path: root/mm/memory.c
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2013-08-20Fix TLB gather virtual address range invalidation corner casesLinus Torvalds
commit 2b047252d087be7f2ba088b4933cd904f92e6fce upstream. Ben Tebulin reported: "Since v3.7.2 on two independent machines a very specific Git repository fails in 9/10 cases on git-fsck due to an SHA1/memory failures. This only occurs on a very specific repository and can be reproduced stably on two independent laptops. Git mailing list ran out of ideas and for me this looks like some very exotic kernel issue" and bisected the failure to the backport of commit 53a59fc67f97 ("mm: limit mmu_gather batching to fix soft lockups on !CONFIG_PREEMPT"). That commit itself is not actually buggy, but what it does is to make it much more likely to hit the partial TLB invalidation case, since it introduces a new case in tlb_next_batch() that previously only ever happened when running out of memory. The real bug is that the TLB gather virtual memory range setup is subtly buggered. It was introduced in commit 597e1c3580b7 ("mm/mmu_gather: enable tlb flush range in generic mmu_gather"), and the range handling was already fixed at least once in commit e6c495a96ce0 ("mm: fix the TLB range flushed when __tlb_remove_page() runs out of slots"), but that fix was not complete. The problem with the TLB gather virtual address range is that it isn't set up by the initial tlb_gather_mmu() initialization (which didn't get the TLB range information), but it is set up ad-hoc later by the functions that actually flush the TLB. And so any such case that forgot to update the TLB range entries would potentially miss TLB invalidates. Rather than try to figure out exactly which particular ad-hoc range setup was missing (I personally suspect it's the hugetlb case in zap_huge_pmd(), which didn't have the same logic as zap_pte_range() did), this patch just gets rid of the problem at the source: make the TLB range information available to tlb_gather_mmu(), and initialize it when initializing all the other tlb gather fields. This makes the patch larger, but conceptually much simpler. And the end result is much more understandable; even if you want to play games with partial ranges when invalidating the TLB contents in chunks, now the range information is always there, and anybody who doesn't want to bother with it won't introduce subtle bugs. Ben verified that this fixes his problem. Reported-bisected-and-tested-by: Ben Tebulin <> Build-testing-by: Stephen Rothwell <> Build-testing-by: Richard Weinberger <> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <> Acked-by: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2013-08-04mm: fix the TLB range flushed when __tlb_remove_page() runs out of slotsVineet Gupta
commit e6c495a96ce02574e765d5140039a64c8d4e8c9e upstream. zap_pte_range loops from @addr to @end. In the middle, if it runs out of batching slots, TLB entries needs to be flushed for @start to @interim, NOT @interim to @end. Since ARC port doesn't use page free batching I can't test it myself but this seems like the right thing to do. Observed this when working on a fix for the issue at thread: Signed-off-by: Vineet Gupta <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Acked-by: Catalin Marinas <> Cc: Max Filippov <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <>
2013-06-06arch, mm: Remove tlb_fast_mode()Peter Zijlstra
Since the introduction of preemptible mmu_gather TLB fast mode has been broken. TLB fast mode relies on there being absolutely no concurrency; it frees pages first and invalidates TLBs later. However now we can get concurrency and stuff goes *bang*. This patch removes all tlb_fast_mode() code; it was found the better option vs trying to patch the hole by entangling tlb invalidation with the scheduler. Cc: Thomas Gleixner <> Cc: Russell King <> Cc: Tony Luck <> Reported-by: Max Filippov <> Signed-off-by: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-04-30Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull trivial tree updates from Jiri Kosina: "Usual stuff, mostly comment fixes, typo fixes, printk fixes and small code cleanups" * 'for-linus' of git:// (45 commits) mm: Convert print_symbol to %pSR gfs2: Convert print_symbol to %pSR m32r: Convert print_symbol to %pSR iostats.txt: add easy-to-find description for field 6 x86 cmpxchg.h: fix wrong comment treewide: Fix typo in printk and comments doc: devicetree: Fix various typos docbook: fix 8250 naming in device-drivers pata_pdc2027x: Fix compiler warning treewide: Fix typo in printks mei: Fix comments in drivers/misc/mei treewide: Fix typos in kernel messages pm44xx: Fix comment for "CONFIG_CPU_IDLE" doc: Fix typo "CONFIG_CGROUP_CGROUP_MEMCG_SWAP" mmzone: correct "pags" to "pages" in comment. kernel-parameters: remove outdated 'noresidual' parameter Remove spurious _H suffixes from ifdef comments sound: Remove stray pluses from Kconfig file radio-shark: Fix printk "CONFIG_LED_CLASS" doc: put proper reference to CONFIG_MODULE_SIG_ENFORCE ...
2013-04-29THP: fix comment about memory barrierMinchan Kim
Currently the memory barrier in __do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page doesn't work. Because lru_cache_add_lru uses pagevec so it could miss spinlock easily so above rule was broken so user might see inconsistent data. I was not first person who pointed out the problem. Mel and Peter pointed out a few months ago and Peter pointed out further that even spin_lock/unlock can't make sure of it: In particular: *A = a; LOCK UNLOCK *B = b; may occur as: LOCK, STORE *B, STORE *A, UNLOCK At last, Hugh pointed out that even we don't need memory barrier in there because __SetPageUpdate already have done it from Nick's commit 0ed361dec369 ("mm: fix PageUptodate data race") explicitly. So this patch fixes comment on THP and adds same comment for do_anonymous_page, too because everybody except Hugh was missing that. It means we need a comment about that. Signed-off-by: Minchan Kim <> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Acked-by: David Rientjes <> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-04-29mm: Convert print_symbol to %pSRJoe Perches
Use the new vsprintf extension to avoid any possible message interleaving. Signed-off-by: Joe Perches <> Acked-by: Christoph Lameter <> Signed-off-by: Jiri Kosina <>
2013-04-16vm: add vm_iomap_memory() helper functionLinus Torvalds
Various drivers end up replicating the code to mmap() their memory buffers into user space, and our core memory remapping function may be very flexible but it is unnecessarily complicated for the common cases to use. Our internal VM uses pfn's ("page frame numbers") which simplifies things for the VM, and allows us to pass physical addresses around in a denser and more efficient format than passing a "phys_addr_t" around, and having to shift it up and down by the page size. But it just means that drivers end up doing that shifting instead at the interface level. It also means that drivers end up mucking around with internal VM things like the vma details (vm_pgoff, vm_start/end) way more than they really need to. So this just exports a function to map a certain physical memory range into user space (using a phys_addr_t based interface that is much more natural for a driver) and hides all the complexity from the driver. Some drivers will still end up tweaking the vm_page_prot details for things like prefetching or cacheability etc, but that's actually relevant to the driver, rather than caring about what the page offset of the mapping is into the particular IO memory region. Acked-by: Greg Kroah-Hartman <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-04-12x86-32: Fix possible incomplete TLB invalidate with PAE pagetablesDave Hansen
This patch attempts to fix: The symptom is a crash and messages like this: chrome: Corrupted page table at address 34a03000 *pdpt = 0000000000000000 *pde = 0000000000000000 Bad pagetable: 000f [#1] PREEMPT SMP Ingo guesses this got introduced by commit 611ae8e3f520 ("x86/tlb: enable tlb flush range support for x86") since that code started to free unused pagetables. On x86-32 PAE kernels, that new code has the potential to free an entire PMD page and will clear one of the four page-directory-pointer-table (aka pgd_t entries). The hardware aggressively "caches" these top-level entries and invlpg does not actually affect the CPU's copy. If we clear one we *HAVE* to do a full TLB flush, otherwise we might continue using a freed pmd page. (note, we do this properly on the population side in pud_populate()). This patch tracks whenever we clear one of these entries in the 'struct mmu_gather', and ensures that we follow up with a full tlb flush. BTW, I disassembled and checked that: if (tlb->fullmm == 0) and if (!tlb->fullmm && !tlb->need_flush_all) generate essentially the same code, so there should be zero impact there to the !PAE case. Signed-off-by: Dave Hansen <> Cc: Peter Anvin <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Artem S Tashkinov <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-25Merge tag 'modules-next-for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull module update from Rusty Russell: "The sweeping change is to make add_taint() explicitly indicate whether to disable lockdep, but it's a mechanical change." * tag 'modules-next-for-linus' of git:// MODSIGN: Add option to not sign modules during modules_install MODSIGN: Add -s <signature> option to sign-file MODSIGN: Specify the hash algorithm on sign-file command line MODSIGN: Simplify Makefile with a Kconfig helper module: clean up load_module a little more. modpost: Ignore ARC specific non-alloc sections module: constify within_module_* taint: add explicit flag to show whether lock dep is still OK. module: printk message when module signature fail taints kernel.
