleancache: s/flush/invalidate/ mm: cleancache: s/flush/invalidate/
2012-02-03readahead: fix pipeline break caused by block plugShaohua Li
Herbert Poetzl reported a performance regression since 2.6.39. The test is a simple dd read, but with big block size. The reason is: T1: ra (A, A+128k), (A+128k, A+256k) T2: lock_page for page A, submit the 256k T3: hit page A+128K, ra (A+256k, A+384). the range isn't submitted because of plug and there isn't any lock_page till we hit page A+256k because all pages from A to A+256k is in memory T4: hit page A+256k, ra (A+384, A+ 512). Because of plug, the range isn't submitted again. T5: lock_page A+256k, so (A+256k, A+512k) will be submitted. The task is waitting for (A+256k, A+512k) finish. There is no request to disk in T3 and T4, so readahead pipeline breaks. We really don't need block plug for generic_file_aio_read() for buffered I/O. The readahead already has plug and has fine grained control when I/O should be submitted. Deleting plug for buffered I/O fixes the regression. One side effect is plug makes the request size 256k, the size is 128k without it. This is because default ra size is 128k and not a reason we need plug here. Vivek said: : We submit some readahead IO to device request queue but because of nested : plug, queue never gets unplugged. When read logic reaches a page which is : not in page cache, it waits for page to be read from the disk : (lock_page_killable()) and that time we flush the plug list. : : So effectively read ahead logic is kind of broken in parts because of : nested plugging. Removing top level plug (generic_file_aio_read()) for : buffered reads, will allow unplugging queue earlier for readahead. Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <> Reported-by: Herbert Poetzl <> Tested-by: Eric Dumazet <> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Cc: Jens Axboe <> Cc: Vivek Goyal <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-01-23mm: cleancache: s/flush/invalidate/Dan Magenheimer
Per akpm suggestions alter the use of the term flush to be invalidate. The next patch will do this across all MM. This change is completely cosmetic. [v9: change "flush" to "invalidate", part 3] Signed-off-by: Dan Magenheimer <> Cc: Kamezawa Hiroyuki <> Cc: Jan Beulich <> Reviewed-by: Seth Jennings <> Cc: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Nitin Gupta <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Chris Mason <> Cc: Rik Riel <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> [v10: Fixed fs: move code out of buffer.c conflict change] Signed-off-by: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <>
2012-01-12memcg: add mem_cgroup_replace_page_cache() to fix LRU issueKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki
Commit ef6a3c6311 ("mm: add replace_page_cache_page() function") added a function replace_page_cache_page(). This function replaces a page in the radix-tree with a new page. WHen doing this, memory cgroup needs to fix up the accounting information. memcg need to check PCG_USED bit etc. In some(many?) cases, 'newpage' is on LRU before calling replace_page_cache(). So, memcg's LRU accounting information should be fixed, too. This patch adds mem_cgroup_replace_page_cache() and removes the old hooks. In that function, old pages will be unaccounted without touching res_counter and new page will be accounted to the memcg (of old page). WHen overwriting pc->mem_cgroup of newpage, take zone->lru_lock and avoid races with LRU handling. Background: replace_page_cache_page() is called by FUSE code in its splice() handling. Here, 'newpage' is replacing oldpage but this newpage is not a newly allocated page and may be on LRU. LRU mis-accounting will be critical for memory cgroup because rmdir() checks the whole LRU is empty and there is no account leak. If a page is on the other LRU than it should be, rmdir() will fail. This bug was added in March 2011, but no bug report yet. I guess there are not many people who use memcg and FUSE at the same time with upstream kernels. The result of this bug is that admin cannot destroy a memcg because of account leak. So, no panic, no deadlock. And, even if an active cgroup exist, umount can succseed. So no problem at shutdown. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Acked-by: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Miklos Szeredi <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-01-10mm: filemap: pass __GFP_WRITE from grab_cache_page_write_begin()Johannes Weiner
Tell the page allocator that pages allocated through grab_cache_page_write_begin() are expected to become dirty soon. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <> Cc: Wu Fengguang <> Cc: Dave Chinner <> Cc: Jan Kara <> Cc: Shaohua Li <> Cc: Chris Mason <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-01-03should_remove_suid(): inode->i_mode is umode_tAl Viro
Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2011-12-21vfs: __read_cache_page should use gfp argument rather than GFP_KERNELDave Kleikamp