2013-02-23mm: cleanup "swapcache" in do_swap_pageHugh Dickins
I dislike the way in which "swapcache" gets used in do_swap_page(): there is always a page from swapcache there (even if maybe uncached by the time we lock it), but tests are made according to "swapcache". Rework that with "page != swapcache", as has been done in unuse_pte(). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Petr Holasek <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Izik Eidus <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm,ksm: FOLL_MIGRATION do migration_entry_waitHugh Dickins
In "ksm: remove old stable nodes more thoroughly" I said that I'd never seen its WARN_ON_ONCE(page_mapped(page)). True at the time of writing, but it soon appeared once I tried fuller tests on the whole series. It turned out to be due to the KSM page migration itself: unmerge_and_ remove_all_rmap_items() failed to locate and replace all the KSM pages, because of that hiatus in page migration when old pte has been replaced by migration entry, but not yet by new pte. follow_page() finds no page at that instant, but a KSM page reappears shortly after, without a fault. Add FOLL_MIGRATION flag, so follow_page() can do migration_entry_wait() for KSM's break_cow(). I'd have preferred to avoid another flag, and do it every time, in case someone else makes the same easy mistake; but did not find another transgressor (the common get_user_pages() is of course safe), and cannot be sure that every follow_page() caller is prepared to sleep - ia64's xencomm_vtop()? Now, THP's wait_split_huge_page() can already sleep there, since anon_vma locking was changed to mutex, but maybe that's somehow excluded. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Petr Holasek <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Izik Eidus <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm: accelerate mm_populate() treatment of THP pagesMichel Lespinasse
This change adds a follow_page_mask function which is equivalent to follow_page, but with an extra page_mask argument. follow_page_mask sets *page_mask to HPAGE_PMD_NR - 1 when it encounters a THP page, and to 0 in other cases. __get_user_pages() makes use of this in order to accelerate populating THP ranges - that is, when both the pages and vmas arrays are NULL, we don't need to iterate HPAGE_PMD_NR times to cover a single THP page (and we also avoid taking mm->page_table_lock that many times). Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm: use long type for page counts in mm_populate() and get_user_pages()Michel Lespinasse
Use long type for page counts in mm_populate() so as to avoid integer overflow when running the following test code: int main(void) { void *p = mmap(NULL, 0x100000000000, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANON, -1, 0); printf("p: %p\n", p); mlockall(MCL_CURRENT); printf("done\n"); return 0; } Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23ksm: remove old stable nodes more thoroughlyHugh Dickins
Switching merge_across_nodes after running KSM is liable to oops on stale nodes still left over from the previous stable tree. It's not something that people will often want to do, but it would be lame to demand a reboot when they're trying to determine which merge_across_nodes setting is best. How can this happen? We only permit switching merge_across_nodes when pages_shared is 0, and usually set run 2 to force that beforehand, which ought to unmerge everything: yet oopses still occur when you then run 1. Three causes: 1. The old stable tree (built according to the inverse merge_across_nodes) has not been fully torn down. A stable node lingers until get_ksm_page() notices that the page it references no longer references it: but the page is not necessarily freed as soon as expected, particularly when swapcache. Fix this with a pass through the old stable tree, applying get_ksm_page() to each of the remaining nodes (most found stale and removed immediately), with forced removal of any left over. Unless the page is still mapped: I've not seen that case, it shouldn't occur, but better to WARN_ON_ONCE and EBUSY than BUG. 2. __ksm_enter() has a nice little optimization, to insert the new mm just behind ksmd's cursor, so there's a full pass for it to stabilize (or be removed) before ksmd addresses it. Nice when ksmd is running, but not so nice when we're trying to unmerge all mms: we were missing those mms forked and inserted behind the unmerge cursor. Easily fixed by inserting at the end when KSM_RUN_UNMERGE. 3. It is possible for a KSM page to be faulted back from swapcache into an mm, just after unmerge_and_remove_all_rmap_items() scanned past it. Fix this by copying on fault when KSM_RUN_UNMERGE: but that is private to ksm.c, so dissolve the distinction between ksm_might_need_to_copy() and ksm_does_need_to_copy(), doing it all in the one call into ksm.c. A long outstanding, unrelated bugfix sneaks in with that third fix: ksm_does_need_to_copy() would copy from a !PageUptodate page (implying I/O error when read in from swap) to a page which it then marks Uptodate. Fix this case by not copying, letting do_swap_page() discover the error. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Petr Holasek <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Izik Eidus <> Cc: Gerald Schaefer <> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm: fold page->_last_nid into page->flags where possiblePeter Zijlstra
page->_last_nid fits into page->flags on 64-bit. The unlikely 32-bit NUMA configuration with NUMA Balancing will still need an extra page field. As Peter notes "Completely dropping 32bit support for CONFIG_NUMA_BALANCING would simplify things, but it would also remove the warning if we grow enough 64bit only page-flags to push the last-cpu out." [ minor modifications] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Simon Jeons <> Cc: Wanpeng Li <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm: directly use __mlock_vma_pages_range() in find_extend_vma()Michel Lespinasse
In find_extend_vma(), we don't need mlock_vma_pages_range() to verify the vma type - we know we're working with a stack. So, we can call directly into __mlock_vma_pages_range(), and remove the last make_pages_present() call site. Note that we don't use mm_populate() here, so we can't release the mmap_sem while allocating new stack pages. This is deemed acceptable, because the stack vmas grow by a bounded number of pages at a time, and these are anon pages so we don't have to read from disk to populate them. Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <> Tested-by: Andy Lutomirski <> Cc: Greg Ungerer <> Cc: David Howells <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-02-23mm: reduce rmap overhead for ex-KSM page copies created on swap faultsJohannes Weiner
When ex-KSM pages are faulted from swap cache, the fault handler is not capable of re-establishing anon_vma-spanning KSM pages. In this case, a copy of the page is created instead, just like during a COW break. These freshly made copies are known to be exclusive to the faulting VMA and there is no reason to go look for this page in parent and sibling processes during rmap operations. Use page_add_new_anon_rmap() for these copies. This also puts them on the proper LRU lists and marks them SwapBacked, so we can get rid of doing this ad-hoc in the KSM copy code. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Simon Jeons <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Michal Hocko <> Cc: Satoru Moriya <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-01-21taint: add explicit flag to show whether lock dep is still OK.Rusty Russell
Fix up all callers as they were before, with make one change: an unsigned module taints the kernel, but doesn't turn off lockdep. Signed-off-by: Rusty Russell <>
2013-01-09mm: reinstante dropped pmd_trans_splitting() checkLinus Torvalds
The check for a pmd being in the process of being split was dropped by mistake by commit d10e63f29488 ("mm: numa: Create basic numa page hinting infrastructure"). Put it back. Reported-by: Dave Jones <> Debugged-by: Hillf Danton <> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Kirill Shutemov <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2013-01-04mm: limit mmu_gather batching to fix soft lockups on !CONFIG_PREEMPTMichal Hocko
Since commit e303297e6c3a ("mm: extended batches for generic mmu_gather") we are batching pages to be freed until either tlb_next_batch cannot allocate a new batch or we are done. This works just fine most of the time but we can get in troubles with non-preemptible kernel (CONFIG_PREEMPT_NONE or CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY) on large machines where too aggressive batching might lead to soft lockups during process exit path (exit_mmap) because there are no scheduling points down the free_pages_and_swap_cache path and so the freeing can take long enough to trigger the soft lockup. The lockup is harmless except when the system is setup to panic on softlockup which is not that unusual. The simplest way to work around this issue is to limit the maximum number of batches in a single mmu_gather. 10k of collected pages should be safe to prevent from soft lockups (we would have 2ms for one) even if they are all freed without an explicit scheduling point. This patch doesn't add any new explicit scheduling points because it relies on zap_pmd_range during page tables zapping which calls cond_resched per PMD. The following lockup has been reported for 3.0 kernel with a huge process (in order of hundreds gigs but I do know any more details). BUG: soft lockup - CPU#56 stuck for 22s! [kernel:31053] Modules linked in: af_packet nfs lockd fscache auth_rpcgss nfs_acl sunrpc mptctl mptbase autofs4 binfmt_misc dm_round_robin dm_multipath bonding cpufreq_conservative cpufreq_userspace cpufreq_powersave pcc_cpufreq mperf microcode fuse loop osst sg sd_mod crc_t10dif st qla2xxx scsi_transport_fc scsi_tgt netxen_nic i7core_edac iTCO_wdt joydev e1000e serio_raw pcspkr edac_core iTCO_vendor_support acpi_power_meter rtc_cmos hpwdt hpilo button container usbhid hid dm_mirror dm_region_hash dm_log linear uhci_hcd ehci_hcd usbcore usb_common scsi_dh_emc scsi_dh_alua scsi_dh_hp_sw scsi_dh_rdac scsi_dh dm_snapshot pcnet32 mii edd dm_mod raid1 ext3 mbcache jbd fan thermal processor thermal_sys hwmon cciss scsi_mod Supported: Yes CPU 56 Pid: 31053, comm: kernel Not tainted 3.0.31-0.9-default #1 HP ProLiant DL580 G7 RIP: 0010: _raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore+0x8/0x10 RSP: 0018:ffff883ec1037af0 EFLAGS: 00000206 RAX: 0000000000000e00 RBX: ffffea01a0817e28 RCX: ffff88803ffd9e80 RDX: 0000000000000200 RSI: 0000000000000206 RDI: 0000000000000206 RBP: 0000000000000002 R08: 0000000000000001 R09: ffff887ec724a400 R10: 0000000000000000 R11: dead000000200200 R12: ffffffff8144c26e R13: 0000000000000030 R14: 0000000000000297 R15: 000000000000000e FS: 00007ed834282700(0000) GS:ffff88c03f200000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: 000000000068b240 CR3: 0000003ec13c5000 CR4: 00000000000006e0 DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000 DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400 Process kernel (pid: 31053, threadinfo ffff883ec1036000, task ffff883ebd5d4100) Call Trace: release_pages+0xc5/0x260 free_pages_and_swap_cache+0x9d/0xc0 tlb_flush_mmu+0x5c/0x80 tlb_finish_mmu+0xe/0x50 exit_mmap+0xbd/0x120 mmput+0x49/0x120 exit_mm+0x122/0x160 do_exit+0x17a/0x430 do_group_exit+0x3d/0xb0 get_signal_to_deliver+0x247/0x480 do_signal+0x71/0x1b0 do_notify_resume+0x98/0xb0 int_signal+0x12/0x17 DWARF2 unwinder stuck at int_signal+0x12/0x17 Signed-off-by: Michal Hocko <> Cc: <> [3.0+] Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-17mm: use kbasename()Andy Shevchenko
Signed-off-by: Andy Shevchenko <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-17mm/memory.c: suppress warningAndrew Morton
gcc-4.4.4 screws this up. mm/memory.c: In function 'do_pmd_numa_page': mm/memory.c:3594: warning: no return statement in function returning non-void Cc: Mel Gorman <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-16Merge tag 'balancenuma-v11' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull Automatic NUMA Balancing bare-bones from Mel Gorman: "There are three implementations for NUMA balancing, this tree (balancenuma), numacore which has been developed in tip/master and autonuma which is in aa.git. In almost all respects balancenuma is the dumbest of the three because its main impact is on the VM side with no attempt to be smart about scheduling. In the interest of getting the ball rolling, it would be desirable to see this much merged for 3.8 with the view to building scheduler smarts on top and adapting the VM where required for 3.9. The most recent set of comparisons available from different people are mel: mingo: tglx: srikar: The results are a mixed bag. In my own tests, balancenuma does reasonably well. It's dumb as rocks and does not regress against mainline. On the other hand, Ingo's tests shows that balancenuma is incapable of converging for this workloads driven by perf which is bad but is potentially explained by the lack of scheduler smarts. Thomas' results show balancenuma improves on mainline but falls far short of numacore or autonuma. Srikar's results indicate we all suffer on a large machine with imbalanced node sizes. My own testing showed that recent numacore results have improved dramatically, particularly in the last week but not universally. We've butted heads heavily on system CPU usage and high levels of migration even when it shows that overall performance is better. There are also cases where it regresses. Of interest is that for specjbb in some configurations it will regress for lower numbers of warehouses and show gains for higher numbers which is not reported by the tool by default and sometimes missed in treports. Recently I reported for numacore that the JVM was crashing with NullPointerExceptions but currently it's unclear what the source of this problem is. Initially I thought it was in how numacore batch handles PTEs but I'm no longer think this is the case. It's possible numacore is just able to trigger it due to higher rates of migration. These reports were quite late in the cycle so I/we would like to start with this tree as it contains much of the code we can agree on and has not changed significantly over the last 2-3 weeks." * tag 'balancenuma-v11' of git:// (50 commits) mm/rmap, migration: Make rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalable mm/rmap: Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsem mm: migrate: Account a transhuge page properly when rate limiting mm: numa: Account for failed allocations and isolations as migration failures mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case build fix mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case. mm: sched: numa: Delay PTE scanning until a task is scheduled on a new node mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing if !SCHED_DEBUG mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing mm: sched: Adapt the scanning rate if a NUMA hinting fault does not migrate mm: numa: Use a two-stage filter to restrict pages being migrated for unlikely task<->node relationships mm: numa: migrate: Set last_nid on newly allocated page mm: numa: split_huge_page: Transfer last_nid on tail page mm: numa: Introduce last_nid to the page frame sched: numa: Slowly increase the scanning period as NUMA faults are handled mm: numa: Rate limit setting of pte_numa if node is saturated mm: numa: Rate limit the amount of memory that is migrated between nodes mm: numa: Structures for Migrate On Fault per NUMA migration rate limiting mm: numa: Migrate pages handled during a pmd_numa hinting fault mm: numa: Migrate on reference policy ...