lockdep reports a deadlock in jfs because a special inode's rw semaphore is taken recursively. The mapping's gfp mask is GFP_NOFS, but is not used when __read_cache_page() calls add_to_page_cache_lru(). Signed-off-by: Dave Kleikamp <> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Al Viro <> Cc: Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-12-02fs: Make write(2) interruptible by a fatal signalJan Kara
Currently write(2) to a file is not interruptible by any signal. Sometimes this is desirable, e.g. when you want to quickly kill a process hogging your disk. Also, with commit 499d05ecf990 ("mm: Make task in balance_dirty_pages() killable"), it's necessary to abort the current write accordingly to avoid it quickly dirtying lots more pages at unthrottled rate. This patch makes write interruptible by SIGKILL. We do not allow write to be interruptible by any other signal because that has larger potential of screwing some badly written applications. Reported-by: Kazuya Mio <> Tested-by: Kazuya Mio <> Acked-by: Matthew Wilcox <> Signed-off-by: Jan Kara <> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <>
2011-10-31mm: Map most files to use export.h instead of module.hPaul Gortmaker
The files changed within are only using the EXPORT_SYMBOL macro variants. They are not using core modular infrastructure and hence don't need module.h but only the export.h header. Signed-off-by: Paul Gortmaker <>
2011-10-28vfs: iov_iter: have iov_iter_advance decrement nr_segs appropriatelyJeff Layton
Currently, when you call iov_iter_advance, then the pointer to the iovec array can be incremented, but it does not decrement the nr_segs value in the iov_iter struct. The result is a iov_iter struct with a nr_segs value that goes beyond the end of the array. While I'm not aware of anything that's specifically broken by this, it seems odd and a bit dangerous not to decrement that value. If someone were to trust the nr_segs value to be correct, then they could end up walking off the end of the array. Changing this might also provide some micro-optimization when dealing with the last iovec in an array. Many of the other routines that deal with iov_iter have optimized codepaths when nr_segs == 1. Cc: Nick Piggin <> Signed-off-by: Jeff Layton <> Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <>
2011-09-14mm: account skipped entries to avoid looping in find_get_pagesShaohua Li
The found entries by find_get_pages() could be all swap entries. In this case we skip the entries, but make sure the skipped entries are accounted, so we don't keep looping. Using nr_found > nr_skip to simplify code as suggested by Eric. Reported-and-tested-by: Eric Dumazet <> Signed-off-by: Shaohua Li <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-03mm: clarify the radix_tree exceptional casesHugh Dickins
Make the radix_tree exceptional cases, mostly in filemap.c, clearer. It's hard to devise a suitable snappy name that illuminates the use by shmem/tmpfs for swap, while keeping filemap/pagecache/radix_tree generality. And akpm points out that /* radix_tree_deref_retry(page) */ comments look like calls that have been commented out for unknown reason. Skirt the naming difficulty by rearranging these blocks to handle the transient radix_tree_deref_retry(page) case first; then just explain the remaining shmem/tmpfs swap case in a comment. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-03mm: a few small updates for radix-swapHugh Dickins
Remove PageSwapBacked (!page_is_file_cache) cases from add_to_page_cache_locked() and add_to_page_cache_lru(): those pages now go through shmem_add_to_page_cache(). Remove a comment on maximum tmpfs size from fsstack_copy_inode_size(), and add a comment on swap entries to invalidate_mapping_pages(). And mincore_page() uses find_get_page() on what might be shmem or a tmpfs file: allow for a radix_tree_exceptional_entry(), and proceed to find_get_page() on swapper_space if so (oh, swapper_space needs #ifdef). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-03mm: let swap use exceptional entriesHugh Dickins
If swap entries are to be stored along with struct page pointers in a radix tree, they need to be distinguished as exceptional entries. Most of the handling of swap entries in radix tree will be contained in shmem.c, but a few functions in filemap.c's common code need to check for their appearance: find_get_page(), find_lock_page(), find_get_pages() and find_get_pages_contig(). So as not to slow their fast paths, tuck those checks inside the existing checks for unlikely radix_tree_deref_slot(); except for find_lock_page(), where it is an added test. And make it a BUG in find_get_pages_tag(), which is not applied to tmpfs files. A part of the reason for eliminating shmem_readpage() earlier, was to minimize the places where common code would need to allow for swap entries. The swp_entry_t known to swapfile.c must be massaged into a slightly different form when stored in the radix tree, just as it gets massaged into a pte_t when stored in page tables. In an i386 kernel this limits its information (type and page offset) to 30 bits: given 32 "types" of swapfile and 4kB pagesize, that's a maximum swapfile size of 128GB. Which is less than the 512GB we previously allowed with X86_PAE (where the swap entry can occupy the entire upper 32 bits of a pte_t), but not a new limitation on 32-bit without PAE; and there's not a new limitation on 64-bit (where swap filesize is already limited to 16TB by a 32-bit page offset). Thirty areas of 128GB is probably still enough swap for a 64GB 32-bit machine. Provide swp_to_radix_entry() and radix_to_swp_entry() conversions, and enforce filesize limit in read_swap_header(), just as for ptes. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-08-03radix_tree: exceptional entries and indicesHugh Dickins