2012-12-12mm/memory.c: remove unused code from do_wp_page()Dominik Dingel
page_mkwrite is initalized with zero and only set once, from that point exists no way to get to the oom or oom_free_new labels. [ cleanup] Signed-off-by: Dominik Dingel <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-12asm-generic, mm: pgtable: consolidate zero page helpersKirill A. Shutemov
We have two different implementation of is_zero_pfn() and my_zero_pfn() helpers: for architectures with and without zero page coloring. Let's consolidate them in <asm-generic/pgtable.h>. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-12thp: change split_huge_page_pmd() interfaceKirill A. Shutemov
Pass vma instead of mm and add address parameter. In most cases we already have vma on the stack. We provides split_huge_page_pmd_mm() for few cases when we have mm, but not vma. This change is preparation to huge zero pmd splitting implementation. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Andi Kleen <> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: David Rientjes <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-12thp: do_huge_pmd_wp_page(): handle huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov
On write access to huge zero page we alloc a new huge page and clear it. If ENOMEM, graceful fallback: we create a new pmd table and set pte around fault address to newly allocated normal (4k) page. All other ptes in the pmd set to normal zero page. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Andi Kleen <> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: David Rientjes <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-11mm: thp: set the accessed flag for old pages on access faultWill Deacon
On x86 memory accesses to pages without the ACCESSED flag set result in the ACCESSED flag being set automatically. With the ARM architecture a page access fault is raised instead (and it will continue to be raised until the ACCESSED flag is set for the appropriate PTE/PMD). For normal memory pages, handle_pte_fault will call pte_mkyoung (effectively setting the ACCESSED flag). For transparent huge pages, pmd_mkyoung will only be called for a write fault. This patch ensures that faults on transparent hugepages which do not result in a CoW update the access flags for the faulting pmd. Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-12-11mm: sched: Adapt the scanning rate if a NUMA hinting fault does not migrateMel Gorman
The PTE scanning rate and fault rates are two of the biggest sources of system CPU overhead with automatic NUMA placement. Ideally a proper policy would detect if a workload was properly placed, schedule and adjust the PTE scanning rate accordingly. We do not track the necessary information to do that but we at least know if we migrated or not. This patch scans slower if a page was not migrated as the result of a NUMA hinting fault up to sysctl_numa_balancing_scan_period_max which is now higher than the previous default. Once every minute it will reset the scanner in case of phase changes. This is hilariously crude and the numbers are arbitrary. Workloads will converge quite slowly in comparison to what a proper policy should be able to do. On the plus side, we will chew up less CPU for workloads that have no need for automatic balancing. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Migrate pages handled during a pmd_numa hinting faultMel Gorman
To say that the PMD handling code was incorrectly transferred from autonuma is an understatement. The intention was to handle a PMDs worth of pages in the same fault and effectively batch the taking of the PTL and page migration. The copied version instead has the impact of clearing a number of pte_numa PTE entries and whether any page migration takes place depends on racing. This just happens to work in some cases. This patch handles pte_numa faults in batch when a pmd_numa fault is handled. The pages are migrated if they are currently misplaced. Essentially this is making an assumption that NUMA locality is on a PMD boundary but that could be addressed by only setting pmd_numa if all the pages within that PMD are on the same node if necessary. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add pte updates, hinting and migration statsMel Gorman
It is tricky to quantify the basic cost of automatic NUMA placement in a meaningful manner. This patch adds some vmstats that can be used as part of a basic costing model. u = basic unit = sizeof(void *) Ca = cost of struct page access = sizeof(struct page) / u Cpte = Cost PTE access = Ca Cupdate = Cost PTE update = (2 * Cpte) + (2 * Wlock) where Cpte is incurred twice for a read and a write and Wlock is a constant representing the cost of taking or releasing a lock Cnumahint = Cost of a minor page fault = some high constant e.g. 1000 Cpagerw = Cost to read or write a full page = Ca + PAGE_SIZE/u Ci = Cost of page isolation = Ca + Wi where Wi is a constant that should reflect the approximate cost of the locking operation Cpagecopy = Cpagerw + (Cpagerw * Wnuma) + Ci + (Ci * Wnuma) where Wnuma is the approximate NUMA factor. 1 is local. 1.2 would imply that remote accesses are 20% more expensive Balancing cost = Cpte * numa_pte_updates + Cnumahint * numa_hint_faults + Ci * numa_pages_migrated + Cpagecopy * numa_pages_migrated Note that numa_pages_migrated is used as a measure of how many pages were isolated even though it would miss pages that failed to migrate. A vmstat counter could have been added for it but the isolation cost is pretty marginal in comparison to the overall cost so it seemed overkill. The ideal way to measure automatic placement benefit would be to count the number of remote accesses versus local accesses and do something like benefit = (remote_accesses_before - remove_access_after) * Wnuma but the information is not readily available. As a workload converges, the expection would be that the number of remote numa hints would reduce to 0. convergence = numa_hint_faults_local / numa_hint_faults where this is measured for the last N number of numa hints recorded. When the workload is fully converged the value is 1. This can measure if the placement policy is converging and how fast it is doing it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add fault driven placement and migrationPeter Zijlstra
NOTE: This patch is based on "sched, numa, mm: Add fault driven placement and migration policy" but as it throws away all the policy to just leave a basic foundation I had to drop the signed-offs-by. This patch creates a bare-bones method for setting PTEs pte_numa in the context of the scheduler that when faulted later will be faulted onto the node the CPU is running on. In itself this does nothing useful but any placement policy will fundamentally depend on receiving hints on placement from fault context and doing something intelligent about it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <>
2012-12-11mm: mempolicy: Use _PAGE_NUMA to migrate pagesMel Gorman
Note: Based on "mm/mpol: Use special PROT_NONE to migrate pages" but sufficiently different that the signed-off-bys were dropped Combine our previous _PAGE_NUMA, mpol_misplaced and migrate_misplaced_page() pieces into an effective migrate on fault scheme. Note that (on x86) we rely on PROT_NONE pages being !present and avoid the TLB flush from try_to_unmap(TTU_MIGRATION). This greatly improves the page-migration performance. Based-on-work-by: Peter Zijlstra <> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Create basic numa page hinting infrastructureMel Gorman