A patchset to extend tmpfs to MAX_LFS_FILESIZE by abandoning its peculiar swap vector, instead keeping a file's swap entries in the same radix tree as its struct page pointers: thus saving memory, and simplifying its code and locking. This patch: The radix_tree is used by several subsystems for different purposes. A major use is to store the struct page pointers of a file's pagecache for memory management. But what if mm wanted to store something other than page pointers there too? The low bit of a radix_tree entry is already used to denote an indirect pointer, for internal use, and the unlikely radix_tree_deref_retry() case. Define the next bit as denoting an exceptional entry, and supply inline functions radix_tree_exception() to return non-0 in either unlikely case, and radix_tree_exceptional_entry() to return non-0 in the second case. If a subsystem already uses radix_tree with that bit set, no problem: it does not affect internal workings at all, but is defined for the convenience of those storing well-aligned pointers in the radix_tree. The radix_tree_gang_lookups have an implicit assumption that the caller can deduce the offset of each entry returned e.g. by the page->index of a struct page. But that may not be feasible for some kinds of item to be stored there. radix_tree_gang_lookup_slot() allow for an optional indices argument, output array in which to return those offsets. The same could be added to other radix_tree_gang_lookups, but for now keep it to the only one for which we need it. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-07-26Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// * 'for-linus' of git:// (27 commits) mm: properly reflect task dirty limits in dirty_exceeded logic writeback: don't busy retry writeback on new/freeing inodes writeback: scale IO chunk size up to half device bandwidth writeback: trace global_dirty_state writeback: introduce max-pause and pass-good dirty limits writeback: introduce smoothed global dirty limit writeback: consolidate variable names in balance_dirty_pages() writeback: show bdi write bandwidth in debugfs writeback: bdi write bandwidth estimation writeback: account per-bdi accumulated written pages writeback: make writeback_control.nr_to_write straight writeback: skip tmpfs early in balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited_nr() writeback: trace event writeback_queue_io writeback: trace event writeback_single_inode writeback: remove .nonblocking and .encountered_congestion writeback: remove writeback_control.more_io writeback: skip balance_dirty_pages() for in-memory fs writeback: add bdi_dirty_limit() kernel-doc writeback: avoid extra sync work at enqueue time writeback: elevate queue_io() into wb_writeback() ... Fix up trivial conflicts in fs/fs-writeback.c and mm/filemap.c
2011-07-25mm: consistent truncate and invalidate loopsHugh Dickins
Make the pagevec_lookup loops in truncate_inode_pages_range(), invalidate_mapping_pages() and invalidate_inode_pages2_range() more consistent with each other. They were relying upon page->index of an unlocked page, but apologizing for it: accept it, embrace it, add comments and WARN_ONs, and simplify the index handling. invalidate_inode_pages2_range() had special handling for a wrapped page->index + 1 = 0 case; but MAX_LFS_FILESIZE doesn't let us anywhere near there, and a corrupt page->index in the radix_tree could cause more trouble than that would catch. Remove that wrapped handling. invalidate_inode_pages2_range() uses min() to limit the pagevec_lookup when near the end of the range: copy that into the other two, although it's less useful than you might think (it limits the use of the buffer, rather than the indices looked up). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-07-25mm: cleanup descriptions of filler argHugh Dickins
The often-NULL data arg to read_cache_page() and read_mapping_page() functions is misdescribed as "destination for read data": no, it's the first arg to the filler function, often struct file * to ->readpage(). Satisfy on those filler prototypes, and tidy up the declarations in linux/pagemap.h. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-07-20fs: kill i_alloc_semChristoph Hellwig
i_alloc_sem is a rather special rw_semaphore. It's the last one that may be released by a non-owner, and it's write side is always mirrored by real exclusion. It's intended use it to wait for all pending direct I/O requests to finish before starting a truncate. Replace it with a hand-grown construct: - exclusion for truncates is already guaranteed by i_mutex, so it can simply fall way - the reader side is replaced by an i_dio_count member in struct inode that counts the number of pending direct I/O requests. Truncate can't proceed as long as it's non-zero - when i_dio_count reaches non-zero we wake up a pending truncate using wake_up_bit on a new bit in i_flags - new references to i_dio_count can't appear while we are waiting for it to read zero because the direct I/O count always needs i_mutex (or an equivalent like XFS's i_iolock) for starting a new operation. This scheme is much simpler, and saves the space of a spinlock_t and a struct list_head in struct inode (typically 160 bits on a non-debug 64-bit system). Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2011-06-08writeback: split inode_wb_list_lock into bdi_writeback.list_lockChristoph Hellwig
Split the global inode_wb_list_lock into a per-bdi_writeback list_lock, as it's currently the most contended lock in the system for metadata heavy workloads. It won't help for single-filesystem workloads for which we'll need the I/O-less balance_dirty_pages, but at least we can dedicate a cpu to spinning on each bdi now for larger systems. Based on earlier patches from Nick Piggin and Dave Chinner. It reduces lock contentions to 1/4 in this test case: 10 HDD JBOD, 100 dd on each disk, XFS, 6GB ram lock_stat version 0.3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- class name con-bounces contentions waittime-min waittime-max waittime-total acq-bounces acquisitions holdtime-min holdtime-max holdtime-total ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- vanilla 2.6.39-rc3: inode_wb_list_lock: 42590 44433 0.12 147.74 144127.35 252274 886792 0.08 121.34 917211.23 ------------------ inode_wb_list_lock 2 [<ffffffff81165da5>] bdev_inode_switch_bdi+0x29/0x85 inode_wb_list_lock 34 [<ffffffff8115bd0b>] inode_wb_list_del+0x22/0x49 inode_wb_list_lock 12893 [<ffffffff8115bb53>] __mark_inode_dirty+0x170/0x1d0 inode_wb_list_lock 10702 [<ffffffff8115afef>] writeback_single_inode+0x16d/0x20a ------------------ inode_wb_list_lock 2 [<ffffffff81165da5>] bdev_inode_switch_bdi+0x29/0x85 inode_wb_list_lock 19 [<ffffffff8115bd0b>] inode_wb_list_del+0x22/0x49 inode_wb_list_lock 5550 [<ffffffff8115bb53>] __mark_inode_dirty+0x170/0x1d0 inode_wb_list_lock 8511 [<ffffffff8115b4ad>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x10f/0x157 2.6.39-rc3 + patch: &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock: 11383 11657 0.14 151.69 40429.51 90825 527918 0.11 145.90 556843.37 ------------------------ &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 10 [<ffffffff8115b189>] inode_wb_list_del+0x5f/0x86 &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 1493 [<ffffffff8115b1ed>] writeback_inodes_wb+0x3d/0x150 &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 3652 [<ffffffff8115a8e9>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x123/0x16f &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 1412 [<ffffffff8115a38e>] writeback_single_inode+0x17f/0x223 ------------------------ &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 3 [<ffffffff8110b5af>] bdi_lock_two+0x46/0x4b &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 6 [<ffffffff8115b189>] inode_wb_list_del+0x5f/0x86 &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 2061 [<ffffffff8115af97>] __mark_inode_dirty+0x173/0x1cf &(&wb->list_lock)->rlock 2629 [<ffffffff8115a8e9>] writeback_sb_inodes+0x123/0x16f fix recursive lock when bdi_lock_two() is called with new the same as old cleanup bdev_inode_switch_bdi() comment Signed-off-by: Christoph Hellwig <> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Wu Fengguang <>
2011-06-03more conservative S_NOSEC handlingAl Viro
Caching "we have already removed suid/caps" was overenthusiastic as merged. On network filesystems we might have had suid/caps set on another client, silently picked by this client on revalidate, all of that *without* clearing the S_NOSEC flag. AFAICS, the only reasonably sane way to deal with that is * new superblock flag; unless set, S_NOSEC is not going to be set. * local block filesystems set it in their ->mount() (more accurately, mount_bdev() does, so does btrfs ->mount(), users of mount_bdev() other than local block ones clear it) * if any network filesystem (or a cluster one) wants to use S_NOSEC, it'll need to set MS_NOSEC in sb->s_flags *AND* take care to clear S_NOSEC when inode attribute changes are picked from other clients. It's not an earth-shattering hole (anybody that can set suid on another client will almost certainly be able to write to the file before doing that anyway), but it's a bug that needs fixing. Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2011-05-28Cache xattr security drop check for write v2Andi Kleen