Note: This patch started as "mm/mpol: Create special PROT_NONE infrastructure" and preserves the basic idea but steals *very* heavily from "autonuma: numa hinting page faults entry points" for the actual fault handlers without the migration parts. The end result is barely recognisable as either patch so all Signed-off and Reviewed-bys are dropped. If Peter, Ingo and Andrea are ok with this version, I will re-add the signed-offs-by to reflect the history. In order to facilitate a lazy -- fault driven -- migration of pages, create a special transient PAGE_NUMA variant, we can then use the 'spurious' protection faults to drive our migrations from. The meaning of PAGE_NUMA depends on the architecture but on x86 it is effectively PROT_NONE. Actual PROT_NONE mappings will not generate these NUMA faults for the reason that the page fault code checks the permission on the VMA (and will throw a segmentation fault on actual PROT_NONE mappings), before it ever calls handle_mm_fault. [ Fix typo] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Support NUMA hinting page faults from gup/gup_fastAndrea Arcangeli
Introduce FOLL_NUMA to tell follow_page to check pte/pmd_numa. get_user_pages must use FOLL_NUMA, and it's safe to do so because it always invokes handle_mm_fault and retries the follow_page later. KVM secondary MMU page faults will trigger the NUMA hinting page faults through gup_fast -> get_user_pages -> follow_page -> handle_mm_fault. Other follow_page callers like KSM should not use FOLL_NUMA, or they would fail to get the pages if they use follow_page instead of get_user_pages. [ This patch was picked up from the AutoNUMA tree. ] Originally-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> [ ported to this tree. ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <>
2012-12-11mm: Check if PTE is already allocated during page faultMel Gorman
With transparent hugepage support, handle_mm_fault() has to be careful that a normal PMD has been established before handling a PTE fault. To achieve this, it used __pte_alloc() directly instead of pte_alloc_map as pte_alloc_map is unsafe to run against a huge PMD. pte_offset_map() is called once it is known the PMD is safe. pte_alloc_map() is smart enough to check if a PTE is already present before calling __pte_alloc but this check was lost. As a consequence, PTEs may be allocated unnecessarily and the page table lock taken. Thi useless PTE does get cleaned up but it's a performance hit which is visible in page_test from aim9. This patch simply re-adds the check normally done by pte_alloc_map to check if the PTE needs to be allocated before taking the page table lock. The effect is noticable in page_test from aim9. AIM9 2.6.38-vanilla 2.6.38-checkptenone creat-clo 446.10 ( 0.00%) 424.47 (-5.10%) page_test 38.10 ( 0.00%) 42.04 ( 9.37%) brk_test 52.45 ( 0.00%) 51.57 (-1.71%) exec_test 382.00 ( 0.00%) 456.90 (16.39%) fork_test 60.11 ( 0.00%) 67.79 (11.34%) MMTests Statistics: duration Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 611.90 612.22 (While this affects 2.6.38, it is a performance rather than a functional bug and normally outside the rules -stable. While the big performance differences are to a microbench, the difference in fork and exec performance may be significant enough that -stable wants to consider the patch) Reported-by: Raz Ben Yehuda <> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Linus Torvalds <> Cc: Andrew Morton <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> [ Picked this up from the AutoNUMA tree to help it upstream and to allow apples-to-apples performance comparisons. ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <>
2012-11-16mm: fix build warning for uninitialized valueDavid Rientjes
do_wp_page() sets mmun_called if mmun_start and mmun_end were initialized and, if so, may call mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end() with these values. This doesn't prevent gcc from emitting a build warning though: mm/memory.c: In function `do_wp_page': mm/memory.c:2530: warning: `mmun_start' may be used uninitialized in this function mm/memory.c:2531: warning: `mmun_end' may be used uninitialized in this function It's much easier to initialize the variables to impossible values and do a simple comparison to determine if they were initialized to remove the bool entirely. Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm, thp: fix mapped pages avoiding unevictable list on mlockDavid Rientjes
When a transparent hugepage is mapped and it is included in an mlock() range, follow_page() incorrectly avoids setting the page's mlock bit and moving it to the unevictable lru. This is evident if you try to mlock(), munlock(), and then mlock() a range again. Currently: #define MAP_SIZE (4 << 30) /* 4GB */ void *ptr = mmap(NULL, MAP_SIZE, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, 0, 0); mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); $ grep -E "Unevictable|Inactive\(anon" /proc/meminfo Inactive(anon): 6304 kB Unevictable: 4213924 kB munlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4186252 kB Unevictable: 19652 kB mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4198556 kB Unevictable: 21684 kB Notice that less than 2MB was added to the unevictable list; this is because these pages in the range are not transparent hugepages since the 4GB range was allocated with mmap() and has no specific alignment. If posix_memalign() were used instead, unevictable would not have grown at all on the second mlock(). The fix is to call mlock_vma_page() so that the mlock bit is set and the page is added to the unevictable list. With this patch: mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4056 kB Unevictable: 4213940 kB munlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4198268 kB Unevictable: 19636 kB mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4008 kB Unevictable: 4213940 kB Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <> Reviewed-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <> Cc: Johannes Weiner <> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm/memory.c: fix typo in commentRobert P. J. Day
Signed-off-by: Robert P. J. Day <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: wrap calls to set_pte_at_notify with invalidate_range_start and ↵Haggai Eran
invalidate_range_end In order to allow sleeping during invalidate_page mmu notifier calls, we need to avoid calling when holding the PT lock. In addition to its direct calls, invalidate_page can also be called as a substitute for a change_pte call, in case the notifier client hasn't implemented change_pte. This patch drops the invalidate_page call from change_pte, and instead wraps all calls to change_pte with invalidate_range_start and invalidate_range_end calls. Note that change_pte still cannot sleep after this patch, and that clients implementing change_pte should not take action on it in case the number of outstanding invalidate_range_start calls is larger than one, otherwise they might miss a later invalidation. Signed-off-by: Haggai Eran <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: Sagi Grimberg <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Xiao Guangrong <> Cc: Or Gerlitz <> Cc: Haggai Eran <> Cc: Shachar Raindel <> Cc: Liran Liss <> Cc: Christoph Lameter <> Cc: Avi Kivity <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: move all mmu notifier invocations to be done outside the PT lockSagi Grimberg