Some recent benchmarking on btrfs showed that a major scaling bottleneck on large systems on btrfs is currently the xattr lookup on every write. Why xattr lookup on every write I hear you ask? write wants to drop suid and security related xattrs that could set o capabilities for executables. To do that it currently looks up security.capability on EVERY write (even for non executables) to decide whether to drop it or not. In btrfs this causes an additional tree walk, hitting some per file system locks and quite bad scalability. In a simple read workload on a 8S system I saw over 90% CPU time in spinlocks related to that. Chris Mason tells me this is also a problem in ext4, where it hits the global mbcache lock. This patch adds a simple per inode to avoid this problem. We only do the lookup once per file and then if there is no xattr cache the decision. All xattr changes clear the flag. I also used the same flag to avoid the suid check, although that one is pretty cheap. A file system can also set this flag when it creates the inode, if it has a cheap way to do so. This is done for some common file systems in followon patches. With this patch a major part of the lock contention disappears for btrfs. Some testing on smaller systems didn't show significant performance changes, but at least it helps the larger systems and is generally more efficient. v2: Rename is_sgid. add file system helper. Cc: Cc: Cc: Cc: Cc: Serge E. Hallyn <> Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2011-05-28mm: Wait for writeback when grabbing pages to begin a writeDarrick J. Wong
When grabbing a page for a buffered IO write, the mm should wait for writeback on the page to complete so that the page does not become writable during the IO operation. This change is needed to provide page stability during writes for all filesystems. Signed-off-by: Darrick J. Wong <> Signed-off-by: Al Viro <>
2011-05-26memcg: add the pagefault count into memcg statsYing Han
Two new stats in per-memcg memory.stat which tracks the number of page faults and number of major page faults. "pgfault" "pgmajfault" They are different from "pgpgin"/"pgpgout" stat which count number of pages charged/discharged to the cgroup and have no meaning of reading/ writing page to disk. It is valuable to track the two stats for both measuring application's performance as well as the efficiency of the kernel page reclaim path. Counting pagefaults per process is useful, but we also need the aggregated value since processes are monitored and controlled in cgroup basis in memcg. Functional test: check the total number of pgfault/pgmajfault of all memcgs and compare with global vmstat value: $ cat /proc/vmstat | grep fault pgfault 1070751 pgmajfault 553 $ cat /dev/cgroup/memory.stat | grep fault pgfault 1071138 pgmajfault 553 total_pgfault 1071142 total_pgmajfault 553 $ cat /dev/cgroup/A/memory.stat | grep fault pgfault 199 pgmajfault 0 total_pgfault 199 total_pgmajfault 0 Performance test: run page fault test(pft) wit 16 thread on faulting in 15G anon pages in 16G container. There is no regression noticed on the "flt/cpu/s" Sample output from pft: TAG pft:anon-sys-default: Gb Thr CLine User System Wall flt/cpu/s fault/wsec 15 16 1 0.67s 233.41s 14.76s 16798.546 266356.260 +-------------------------------------------------------------------------+ N Min Max Median Avg Stddev x 10 16682.962 17344.027 16913.524 16928.812 166.5362 + 10 16695.568 16923.896 16820.604 16824.652 84.816568 No difference proven at 95.0% confidence [ fix build] [ shmem fix] Signed-off-by: Ying Han <> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <> Cc: Daisuke Nishimura <> Acked-by: Balbir Singh <> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2011-05-26Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// * 'for-linus' of git:// xen: cleancache shim to Xen Transcendent Memory ocfs2: add cleancache support ext4: add cleancache support btrfs: add cleancache support ext3: add cleancache support mm/fs: add hooks to support cleancache mm: cleancache core ops functions and config fs: add field to superblock to support cleancache mm/fs: cleancache documentation Fix up trivial conflict in fs/btrfs/extent_io.c due to includes
2011-05-26mm/fs: add hooks to support cleancacheDan Magenheimer
This fourth patch of eight in this cleancache series provides the core hooks in VFS for: initializing cleancache per filesystem; capturing clean pages reclaimed by page cache; attempting to get pages from cleancache before filesystem read; and ensuring coherency between pagecache, disk, and cleancache. Note that the placement of these hooks was stable from 2.6.18 to 2.6.38; a minor semantic change was required due to a patchset in 2.6.39. All hooks become no-ops if CONFIG_CLEANCACHE is unset, or become a check of a boolean global if CONFIG_CLEANCACHE is set but no cleancache "backend" has claimed cleancache_ops. Details and a FAQ can be found in Documentation/vm/cleancache.txt [v8: adapt to new remove_from_page_cache function] Signed-off-by: Chris Mason <> Signed-off-by: Dan Magenheimer <> Reviewed-by: Jeremy Fitzhardinge <> Reviewed-by: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Al Viro <> Cc: Matthew Wilcox <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Rik Van Riel <> Cc: Jan Beulich <> Cc: Andreas Dilger <> Cc: Ted Ts'o <> Cc: Mark Fasheh <> Cc: Joel Becker <> Cc: Nitin Gupta <>