In order to allow sleeping during mmu notifier calls, we need to avoid invoking them under the page table spinlock. This patch solves the problem by calling invalidate_page notification after releasing the lock (but before freeing the page itself), or by wrapping the page invalidation with calls to invalidate_range_begin and invalidate_range_end. To prevent accidental changes to the invalidate_range_end arguments after the call to invalidate_range_begin, the patch introduces a convention of saving the arguments in consistently named locals: unsigned long mmun_start; /* For mmu_notifiers */ unsigned long mmun_end; /* For mmu_notifiers */ ... mmun_start = ... mmun_end = ... mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end); ... mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end); The patch changes code to use this convention for all calls to mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start/end, except those where the calls are close enough so that anyone who glances at the code can see the values aren't changing. This patchset is a preliminary step towards on-demand paging design to be added to the RDMA stack. Why do we want on-demand paging for Infiniband? Applications register memory with an RDMA adapter using system calls, and subsequently post IO operations that refer to the corresponding virtual addresses directly to HW. Until now, this was achieved by pinning the memory during the registration calls. The goal of on demand paging is to avoid pinning the pages of registered memory regions (MRs). This will allow users the same flexibility they get when swapping any other part of their processes address spaces. Instead of requiring the entire MR to fit in physical memory, we can allow the MR to be larger, and only fit the current working set in physical memory. Why should anyone care? What problems are users currently experiencing? This can make programming with RDMA much simpler. Today, developers that are working with more data than their RAM can hold need either to deregister and reregister memory regions throughout their process's life, or keep a single memory region and copy the data to it. On demand paging will allow these developers to register a single MR at the beginning of their process's life, and let the operating system manage which pages needs to be fetched at a given time. In the future, we might be able to provide a single memory access key for each process that would provide the entire process's address as one large memory region, and the developers wouldn't need to register memory regions at all. Is there any prospect that any other subsystems will utilise these infrastructural changes? If so, which and how, etc? As for other subsystems, I understand that XPMEM wanted to sleep in MMU notifiers, as Christoph Lameter wrote at and perhaps Andrea knows about other use cases. Scheduling in mmu notifications is required since we need to sync the hardware with the secondary page tables change. A TLB flush of an IO device is inherently slower than a CPU TLB flush, so our design works by sending the invalidation request to the device, and waiting for an interrupt before exiting the mmu notifier handler. Avi said: kvm may be a buyer. kvm::mmu_lock, which serializes guest page faults, also protects long operations such as destroying large ranges. It would be good to convert it into a spinlock, but as it is used inside mmu notifiers, this cannot be done. (there are alternatives, such as keeping the spinlock and using a generation counter to do the teardown in O(1), which is what the "may" is doing up there). [akpm@linux-foundation.orgpossible speed tweak in hugetlb_cow(), cleanups] Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <> Signed-off-by: Sagi Grimberg <> Signed-off-by: Haggai Eran <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Xiao Guangrong <> Cc: Or Gerlitz <> Cc: Haggai Eran <> Cc: Shachar Raindel <> Cc: Liran Liss <> Cc: Christoph Lameter <> Cc: Avi Kivity <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: use clear_page_mlock() in page_remove_rmap()Hugh Dickins
We had thought that pages could no longer get freed while still marked as mlocked; but Johannes Weiner posted this program to demonstrate that truncating an mlocked private file mapping containing COWed pages is still mishandled: #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/mman.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <stdio.h> int main(void) { char *map; int fd; system("grep mlockfreed /proc/vmstat"); fd = open("chigurh", O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR); unlink("chigurh"); ftruncate(fd, 4096); map = mmap(NULL, 4096, PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0); map[0] = 11; mlock(map, sizeof(fd)); ftruncate(fd, 0); close(fd); munlock(map, sizeof(fd)); munmap(map, 4096); system("grep mlockfreed /proc/vmstat"); return 0; } The anon COWed pages are not caught by truncation's clear_page_mlock() of the pagecache pages; but unmap_mapping_range() unmaps them, so we ought to look out for them there in page_remove_rmap(). Indeed, why should truncation or invalidation be doing the clear_page_mlock() when removing from pagecache? mlock is a property of mapping in userspace, not a property of pagecache: an mlocked unmapped page is nonsensical. Reported-by: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Mel Gorman <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <> Cc: Ying Han <> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: replace vma prio_tree with an interval treeMichel Lespinasse
Implement an interval tree as a replacement for the VMA prio_tree. The algorithms are similar to lib/interval_tree.c; however that code can't be directly reused as the interval endpoints are not explicitly stored in the VMA. So instead, the common algorithm is moved into a template and the details (node type, how to get interval endpoints from the node, etc) are filled in using the C preprocessor. Once the interval tree functions are available, using them as a replacement to the VMA prio tree is a relatively simple, mechanical job. Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <> Cc: Rik van Riel <> Cc: Hillf Danton <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Catalin Marinas <> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <> Cc: David Woodhouse <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: kill vma flag VM_RESERVED and mm->reserved_vm counterKonstantin Khlebnikov
A long time ago, in v2.4, VM_RESERVED kept swapout process off VMA, currently it lost original meaning but still has some effects: | effect | alternative flags -+------------------------+--------------------------------------------- 1| account as reserved_vm | VM_IO 2| skip in core dump | VM_IO, VM_DONTDUMP 3| do not merge or expand | VM_IO, VM_DONTEXPAND, VM_HUGETLB, VM_PFNMAP 4| do not mlock | VM_IO, VM_DONTEXPAND, VM_HUGETLB, VM_PFNMAP This patch removes reserved_vm counter from mm_struct. Seems like nobody cares about it, it does not exported into userspace directly, it only reduces total_vm showed in proc. Thus VM_RESERVED can be replaced with VM_IO or pair VM_DONTEXPAND | VM_DONTDUMP. remap_pfn_range() and io_remap_pfn_range() set VM_IO|VM_DONTEXPAND|VM_DONTDUMP. remap_vmalloc_range() set VM_DONTEXPAND | VM_DONTDUMP. [ drivers/vfio/pci/vfio_pci.c fixup] Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Cc: Alexander Viro <> Cc: Carsten Otte <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <> Cc: Eric Paris <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: James Morris <> Cc: Jason Baron <> Cc: Kentaro Takeda <> Cc: Matt Helsley <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Robert Richter <> Cc: Suresh Siddha <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm: kill vma flag VM_INSERTPAGEKonstantin Khlebnikov
Merge VM_INSERTPAGE into VM_MIXEDMAP. VM_MIXEDMAP VMA can mix pure-pfn ptes, special ptes and normal ptes. Now copy_page_range() always copies VM_MIXEDMAP VMA on fork like VM_PFNMAP. If driver populates whole VMA at mmap() it probably not expects page-faults. This patch removes special check from vma_wants_writenotify() which disables pages write tracking for VMA populated via vm_instert_page(). BDI below mapped file should not use dirty-accounting, moreover do_wp_page() can handle this. vm_insert_page() still marks vma after first usage. Usually it is called from f_op->mmap() handler under mm->mmap_sem write-lock, so it able to change vma->vm_flags. Caller must set VM_MIXEDMAP at mmap time if it wants to call this function from other places, for example from page-fault handler. Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Cc: Alexander Viro <> Cc: Carsten Otte <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <> Cc: Eric Paris <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: James Morris <> Cc: Jason Baron <> Cc: Kentaro Takeda <> Cc: Matt Helsley <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Robert Richter <> Cc: Suresh Siddha <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09mm, x86, pat: rework linear pfn-mmap trackingKonstantin Khlebnikov
Replace the generic vma-flag VM_PFN_AT_MMAP with x86-only VM_PAT. We can toss mapping address from remap_pfn_range() into track_pfn_vma_new(), and collect all PAT-related logic together in arch/x86/. This patch also restores orignal frustration-free is_cow_mapping() check in remap_pfn_range(), as it was before commit v2.6.28-rc8-88-g3c8bb73 ("x86: PAT: store vm_pgoff for all linear_over_vma_region mappings - v3") is_linear_pfn_mapping() checks can be removed from mm/huge_memory.c, because it already handled by VM_PFNMAP in VM_NO_THP bit-mask. [ Reset the VM_PAT flag as part of untrack_pfn_vma()] Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Signed-off-by: Suresh Siddha <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Alexander Viro <> Cc: Carsten Otte <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <> Cc: Eric Paris <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: James Morris <> Cc: Jason Baron <> Cc: Kentaro Takeda <> Cc: Matt Helsley <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Robert Richter <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-10-09x86, pat: separate the pfn attribute tracking for remap_pfn_range and ↵Suresh Siddha
vm_insert_pfn With PAT enabled, vm_insert_pfn() looks up the existing pfn memory attribute and uses it. Expectation is that the driver reserves the memory attributes for the pfn before calling vm_insert_pfn(). remap_pfn_range() (when called for the whole vma) will setup a new attribute (based on the prot argument) for the specified pfn range. This addresses the legacy usage which typically calls remap_pfn_range() with a desired memory attribute. For ranges smaller than the vma size (which is typically not the case), remap_pfn_range() will use the existing memory attribute for the pfn range. Expose two different API's for these different behaviors. track_pfn_insert() for tracking the pfn attribute set by vm_insert_pfn() and track_pfn_remap() for the remap_pfn_range(). This cleanup also prepares the ground for the track/untrack pfn vma routines to take over the ownership of setting PAT specific vm_flag in the 'vma'. [ Clear checks in track_pfn_remap()] [ tweak a few comments] Signed-off-by: Suresh Siddha <> Signed-off-by: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Cc: Venkatesh Pallipadi <> Cc: H. Peter Anvin <> Cc: Nick Piggin <> Cc: Ingo Molnar <> Cc: Alexander Viro <> Cc: Carsten Otte <> Cc: Chris Metcalf <> Cc: Cyrill Gorcunov <> Cc: Eric Paris <> Cc: Hugh Dickins <> Cc: James Morris <> Cc: Jason Baron <> Cc: Kentaro Takeda <> Cc: Konstantin Khlebnikov <> Cc: Matt Helsley <> Cc: Oleg Nesterov <> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <> Cc: Robert Richter <> Cc: Suresh Siddha <> Cc: Tetsuo Handa <> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-08-01Merge branch 'for-linus' of ↵Linus Torvalds
git:// Pull second vfs pile from Al Viro: "The stuff in there: fsfreeze deadlock fixes by Jan (essentially, the deadlock reproduced by xfstests 068), symlink and hardlink restriction patches, plus assorted cleanups and fixes. Note that another fsfreeze deadlock (emergency thaw one) is *not* dealt with - the series by Fernando conflicts a lot with Jan's, breaks userland ABI (FIFREEZE semantics gets changed) and trades the deadlock for massive vfsmount leak; this is going to be handled next cycle. There probably will be another pull request, but that stuff won't be in it." Fix up trivial conflicts due to unrelated changes next to each other in drivers/{staging/gdm72xx/usb_boot.c, usb/gadget/storage_common.c} * 'for-linus' of git:// (54 commits) delousing target_core_file a bit Documentation: Correct s_umount state for freeze_fs/unfreeze_fs fs: Remove old freezing mechanism ext2: Implement freezing btrfs: Convert to new freezing mechanism nilfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism ntfs: Convert to new freezing mechanism fuse: Convert to new freezing mechanism gfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism ocfs2: Convert to new freezing mechanism xfs: Convert to new freezing code ext4: Convert to new freezing mechanism fs: Protect write paths by sb_start_write - sb_end_write fs: Skip atime update on frozen filesystem fs: Add freezing handling to mnt_want_write() / mnt_drop_write() fs: Improve filesystem freezing handling switch the protection of percpu_counter list to spinlock nfsd: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex btrfs: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex fat: Push mnt_want_write() outside of i_mutex ...
2012-07-31mm: hugetlbfs: close race during teardown of hugetlbfs shared page tablesMel Gorman
If a process creates a large hugetlbfs mapping that is eligible for page table sharing and forks heavily with children some of whom fault and others which destroy the mapping then it is possible for page tables to get corrupted. Some teardowns of the mapping encounter a "bad pmd" and output a message to the kernel log. The final teardown will trigger a BUG_ON in mm/filemap.c. This was reproduced in 3.4 but is known to have existed for a long time and goes back at least as far as 2.6.37. It was probably was introduced in 2.6.20 by [39dde65c: shared page table for hugetlb page]. The messages look like this; [ ..........] Lots of bad pmd messages followed by this [ 127.164256] mm/memory.c:391: bad pmd ffff880412e04fe8(80000003de4000e7). [ 127.164257] mm/memory.c:391: bad pmd ffff880412e04ff0(80000003de6000e7). [ 127.164258] mm/memory.c:391: bad pmd ffff880412e04ff8(80000003de0000e7). [ 127.186778] ------------[ cut here ]------------ [ 127.186781] kernel BUG at mm/filemap.c:134! [ 127.186782] invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] SMP [ 127.186783] CPU 7 [ 127.186784] Modules linked in: af_packet cpufreq_conservative cpufreq_userspace cpufreq_powersave acpi_cpufreq mperf ext3 jbd dm_mod coretemp crc32c_intel usb_storage ghash_clmulni_intel aesni_intel i2c_i801 r8169 mii uas sr_mod cdrom sg iTCO_wdt iTCO_vendor_support shpchp serio_raw cryptd aes_x86_64 e1000e pci_hotplug dcdbas aes_generic container microcode ext4 mbcache jbd2 crc16 sd_mod crc_t10dif i915 drm_kms_helper drm i2c_algo_bit ehci_hcd ahci libahci usbcore rtc_cmos usb_common button i2c_core intel_agp video intel_gtt fan processor thermal thermal_sys hwmon ata_generic pata_atiixp libata scsi_mod [ 127.186801] [ 127.186802] Pid: 9017, comm: hugetlbfs-test Not tainted 3.4.0-autobuild #53 Dell Inc. OptiPlex 990/06D7TR [ 127.186804] RIP: 0010:[<ffffffff810ed6ce>] [<ffffffff810ed6ce>] __delete_from_page_cache+0x15e/0x160 [ 127.186809] RSP: 0000:ffff8804144b5c08 EFLAGS: 00010002 [ 127.186810] RAX: 0000000000000001 RBX: ffffea000a5c9000 RCX: 00000000ffffffc0 [ 127.186811] RDX: 0000000000000000 RSI: 0000000000000009 RDI: ffff88042dfdad00 [ 127.186812] RBP: ffff8804144b5c18 R08: 0000000000000009 R09: 0000000000000003 [ 127.186813] R10: 0000000000000000 R11: 000000000000002d R12: ffff880412ff83d8 [ 127.186814] R13: ffff880412ff83d8 R14: 0000000000000000 R15: ffff880412ff83d8 [ 127.186815] FS: 00007fe18ed2c700(0000) GS:ffff88042dce0000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 [ 127.186816] CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b [ 127.186817] CR2: 00007fe340000503 CR3: 0000000417a14000 CR4: 00000000000407e0 [ 127.186818] DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000 [ 127.186819] DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400 [ 127.186820] Process hugetlbfs-test (pid: 9017, threadinfo ffff8804144b4000, task ffff880417f803c0) [ 127.186821] Stack: [ 127.186822] ffffea000a5c9000 0000000000000000 ffff8804144b5c48 ffffffff810ed83b [ 127.186824] ffff8804144b5c48 000000000000138a 0000000000001387 ffff8804144b5c98 [ 127.186825] ffff8804144b5d48 ffffffff811bc925 ffff8804144b5cb8 0000000000000000 [ 127.186827] Call Trace: [ 127.186829] [<ffffffff810ed83b>] delete_from_page_cache+0x3b/0x80 [ 127.186832] [<ffffffff811bc925>] truncate_hugepages+0x115/0x220 [ 127.186834] [<ffffffff811bca43>] hugetlbfs_evict_inode+0x13/0x30 [ 127.186837] [<ffffffff811655c7>] evict+0xa7/0x1b0 [ 127.186839] [<ffffffff811657a3>] iput_final+0xd3/0x1f0 [ 127.186840] [<ffffffff811658f9>] iput+0x39/0x50 [ 127.186842] [<ffffffff81162708>] d_kill+0xf8/0x130 [ 127.186843] [<ffffffff81162812>] dput+0xd2/0x1a0 [ 127.186845] [<ffffffff8114e2d0>] __fput+0x170/0x230 [ 127.186848] [<ffffffff81236e0e>] ? rb_erase+0xce/0x150 [ 127.186849] [<ffffffff8114e3ad>] fput+0x1d/0x30 [ 127.186851] [<ffffffff81117db7>] remove_vma+0x37/0x80 [ 127.186853] [<ffffffff81119182>] do_munmap+0x2d2/0x360 [ 127.186855] [<ffffffff811cc639>] sys_shmdt+0xc9/0x170 [ 127.186857] [<ffffffff81410a39>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b [ 127.186858] Code: 0f 1f 44 00 00 48 8b 43 08 48 8b 00 48 8b 40 28 8b b0 40 03 00 00 85 f6 0f 88 df fe ff ff 48 89 df e8 e7 cb 05 00 e9 d2 fe ff ff <0f> 0b 55 83 e2 fd 48 89 e5 48 83 ec 30 48 89 5d d8 4c 89 65 e0 [ 127.186868] RIP [<ffffffff810ed6ce>] __delete_from_page_cache+0x15e/0x160 [ 127.186870] RSP <ffff8804144b5c08> [ 127.186871] ---[ end trace 7cbac5d1db69f426 ]--- The bug is a race and not always easy to reproduce. To reproduce it I was doing the following on a single socket I7-based machine with 16G of RAM. $ hugeadm --pool-pages-max DEFAULT:13G $ echo $((18*1048576*1024)) > /proc/sys/kernel/shmmax $ echo $((18*1048576*1024)) > /proc/sys/kernel/shmall $ for i in `seq 1 9000`; do ./hugetlbfs-test; done On my particular machine, it usually triggers within 10 minutes but enabling debug options can change the timing such that it never hits. Once the bug is triggered, the machine is in trouble and needs to be rebooted. The machine will respond but processes accessing proc like "ps aux" will hang due to the BUG_ON. shutdown will also hang and needs a hard reset or a sysrq-b. The basic problem is a race between page table sharing and teardown. For the most part page table sharing depends on i_mmap_mutex. In some cases, it is also taking the mm->page_table_lock for the PTE updates but with shared page tables, it is the i_mmap_mutex that is more important. Unfortunately it appears to be also insufficient. Consider the following situation Process A Process B --------- --------- hugetlb_fault shmdt LockWrite(mmap_sem) do_munmap unmap_region unmap_vmas unmap_single_vma unmap_hugepage_range Lock(i_mmap_mutex) Lock(mm->page_table_lock) huge_pmd_unshare/unmap tables <--- (1) Unlock(mm->page_table_lock) Unlock(i_mmap_mutex) huge_pte_alloc ... Lock(i_mmap_mutex) ... vma_prio_walk, find svma, spte ... Lock(mm->page_table_lock) ... share spte ... Unlock(mm->page_table_lock) ... Unlock(i_mmap_mutex) ... hugetlb_no_page <--- (2) free_pgtables unlink_file_vma hugetlb_free_pgd_range remove_vma_list In this scenario, it is possible for Process A to share page tables with Process B that is trying to tear them down. The i_mmap_mutex on its own does not prevent Process A walking Process B's page tables. At (1) above, the page tables are not shared yet so it unmaps the PMDs. Process A sets up page table sharing and at (2) faults a new entry. Process B then trips up on it in free_pgtables. This patch fixes the problem by adding a new function __unmap_hugepage_range_final that is only called when the VMA is about to be destroyed. This function clears VM_MAYSHARE during unmap_hugepage_range() under the i_mmap_mutex. This makes the VMA ineligible for sharing and avoids the race. Superficially this looks like it would then be vunerable to truncate and madvise issues but hugetlbfs has its own truncate handlers so does not use unmap_mapping_range() and does not support madvise(DONTNEED). This should be treated as a -stable candidate if it is merged. Test program is as follows. The test case was mostly written by Michal Hocko with a few minor changes to reproduce this bug. ==== CUT HERE ==== static size_t huge_page_size = (2UL << 20); static size_t nr_huge_page_A = 512; static size_t nr_huge_page_B = 5632; unsigned int get_random(unsigned int max) { struct timeval tv; gettimeofday(&tv, NULL); srandom(tv.tv_usec); return random() % max; } static void play(void *addr, size_t size) { unsigned char *start = addr, *end = start + size, *a; start += get_random(size/2); /* we could itterate on huge pages but let's give it more time. */ for (a = start; a < end; a += 4096) *a = 0; } int main(int argc, char **argv) { key_t key = IPC_PRIVATE; size_t sizeA = nr_huge_page_A * huge_page_size; size_t sizeB = nr_huge_page_B * huge_page_size; int shmidA, shmidB; void *addrA = NULL, *addrB = NULL; int nr_children = 300, n = 0; if ((shmidA = shmget(key, sizeA, IPC_CREAT|SHM_HUGETLB|0660)) == -1) { perror("shmget:"); return 1; } if ((addrA = shmat(shmidA, addrA, SHM_R|SHM_W)) == (void *)-1UL) { perror("shmat"); return 1; } if ((shmidB = shmget(key, sizeB, IPC_CREAT|SHM_HUGETLB|0660)) == -1) { perror("shmget:"); return 1; } if ((addrB = shmat(shmidB, addrB, SHM_R|SHM_W)) == (void *)-1UL) { perror("shmat"); return 1; } fork_child: switch(fork()) { case 0: switch (n%3) { case 0: play(addrA, sizeA); break; case 1: play(addrB, sizeB); break; case 2: break; } break; case -1: perror("fork:"); break; default: if (++n < nr_children) goto fork_child; play(addrA, sizeA); break; } shmdt(addrA); shmdt(addrB); do { wait(NULL); } while (--n > 0); shmctl(shmidA, IPC_RMID, NULL); shmctl(shmidB, IPC_RMID, NULL); return 0; } [ name the declaration's args, fix CONFIG_HUGETLBFS=n build] Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <> Reviewed-by: Michal Hocko <> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <> Cc: <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>
2012-07-31mm/memory.c:print_vma_addr(): call up_read(&mm->mmap_sem) directlyJeff Liu
Call up_read(&mm->mmap_sem) directly since we have already got mm via current->mm at the beginning of print_vma_addr(). Signed-off-by: Jie Liu <> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <>